Research Article
Print
Research Article
A new genus and species of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) parasitoid of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera, Otitidae) attacked Bt sweet corn in Argentina
expand article infoFabiana E. Gallardo§, Vanina Anadina Reche|, Isabel Bertolaccini|, Brenda Zarate, Cecilia Curis|
‡ Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina
§ Researcher of the Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
| Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Esperanza, Argentina
Open Access

Abstract

Euxestophaga Gallardo, a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae) and Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n. from Argentina, are described and illustrated. This new genus belongs to the Ganaspini and morphologically resembles Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander. A key to differentiate these genera is given. Specimens were reared from pupae of Euxesta eluta Loew (Diptera: Otitidae), attacked Bt sweet corn in Santa Fe province and other in Tucumán province (Argentina).

Keywords

New species, cynipoid wasp, natural enemy, Otitidae, Zea mays L.

Introduction

Eucoiline wasps are koinobiont endoparasitoids of dipterous Muscomorpha larvae and constitutes the most abundant and diverse subfamily of Figitidae. However, there has been poor taxonomic information on this subfamily in the Neotropical region, the only key to eucoiline genera cited for this region was published by Buffington and Ronquist (2006) and an updated synthesis of the knowledge on this subfamily was given by Díaz et al. (2008). Forshage and Nordlander (2008) proposed a tribal classification recognizing the following taxa: Diglyphosemini, Kleidotomini, Trichoplastini, Eucoilini and Ganaspini. Later, Buffington (2009) added Zaeucoilini to the group. Species belonging to Ganaspini attack Agromyzidae, Calliphoridae, Canaceidae, Chloropidae, Drosophilidae, Ephydridae, Lauxaniidae, Lonchaeidae, Phoridae, Sarcophagidae, Sepsidae, Tephritidae and Otitidae. The larvae of Otitidae are generally saprophagous, but some of them have developed phytophagous habits, eg. species of Euxesta Loew (Artigas, 1994). Species of this genus are secondary pests on garlic, tomatoes, potatoes, plants fruits, cassava and sweet corn, among others. Bt sweet corn is a transgenic plant genetically modified to include genes of the naturally occuring soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (or Bt)”.

In Santa Fe province (Argentina), the crops of Bt sweet corn are attacked by species of Euxesta (Diptera: Otitidae) that are considered secondary pests, causing severe damage to sweet corn. Two species have been identified: E. mazorca Steycal and E. eluta Loew, both appearing simultaneously and producing serious losses (Bertolaccini et al., 2010). Larvae attack the silks and consume the kernel contents, especially in the tips, although they can extend to all the ear length. The activity of these larvae constitutes one way of entrance for saprophytic microorganisms, making the product unmarketable for direct consumption. In this context, a new natural enemy of E. eluta was found, belonging to the tribe Ganaspini. This paper describes the new monotypic genus Euxestophaga Gallardo n. gen., with a new species from Argentina.

Methods

We studied a total of 72 specimens (46 females and 27 males). The specimens from Santa Fe province were obtained from pupae of Euxesta eluta in the framework of the research project CAI +D 2011: 2011:501 201 101 00009 LI (Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina). The larvae of Euxesta eluta were collected in a commercial crop of sweet Bt corn (hybrid=GSS0974). Each pupa was individually placed in Eppendorf®vials (1.5mm), with a damp paper inside in order to conserve moisture. The pupae were periodically reviewed to determine the emergence of adult flies or parasitoids. Once the parasitoids emerged, they were preserved in 70% EtOH, together with the host puparia, the adult specimens of the flies host emerging from other non attacked pupae were preserved in 70% EtOH. The terminology used in the description follows Buffington (2009). Morphological terms used in this revision were matched to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO, Yoder et al. 2010) (see Appendix). Identifiers (URIs) in the format http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_XXXXXXX represent anatomical concepts in HAO version. Biogeographical regions are in accordance with Morrone (2001, 2014). The collection localities were georeferenced with free software QGIS version 2.10.1- Pisa. The photographs were taken with a Canon Powershot A 520 adapted to a Leica steromicroscope (S8APO). Type material is deposited at Museo de La Plata, Argentina (MLP) and United States National Museum (Smithsonian Institution), U.S.A (USNM). Type of Epicoela seminigra Díaz (MLP) and specimens compared to Type of Epicoela rubicunda Borgmeier (MLP) were studied.

