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Research Article
A preliminary survey of flower visiting by aculeate wasps and bees in the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve, UAE
expand article infoSarah Kathleen Gess, Peter Alexander Roosenschoon§
‡ Albany Museum and Rhodes University, Grahamstown, South Africa
§ Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
Open Access

Abstract

The present contribution is a first brief attempt to give an overview of flower visiting by aculeate wasps and bees in the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve (DDCR), and as far as has been established the first of its kind for the United Arab Emirates. Seventeen sites within the reserve were well sampled and, in order to see the reserve in relation to its position in the peninsula, two one day transects were undertaken, one of brief sampling at six sites east from the reserve to the coast at Khor Kalba and the other of brief sampling at five sites west from the reserve to the coast in the marine reserve of the Emirates Marine Environmental Group (EMEC). Flower visitors were observed and sampled on 21 species of plants within the DDCR and on two additional species east of the DDCR and two west of the DDCR. Fifty-one species of aculeate wasps and 27 species of bees were recorded. Of the wasps, 34 species were from the DDCR and the additional 15 from transects east and west of the Reserve. Of the bees, 23 species were from the DDCR and the additional two from transects east and west of the Reserve. Flower sampling yielded flower visiting records for 39 species of aculeate wasps and 23 species of bees. Although this preliminary survey of flower visiting by wasps and bees in the DDCR was conducted over a limited period of time, during a dry spring, following seven dry years, it has provided sufficient data to draw some general conclusions: most of the plants attract visits from a complex of both wasps and bees; the flowers of some plants attract a wide range of wasps and bees but there were no flowers that were attractive to all available wasps and bees at any one site; very few species of the wasps and bees encountered were specialists; and the plants on which these specialist wasps and bees were dependent were not themselves dependent on these species for pollination.

Keywords

Aculeate wasps, pollen wasps, bees, distributions, flower visiting, potential pollinators

Introduction

The present contribution is a first brief attempt to give an overview of flower visiting by aculeate wasps and bees in the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve, and, as far as has been established, the first of its kind for the United Arab Emirates.

In 2015 a preliminary survey of the aculeate wasps and bees of the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve was undertaken by Sarah Gess assisted by Peter Roosenschoon, Conservation Officer. The focus was on flower visitation. The survey took place between 18 April 2015 and 4 May 2015 towards the end of spring.

The Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve (DDCR) lies approximately midway between the west and east coasts of the United Arab Emirates with sand plains to the west and the Hajar Mountains to the east (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

Map of the UAE with inset enlargement of the DDCR, giving the positions of the collection sites.

Seventeen sites within the DDCR were well sampled and, in order to see the Reserve in relation to its position in the peninsula, two one day transects were undertaken, one of brief sampling at six sites east from the Reserve to the coast at Khor Kalba and the other of brief sampling at five sites west from the Reserve to the coast in the marine reserve of the Emirates Marine Environmental Group (EMEC). (see map Figure 1 and Table 1)

Study sites.

Site no. Latitude Longitude Area Name of site Nature of site
1 25.1678 55.7696 east of DDCR sandy roadside
2 25.1066 56.0441 east of DDCR Shawka area fringing dam
3 25.1024 56.0534 east of DDCR Wadi
4 25.0065 56.1066 east of DDCR Wadi
5 24.9563 56.1512 east of DDCR Munay outskirts of village
6 5.0152 56.3608 east of DDCR Ramsa, Khor Kalba sandy bank of lagoon
7 25.2967 56.078 east of DDCR Wadi
8 24.9808 55.6628 DDCR Quarn Nazwa rocky outcrop
9 24.9521 55.6746 DDCR sand dunes
10 24.8968 55.6635 DDCR Tawi Ruwayyan drip irrigation area
11 24.8834 55.6113 DDCR Date Farm palm grove
12 24.8943 55.6147 DDCR Margham Gate sand dunes
13 24.8763 55.5735 DDCR Margham Road sandy roadside
14 24.8210 55.6153 DDCR Dune enclosure sand dunes
15 24.8192 55.7174 DDCR gravel plain
16 24.8048 55.6233 DDCR Al Maha Gate Sand
17 24.8037 55.6841 DDCR irrigated trees in wire cages
18 24.8030 55.6503 DDCR Camel Farm palm grove
19 24.7935 55.6802 DDCR Tawi Manana drip irrigation area
20 24.7935 55.6802 DDCR Tawi Manana small lake
21 24.7912 55.6718 DDCR sand dunes
22 24.7879 55.6358 DDCR sand dunes
23 24.7764 55.6358 DDCR sand dunes
24 24.7757 55.6427 DDCR Lucerne Farm sand dunes
25 24.7467 55.6275 DDCR sand dunes
26 24.7412 55.6657 DDCR Faqah watering point
27 24.9696 55.4118 west of DDCR sandy roadside
28 24.9684 55.0355 west of DDCR Ghantoot sandy plain
29 24.9110 55.9513 west of DDCR EMEC coastal sand inland from beach
30 24.9532 55.9512 west of DDCR EMEC coastal sand inland from beach

History of the DDCR (extracted from www.ddcr.org)

In 1999 the Al Maha Resort and Spa was established with an area of 27 square kilometres as a conservation reserve for the protection of the desert fauna and flora. Seventy Arabian oryx were introduced and indigenous trees and shrubs were planted. In 2002 the resort managers began an environmental audit of the surrounding areas. Researchers were tasked with exploring the then current and potential threats to endangered species and disappearing desert habitats. The Al Maha management then submitted proposals to the government for the formation of a formal national park.

