GMMs of hornet size, WW and DW. Vespa velutina size (A), wet weight (B), and dry weight (C) distribution using a Gaussian Mixture Model. Two-dimensional distribution is represented by continuous line A workers < 4.5 mm, gynes ≥4.5mm B workers < 0.618 g, gynes ≥ 0.618 g and C workers < 0.225 g, gynes ≥ 0.225 g. The dashed lines represent group densities. The 5% level of uncertainty is shown by dotted lines A 4.4 mm–4.58 mm B 0.445 g–0.797 g and C 0.202 g–0.247 g. 4 colonies: Colony 1, N= 30; Colony 2, N= 30; Colony 10, N= 240; Colony 11, N=50.

  Part of: Pérez-de-Heredia I, Darrouzet E, Goldarazena A, Romón P, Iturrondobeitia J-C (2017) Differentiating between gynes and workers in the invasive hornet Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in Europe. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 60: 119-133.