Results

Systematic treatment

Euxestophaga Gallardo, gen. n.

Figures 1–4

Diagnosis

This new genus can be separated from other Ganaspini by the following combination of characters: occiput diagonally striate; female antenna clavate, club consisting of six flagellomeres; male antenna with F1 modified and longer than F2; dorsal surface of scutellum areolate-punctate, posterior border of disc bluntly rounded; lateral bars of scutellum striate; dorsal surface of scutellar plate with midpit placed close posterior margin of plate, with two or three punctures on each side, with a setae on either side; forewings hyaline, apical margin with hair fringe, marginal cell closed; base of syntergum with hairy ring present; and micropunctures present on posterior1/3 of the syntergum.

Figures 1–4.

Holotype of Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo sp. n. Female. 1 Habitus (lateral view) 2 Head and mesosoma (dorsal view), arrow indicates posterior margin of gena distinct, but not carinata 3 Head (posterior view) and mesosoma (dorsal view), arrow indicates basal margin of forewing lacking hair fringe. Male 4 Antenna, arrow indicates posterior margin of scutellum bluntly rounded.

Type species

Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n.

Description

Body stout, shiny. Head massive, subcircular in anterior view, broader than mesosoma, nearly glabrous. Toruli not projecting. Ocellar tubercle not prominent. Ocellar hair patches absent. Compound eyes glabrous. Inner orbital furrows present. Posterior margin of gena distinct, but not carinate. Occiput diagonally striate. Malar spaces smooth, without conical protuberances. Malar sulci present. Female antenna with 13 segments, club consisting of six flagellomeres; male antennae 15 segments, filiform. Shape of dorsal margin of pronotal plate in anterior view broadly truncate, emarginate. Mesoscutum longer than wide, quite arcuate, without median mesoscutal carinae, with rows of punctures in position of notauli, parascutal impressions incomplete. Shape of posterior part of scutellum in dorsal view bluntly rounded. Lateral bars of scutellum striate. Scutellar foveae wider than long, deep and large. Dorsal surface of scutellum areolate-puntate. Scutellar plate suboval, posterior margin rounded, dorsal surface with midpit placed close posterior margin of plate, with punctures on each side, with a setae on either side. Anteroventral cavity of metapleuron subcircular, setose. Forewings of normal size, hyaline, apical margin with hair fringe, basal margin lacking hair fringe, with membrane pubescence mostly reduced hair bases, marginal cell closed, longer than broad. Metasoma sessile; base of syntergum with hairy ring present, remainder of metasoma glabrous. Micropunctures present on posterior 1/3 of the syntergum more or less visible.

Distribution

Neotropical region: Argentina. According to the biogeography scheme of Morrone (2001, 2014), this distribution belongs to the biogeographic provinces Chacoan and Pampean (Chacoan subregion).

Biology

Specimens of this new genus and species were reared from Euxesta eluta on Zea mays L. (Bt sweet corn). Bertolaccini et al. (2010) cited Dettmeria Borgmeier (Eucoilinae, Zaeucoilini) parasitizing larvae of Euxesta species on Bt sweet corn in Argentina, but, on reviewing the material mentioned in this paper, we concluded that the specimens were misidentified as Dettmeria, which belongs to the new genus and species here described.

Etymology

In reference to genus of the host, Euxesta and “phagein”, to eat. Gender: feminine.

Remarks

Within Ganaspini, Euxestophaga is similar in morphology to Epicoela Borgmeier and Striatovertex Schick, Forshage and Nordlander, all of them present occiput diagonally striate, dorsal margin of pronotal plate emarginated, forewing with erect setae on subcostal and membrane with pubescence reduced. Epicoela includes two species known from Neotropical region, whereas Striatovertex is a genus widespread in the New World, with 13 species in total; one species in Australia, and other introduced in Hawaii from North America (Schick et al. 2011). With reference to their biology, host species of Epicoela are unknown, while representatives of Striatovertex attack dipterous Sarcophagidae, Muscidae and Calliphoridae.