The proposal was accepted and the Dubai Desert Conservation Board was established. In 2003 the DDCR with an area of 225 square kilometres was proclaimed. The Reserve constitutes 4.7% of Dubai’s total land area. The first wildlife releases into the newly created reserve took place in 2004.

The Al Maha Resort lies within the boundaries of the Reserve but is being managed independently.

The DDCR is a member of IUCN and UNEP. The vision for it is “to create a permanently protected area which ensures the future of the region’s desert habitats and bio-diversity managed according to sound scientific ecological principles, aimed at protecting natural resources (water being the most obvious one, but extending to many others as well), and maintaining original desert landscapes.”

The area enclosed to form the DDCR is principally made up of low to medium sized sand dunes interspersed with sand flats and gravel plains. At the extreme north of the reserve there is a rocky outcrop, Quarn Nazwa. The altitude of the Reserve ranges from 260m above sea level in the south to 180m in the north (Khafga 2009). Before enclosure the entire area had been heavily grazed by camels and domestic livestock. In 2004 the number of camels counted in the DDCR was 1,209, that is 5.37 camels per square kilometre (Alqamy 2004). By 2007 the number of camels had been reduced to around 600 and by December 2008 all domestic livestock had been removed (Khafga 2009). Arabian oryx, mountain gazelle and sand gazelle had been introduced.

At Tawi Manana a small lake, stocking fish, was completed in 2011.

Three areas, two of sand dunes and the third a gravel plain, have been fenced off to exclude grazing and browsing by oryx and gazelle. One fenced dune area surrounds a lucerne farm established in September 2012 to give supplementary feed for the oryx. The other, solely an enclosed dune area, was fenced in December 2012.

Date palm, Phoenix dactilifera L. (Arecaceae) had been cultivated and these remain as palm groves at two main sites, the Camel Farm at which the camels are confined within cages, and the Date Farm, and as the outer boundary of Tawi Manana irrigation plot.

Trees, protected by wire cages and irrigated, were planted in selected areas. Most, but not all, are indigenous to the area. In 2012, 9,830 trees were planted mainly around the lake and generators as well as close to Tawi Manana. Then in 2013, 15,700 trees were planted at the solar irrigation sites.

In order to encourage the regrowth of plants two drip irrigation plots, Tawi Ruwayyan in the north and Tawi Manana in the south, were established in 2013. These plots over which drip irrigation pipes have been laid are supplied with water pumped up from subterranean reservoirs. The pumps are run off power generated by solar panels.

Feeding points for the oryx had been used since they were introduced into the Al Maha Resort’s reserve in 1999 and are also used in the DDCR. In order to minimize the impact of these gathering points they are moved every 4-6 weeks.

Watering points for the large mammals were created within the Al Maha reserve in 1999 and at various points within the DDCR in 2001.

Climate

The climate of this area is of a bi-seasonal Mediterranean type, characterized by low rainfall and high summer temperatures. Most precipitation is expected in the winter and spring between December and April. Mist and fog can occur throughout the year but they are more likely in the winter months and at the end of summer.

Very little was known about weather conditions in the UAE until the 1950s when oil prospecting began and it was not until the opening of the UAE international airports in the 1970s that full 24-hour weather records became available (Perry 2008). Rain is always localized, sporadic and shows considerable variation from year to year. The average annual rainfall for Sarjah airport for the 12 years 1992-2004 was 50mm (Alqamy 2004).

Winter, December to March, is the most unsettled season when active weather systems can bring rain and strong winds. Weather systems in the region are associated with the Sub-Tropical Jet Stream, which lies over the Middle East at this time of the year. The frequency of these westerly disturbances is governed by the weather pattern prevailing over Europe and the Mediterranean. They account for most of the annual rainfall, but both the amount and frequency of rain varies greatly from year to year.

Towards spring, April to May, the frequency of westerly disturbances decreases as the Sub-Tropical Jet Stream weakens and begins to move northwards. Rain and thunderstorms can still occur but are more likely over the northern Gulf. Maximum temperatures increase rapidly.

Summer, June to September, is characterized by hot and dusty conditions, resulting from intense solar heating establishing an area of low pressure over India and Pakistan gradually extending west into Iran and over the Gulf. During these months there may be some rain over the mountains and surrounding plains. Decreasing minimum temperatures towards the end of summer lead to an increase in the incidence of early morning fog.

