Variation in head width, wing wear, and ovarian development among H. ligatus queens, workers, and gynes collected in nest excavations and pan traps in 2006. Box plots represent means and quartiles, with unfilled circles indicating outliers. Gynes were classified by their lack of wear or ovarian development (as well as by time of emergence), and are included here to emphasize the phenotypic differences among the three groups of females.

  Part of: Richards MH, Onuferko TO, Rehan SM (2015) Phenological, but not social, variation associated with climate differences in a eusocial sweat bee, Halictus ligatus, nesting in southern Ontario. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 43: 19-44.