The three genera can be separated by the following characters:

1 Female antenna with F5 or F6 to F11 moniliform, club consisting of 6 or 7 flagellomeres (Figure 5). Dorsal surface of scutellar plate with a triangular concave area in anterior part (Figure 6). Lateral bars of scutellum smooth Epicoela Borgmeier
Female antenna with F4 or F6 to F11 moniliform, club consisting of 6 or 8 flagellomeres. Dorsal surface of scutellar plate with punctures on each side with setae either one. Lateral bars of scutellum striate 2
2 Female antenna with F4 to F11 moniliform, club consisting of 8 flagellomeres. Scutellar plate posteriorly arched in lateral view (See Figure 1 in Schick et al. 2011). Posterior margin of scutellum rounded (See figure 5 in Schick et al. 2011). Apical margin of forewing lacking hair fringe, membrane with pubescence mostly reduced to punctiform hair bases (See figure 7 in Schick et al. 2011) Striatovertex Schick, Forshage & Nordlander
Female antenna with F6 to F11 moniliform, club consisting of 6 flagellomeres. Scutellar plate straight in lateral view (Figure 1). Posterior margin of scutellum bluntly rounded (Figure 4, see arrow). Apical margin of forewing with hair fringe (Figure 3, see arrow), membrane with pubescence mostly reduced hair bases Euxestophaga Gallardo, gen. n.
Figures 5–6.

Holotype of Epicoela seminigra Díaz Female. 5 Antenna 6 Scutellar plate (dorsal view).

Euxestophaga argentinensis Gallardo, sp. n.

Figures 1–4

Material examined

ARGENTINA. Santa Fe. Angel Gallardo. 31°33'18"S; 60°40'36.84"W (DMS). Holotype female (MLP No. 5728/1), 6 paratype females (MLP No. 5728/2-7) reared from Euxesta eluta (Diptera, Otitidae) on Zea mays L.(Bt sweet corn) (Poaceae), 13-VI-2005; 1 paratype female (MLP No. 5728/8) and 1 paratype male (MLP No. 5728/9),10-XII-2010, Bertolaccini and Curis colls. 36 females (MLP No. 5728/10-46) and 24 males (MLP No. 5728/47-61) reared from Euxesta eluta (Diptera, Otitidae) on Zea mays L. (Bt sweet corn) (Poaceae), 02-XII-2015, Bertolaccini coll. (), 1 paratype female (USNM) and 1 paratype male (USNM), same data. Tucumán. 27°0'0"S; 65°30'0"W (DMS), 1 female partype (MLP No. 5728/62), VI-1976, Figalgo coll. San Javier. 26°46'59"S; 65°23'6"W (DMS) 1 male (MLP No. 5728/63), 16-XI-1981, on herbaceous vegetation, Mulvany, Díaz, Fidalgo and Armesto colls.

Description

Female. Total length 1.85–2 mm. (Fig. 1). Head and mesosoma black, metasoma completely dark reddish brown. Antennae brown, mandibles, wings venation and legs yellowish brown.

Head (Figs 1–3) in anterior view as high as wide. Malar sulci simple. Antenna (Fig. 1) with 13 segments, pilose, subcylindrical, flagellomeres 1 and 2 subequal in length, F6 to F11 moniliform, club consisting of six flagellomeres, with rhinaria. Posterior margin of gena distinct, but not carinata (Fig. 2, see arrow).Pronotum. Pronotal plate (Fig. 2) wide, striate in anterior half as well as bridge that connect this half with posterior half. Posterior half with row of setae, lateral foveae open. Dorsal margin emarginate. Pronotal ridge absent. Sides of pronotum convex, with a pubescent area on upper half of ventral margin (beneath pronotal plate).

Mesoscutum. Strongly convex in profile (Fig. 1). Parapsidal ridges represented by hair lines (Figs 2, 3). Parascutal impressions incomplete. Notauli absent.

Mesopectus (Fig. 1). Upper part and lower part of mesopleuron smooth, glabrous. Mesopleural carina simple. Precoxal carina present. Subalar pit narrow and shallow. Mesopleural triangle undefined. Surcoxal depression absent.

