Corresponding author: David R. Smith ( firstname.lastname@example.org )
Academic editor: Matthew Yoder
© 2016 David R. Smith.
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Citation: Smith DR (2016) Two unusual new species of Aulacus Jurine (Hymenoptera, Aulacidae) from South America. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 53: 162-170. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.53.9902
Aulacus flavus Smith, sp. n. from Brazil and Aulacus subflavus Smith, sp. n. from Brazil, French Guiana, and Guyana are described. These two species are separated from other Aulacus by the enlarged genae, flat mesoscutum, enlarged pronotum, and presence of small tubercles on the mesoprescutum, axillae, and mesoscutellum.
parasitoids, South America
Both genera of Aulacidae, Pristaulacus Kieffer and Aulacus Jurine, are widespread in the Neotropics. Twelve Neotropical species of Aulacus were listed by
Hosts are not known, but elsewhere aulacids are parasitoids of wood-boring Hymenoptera (Xiphydriidae) and Coleoptera (mainly Buprestidae and Cerambycidae) (
Abbreviations: AEI, American Entomological Institute, Gainesville, FL;
Images were acquired through an EntoVision micro-imaging system. This system included a Leica M16 or Leica DRMB compound microscope with a JVC KY-75U 3-CCD digital video camera or a GT-Vision Lw11057C-SCI digital camera attached that fed image data to a notebook or desktop computer. The program Cartograph 6.6.0 was then used to merge an image series into a single in-focus image.
The two species described below belong to Aulacus as currently defined (e.g.,
|2||Eyes smaller, lower interocular distance subequal to eye height (Fig.
|–||Eyes larger, lower interocular distance 0.8× eye height (Fig.
Aulacus flavus. 4 Lateral (scale bar = 1.0 mm) 5 Head, lateral 6 Head, dorsal 7 Head, front 8 Mesosoma dorsal 9 Mesosoma, lateral.
Female (holotype). Length, 9.5 mm; forewing 7.0 mm; ovipositor 4.5 mm. Antenna black; scape yellow. Head yellow with frons and ocellar area and vertex black; lower inner orbits, area below antennae, genae and upper inner orbits with spot extending behind each lateral ocellus yellow. Mesosoma with propleuron black; pronotum yellow, pleurae black with orange spot on lower part of mesepisternum, and mesoscutum, metanotum, and propodeum black. Fore and midlegs orange; apical 1 or 2 tarsomeres dark; hind leg black with extreme apex of coxae, both trochanteral segments, extreme apex of femur and extreme base of tibia and tarsus except for apical tarsomere black. Metasoma orange with tergum 1 black dorsally interrupted by transverse orange band at center, terga 2 to apex each with central black spot, appearing as a longitudinal black stripe; sheath black. Wings hyaline with apex black; veins and stigma black. Head (Figs
Male. Length, 8.5 mm. Color and structure similar to female.
Holotype female, “Brasilien, Rondon [Paraná], 24°38'B, 54°07'L, 500 m, May 1953, Fritz Plaumann” with red holotype label (AEI). Paratypes: BRAZIL: Same data as for holotype (3 ♀, 2 ♂), same data except for dates, X.4.1952 (1 ♂), X.12.1952 (1 ♀), X.16.1952 (1 ♂), X.22.1952 (1 ♂), X.23.1952 (1 ♂), X.26.1952 (1 ♀), X.30.1952 (1 ♀), X.31.1952 (1 ♀), XI.6.1952 (1 ♂), XI.8. 1952 (1 ♀), XI.12.1952 (1 ♂), XI.14.1952 (1 ♂), XI.15.1962 (1 ♂), XI.16.1952 (1 ♂), XI.20.1952 (2 ♂), XI.23.1952 (1 ♂), XI.25.1952 (2 ♂, 1
Brazil: Bahia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Santa Catarina. Apparently most common in southern Brazil.
From Latin meaning yellow, with reference to the entirely yellow pronotum.
There are slight variations in color, especially the amount of orange on the mesonotum and size of black marks on the metasoma. The entirely yellow pronotum seems to be constant in the specimens examined. Size is relatively stable, the length varying only by ±1.0 mm; proportions of the ovipositor and forewing remain the same regardless of length.
Female (holotype). Length, 8.0 mm; forewing 6.0 mm; ovipositor 4.2 mm. Similar to A. flavus except for the following differences: Pronotum white on dorsal half, black on ventral half (Figs
Male. Length, 7.5 mm. Color and structure similar to female.
Holotype female, “Coll. I.R.Sc.N.B., French Guyana, Kourou, Malaise trap (Piste Soumourou), 15-23.VIII.2001, Leg. D. Faure” with red holotype label (
BRAZIL: Sinop, M. Grosso, 12°31'S, 55°37'W, X.1974, M. Alvarenga (2 ♀, AEI); Vila Vera, 12°30'S, 50°30'W, October 1973, M. Alvarenga (2 ♀, AEI).
Brazil: Mato Grosso; French Guiana; Guyana.
From the Latin partly yellow, referring to the usual half yellow and half black pronotum.
The “other specimens” are structurally like this species but the mesosoma is entirely yellow orange and I prefer not to include them in the type series. The bicolored pronotum seems to be a helpful character, though several specimens have an entirely yellow pronotum. The side lobes of the mesonotum may be entirely black or partly orange. The length varies only by about ±0.7 mm; the proportions of the ovipositor and forewing remain the same regardless of size.
I thank J. Constant (