PCA of the three CHC profiles labelled by hornet size, WW and DW. Principal Component Analysis of CHC profiles in each of the four autumn colonies. Chemical groups are defined by continuous line: Group 1; dash line: Group 2 and dot-dash line: Group 3. PCA dots show representations according to GMMs size, wet weight and dry weight thresholds of hornets. Size, Black dots: Large females (MW ≥ 4.5 mm); White dots: Small females (MW < 4.5 mm). Wet weight, Black dots: Heavy fresh females (≥ 0.618 g); White dots: Light fresh females (< 0.618 g). Dry weight, Black dots: Heavy dry females (≥ 0.225 g); White dots: Light dry females (< 0.225 g).

  Part of: Pérez-de-Heredia I, Darrouzet E, Goldarazena A, Romón P, Iturrondobeitia J-C (2017) Differentiating between gynes and workers in the invasive hornet Vespa velutina (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in Europe. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 60: 119-133. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.60.13505