Mesoscutellum. Scutellar foveae (Fig. 3) deep, large, wider than long. Lateral bars of scutellum striate. Dorsal surface of scutellum (Fig. 3) areolate-punctate, posterior margin bluntly rounded. Scutellar plate (Figs 2, 3) suboval, posterior margin rounded, dorsal surface with midpit placed close to posterior margin of plate, with punctures on each side, with single setae in each one.

Metapectal-propodeal complex (Fig. 1). Posteroventral corner of metapleuron flat, rounded and pubescent, anteroventral cavity subcircular, setose. Propodeum covered with long, apressed setae. Lateral propodeal carinae semiparalell.

Wings. Forewings hyaline (Fig. 1), apical margin with hair fringe, basal margin lacking hair fringe, with membrane pubescence mostly reduced hair bases, marginal cell closed, longer than wide.

Legs (Fig. 1). Fore and mid coxa subequal in size, variously setose, hind coxa about twice the size of either fore or mid coxae, with a patch of woolly setae on posterior margin. Femora and tibiae sparsely setose, tibiae with more apprised setae; tarsomeres covered with dense appressed setae.

Metasoma (Fig. 1). Base of syntergum with hairy ring completed, remainder of metasoma glabrous.

Male. Similar to female. Male antennae (Fig. 4) filiform, 15 segments, F1 curved, longer than following flagellomeres, F2 shorter than other flagellomeres. Metasoma nearly squared posteriorly in lateral view. Metasoma completely dark reddish brown or ventrally yellowish brown. Base of syntergum with hairy ring interrupted apically.

Distribution

Argentina.

Type locality

Angel Gallardo (Argentina, Santa Fe province).

Hosts

Diptera Otitidae: Euxesta eluta Loew.

Etymology

In reference to the country where the specimen was collected: Argentina.

Acknowledgments

We thank Daniel Aquino (MLP) and M. Cecilia Moreno (CIC) for technical support, Nora Cabrera (MLP) for critical review. To George Melika (Plant Protection and Soil Conservation Service of County Vas, Hungary), Juli Pujade-Villar (Universitat de Barcelona, Spain), Matthew Buffington (Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A) and editors of JHRfor provided many useful suggestions to improve the manuscript. To Comisión de Investigaciones Científicas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (CIC), Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP) and Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) for their constant support.

References

  • Artigas JN (1994) Entomología Económica. Insectos de interés agrícola, forestal, médico y veterinario (Nativos, introducidos y susceptibles de ser introducidos). Vol. 1. Ediciones Universidad de Concepción, Chile, 1126 pp.
  • Bertolaccini I, Bouzo C, Larsen N, Favaro JC (2010) Especies del género Euxesta (Diptera: Ulidiidae=Otitidae) plagas de maíces dulces Bt en la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 69(1–2): 123–126.
  • Buffington M (2009) Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the new tribe Zaeucoilini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), including a description of a new genus. Systematic Entomology 34: 162−187. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3113.2008.00447.x
  • Buffington M, Ronquist F (2006) Familia Figitidae. In: Fernández F, Sharkey MJ (Eds) Introducción a los Hymenoptera de la Región Neotropical. Sociedad Colombiana de Entomología y Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogotá), 830–838.
  • Díaz NB, Gallardo FE, Gaddi AL, Jiménez M, Ros-Farré P, Paretas-Martínez J, Pujade-Villar J (2008) Avances en el conocimiento de las Figitidae Neotropicales (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea). In: Llorente Bousquets J, Lanteri A (Eds) Contribuciones Taxonómicas en órdenes de insectos hiperdiversos. Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografía y Entomología Sistemática, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (México DF), 141–158.
  • Forshage M, Nordlander G (2008) Identification key to European genera of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). Insect Systematics & Evolution 39: 341–359. https://doi.org/10.1163/187631208794760885
  • Morrone JJ (2001) Biogeografía de América Latina y el Caribe. M&T-Manuales & Tesis. SEA [Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa] 3: 1–148.
  • QGIS Development Team (2015) QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation Project. http://qgis.osgeo.org
  • Schick KN, Forshage M, Nordlander G (2011) The “false Eucoila” finally named; Striatovertex a new genus of Eucoilinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae). Zootaxa 2811: 59–65.

Appendix

Term Concept URI References Preferred Term
antenna The appendage that is composed of ringlike sclerites and the anatomical structures encircled by these sclerites and that is articulated with the cranium. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000101 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. antenna
club The anatomical cluster that is composed of apical flagellomeres bearing multiporous plates in female organism. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000203 Masner, L. 1980. Key to genera of Scelionidae of the Holarctic region, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea). Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 113:1-54. clava
The a anatomical cluster that is composed of one or more enlarged flagellomeres. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000208 Yoder, M. J. 2009. Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. club
The anatomical cluster composed of the apical flagellomeres that are differentiated by size from the basal flagellomeres. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001185 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. clava
forewing The wing that is located on the mesothorax. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000351 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. fore wing
The area that is located anteriorly on a wing. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000352 Deans, A. R. 2009. HAO curator.. forewing
genal carina The carina that extends on the gena from the lateral margin of the oral foramen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001755 Gibson , G. A. P., J. D. Read , and R. Fairchild. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms ..; Buffington, M. L. 2009. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the new tribe Zaeucoilini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), including a description of a new genus . Systematic Entomology 34:162-187.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. genal carina
mesopleural triangle The area that is limited dorsally by the subalar ridge, posteroventrally by the speculum and ends posteriorly in the subalar pit. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000562 Buffington, M. L. 2009. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the new tribe Zaeucoilini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), including a description of a new genus . Systematic Entomology 34:162-187.; Ronquist, F., and G. Nordlander. 1989. Skeletal morphology of an archaic cynipoid, Ibalia rufipes (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 33:1-60.; Deans, A. R. 2009. HAO curator.. mesopleural triangle
mesopleuron The area that is located laterally of the mesodiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000566 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Vilhelmsen, L. B., I. Miko, and L. Krogmann. 2010. Beyond the wasp waist: structural diversity and phylogenetic significance of the mesosoma in apocritan wasps (Insecta: Hymenoptera). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society [=Journal of the Linnean Society of London, Zoology] 159:22-194.; Mikó, I., L. Vilhelmsen, N. F. Johnson, L. Masner , and Z. Pénzes. 2007. Morphology of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma. Zootaxa 1571:1-78.; Gibson , G. A. P., J. D. Read , and R. Fairchild. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms . mesopleuron
The pleuron that is located in the mesothorax. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001354 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of insect morphology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York & London 667 pp. mesopleuron
The lateral (vertical) area that is anterior to the mesometapleural sulcus and posterior to the pronotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002363 Csősz, S. 2015. Synopsis of East-Mediterranean representatives of Temnothorax nylanderi species-group. in prep. mesopleural area of the mesonoto-metanoto-mesopecto-metapecto-propodeal complex
mesoscutellum The scutellum that is located on the mesonotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000574 Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of insect morphology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York & London 667 pp.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology. PLoS ONE 7:e32573. mesoscutellum
mesoscutum The scutum that is located on the mesonotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000575 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology. PLoS ONE 7:e32573. mesoscutum
metapleuron The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is located laterally of the metadiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000621 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. metapleuron
The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is located anterior to the metapleural carina and the ventral propodeal carina and lateral to the metadiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001271 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Mikó, I., L. Vilhelmsen, N. F. Johnson, L. Masner , and Z. Pénzes. 2007. Morphology of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma. Zootaxa 1571:1-78. metapleuron
The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is located anteriorly of the metapleural sulcus and laterally of the metadiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001272 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Vilhelmsen, L. B. 2000. Before the wasp-waist: Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic implications of the skeleto-musculature of the thoraco-abdominal boundary region in basal Hymenoptera (Insecta) . Zoomorphology [was Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere] 119:185-221. metapleuron
The area that is located laterally of the metadiscrimen, this class is obsolete. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001273 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Vilhelmsen, L. B. 2000. Before the wasp-waist: Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic implications of the skeleto-musculature of the thoraco-abdominal boundary region in basal Hymenoptera (Insecta) . Zoomorphology [was Zeitschrift für Morphologie der Tiere] 119:185-221. metapleuron
The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is limited ventrally by the ventral carina of the metapleuron and dorsally by the metapleural carina. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001869 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. metapleuron
The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is anterior to the metapleural carina and lateral to the metadiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002298 Buffington, M., and M. Forshage. 2014. The description of Garudella Buffington and Forshage, new genus (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae).. metapleuron
The lateral (vertical) area that is posterior to the mesometapleural sulcus and anterior to the metapleural carina. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002360 Csősz, S. 2015. Synopsis of East-Mediterranean representatives of Temnothorax nylanderi species-group. in prep. metapleural area of the mesonoto-metanoto-mesopecto-metapecto-propodeal complex
midpit The depression that is located posteromedially on the mesoscutum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000637 Sharkey, M.J. and R.A. Wharton 1997. Morphology and terminology. Pages 19-38. In: Wharton, R.A., P.M. Marsh, and M.J. Sharkey (Eds), Manual of the New World genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). Special Publication of the International Society of Hymenopterists. Vol. 1: 1-439 pp.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. midpit
The area that is concave is located medially on the scutellar plate and corresponds to the opening of an exocrine gland. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001678 Buffington, M. L., and S. J. Sheffer. 2008. North American species of Agrostocynips Diaz (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), parasitoids of Agromyzidae (Diptera): bionomics and taxonomy . Zootaxa 1817:39-48. scutellar midpit
occiput The area that is concave and surrounds the postocciput. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000658 Goulet, H., and J. T. Huber. 1993. Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E., Ottawa, ON 668 pp.; Deans, A. R. 2009. HAO curator.. occiput
pronotal plate The area of the pronotum that is median, raised and limited laterally by sharp edges. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000838 Goulet, H., and J. T. Huber. 1993. Hymenoptera of the World: An Identification Guide to Families. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada Publication 1894/E., Ottawa, ON 668 pp.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. pronotal plate
pronotum The notum that is located in the prothorax. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000853 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology. PLoS ONE 7:e32573. pronotum
scutellar fovea The depression that is medially located on the scutoscutellar suture. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000916 Ronquist, F., and G. Nordlander. 1989. Skeletal morphology of an archaic cynipoid, Ibalia rufipes (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae). Entomologica Scandinavica, Supplement 33:1-60.; Buffington, M. 2007. The occurence and phylogenetic implications of the ovipositor clip with the Figitidae. Journal of Natural History 41:33-36.; Deans, A. R. 2009. HAO curator.. scutellar fovea
scutellar plate The area that is located medially on the mesoscutellum, flat and surrounds the scutellar midpit. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001230 Buffington, M. L. 2009. Description, circumscription and phylogenetics of the new tribe Zaeucoilini (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae), including a description of a new genus . Systematic Entomology 34:162-187.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. scutellar plate
scutellum The scutellum that is located on the mesonotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000574 Gibson , G. A. P., J. D. Read , and R. Fairchild. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms ..; Curators, H. A. O. 2009. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology Curation Team. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. mesoscutellum
The area that is located posteriorly of the transscutal line and is composed of the axillae and the mesoscutellum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000572 Masner, L., and J. L. GarcÃa. 2002. The genera of Diapriinae (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) in the new world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 268:107-138. mesoscutellar-axillar complex
The area that is located posteriorly of the scutoscutellar suture. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001229 Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. scutellum
subalar pit The pit that is located posterodorsally on the mesopectus corresponds to the posterodorsal edge of the mesopleuron. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000961 Gibson , G. A. P., J. D. Read , and R. Fairchild. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Chalcidoidea): illustrated glossary of positional and morphological terms ..; Mikó, I., L. Vilhelmsen, N. F. Johnson, L. Masner , and Z. Pénzes. 2007. Morphology of Scelionidae (Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea): head and mesosoma. Zootaxa 1571:1-78.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology.; Karlsson, D., and F. Ronquist. 2012. Skeletal Morphology of Opius dissitus and Biosteres carbonarius (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with a Discussion of Terminology. PLoS ONE 7:e32573. subalar pit
syntergum The sclerite that is composed of fused abdominal terga. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000987 Mikó, I., and A. R. Deans. 2009. Masner, a new genus of Ceraphronidae (Hymenoptera, Ceraphronoidea) described using controlled vocabularies. ZooKeys 20:127-153.; Miko, I. 2009. -2014 Curator. Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. syntergum