Autumn, October to November, is characterized by the most settled weather conditions.

Vegetation

Until recently the vegetation of the UAE was poorly known. The work of A.R Western (Western 1989) served as a major stimulus for floristic research in the UAE (Perry 2008). The Comprehensive Guide to the Wildflowers of the United Arab Emirates (Jongbloed 2003) incorporates the work of several active and enthusiastic botanists, including that of Benno Böer.

Two vegetation surveys have been conducted in the Al Maha reserve and the DDCR since the proclamation of the DDCR (Husam El Algamy 2004 and Tamer Khafga 2009). The total number of species recorded from the gravel plains within the DDCR in 2004 was 15 compared with 27 in 2009. Of the additional species 11 were perennial species and four were annual. This was considered to represent positive rehabilitation of the gravel plains during the five years between the two surveys. Similarly the total number of species recorded for the sand dunes in 2004 was 16 compared with 34 in 2009. What should also be taken into account is that the second survey was undertaken in 2008 a year of unusually good rains.

Due to the generally low rainfall, when good rains do occur they have, as in all hot arid areas, a more pronounced influence on biological activity than in more temperate regions of the world (Perry 2008). Rain is most effective for the vegetation when it occurs during the cooler part of the year due to the fact that less water is lost to evaporation and it is at this season that plant growth takes place.

Methods

As flower visitors were being targeted most of the sampling was undertaken using hand nets. At all sites plants in flower were sampled for flower visitors. In addition wasps and bees perching on plants, resting on the ground, cruising, nesting and visiting water were collected.

One malaise trap was set up at Tawi Ruwayyan. Bundles of six trap nests with two of the trap nests each of one of three diameter borings (Krombein design) were positioned in trees at Tawi Ruwayyan and on palm trunks at the Camel Farm, where naturally occurring borings were observed.

Plant and insect names listed with the author’s name in the appendices are given without the author’s name in the text and tables. Plant names not listed in the appendices are given with the author’s name where they occur in the text.

Study sites within the DDCR

Site 8. Quarn Nazwa, southwestern foot (Figures 2 and 3)

Figures 2–7.

Study sites in DDCR: 2 Site 8 – Quarn Nazwa, watering point 3 Site 8 – Quarn Nazwa, southeast slope 4 Site 10 – Tawi Ruwayyan 5 Site 14 – Dune grazing and browsing exclusion plot 6 Site 15 – Gravel plain without irrigation 7 Site 17. Irrigated planted trees in netting cages.

Quarn Nazwa is a rocky outcrop at the extreme north of the reserve. At its southwest foot is a level area within which is a watering point, a low vertical bank below an access road, and bordering the road to the south sand dunes. Around the watering point and the bases of the dunes facing it were plants in flower, principally Aerva javanica (Amaranthaceae), Centaurea pseudosinaica (Asteraceae), Arnebia hispida (Boraginaceae), Dipterygium glaucum (Capparaceae), and Limeum arabicum (Molluginaceae). On the other aspects of the outcrop most flowering plants were almost completely dried out.

Site 9. Sand dunes, A single Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) tree.

Site 10. Tawi Ruwayyan (Figure 4)

The area sampled was the drip irrigation area together with the surrounding non-irrigated area. The drip area is mainly level with a strong growth of low shrubby perennials, principally Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae), Dipterygium glaucum, Fagonia indica and Cyperus conglomeratus Rottb. (Cyperaceae) growing along the irrigation lines. The area attracts grazing and browsing by oryx and gazelle and so there is little evidence of the more palatable plants, particularly annuals.

Within the irrigated area are small groups of fenced planted trees. Beyond the irrigated area the perennial plants are more widely dispersed and less succulent. On the surrounding dunes are scattered larger shrubs, Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) and Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae), and the small tree Calotropis procera. Also present beyond the irrigation plot is a clump of ghaf trees, Prosopis cineraria (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) and tamarix, Tamarix nilotica (Tamaricaceae).

Site 11. Date Farm

A shady grove of date palms with outside the grove an area of irrigated planted trees in cages. Within the cages are growing palatable plants beyond the reach of browsers. Of interest was the presence in one of these cages of flowering Sesuvium verrucosum (Aizoaceae), not listed for the DDCR in Khafga (2009).

Site 12. Margham Gate

An area of low dunes with shrubs and hollows between dunes with almost entirely browsed off Tribulus (Zygophyllaceae)

Site 13. Roadside of Margham Road, just outside the DDCR

Well grown flowering Tribulus spp. were present along the sandy roadside.

Site 14. Dune grazing and browsing exclusion plot (Figure 5)

An area of dunes protected from grazing and browsing by oryx and gazelle. Noticeably better vegetated than the surrounding area. Of particular note was the presence of numerous well-grown plants of Crotalaria aegyptiaca (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) in flower.

Site 15. Gravel plain without irrigation (Figure 6)

This gravel plain site adjoined one of the planted tree sites. Scattered across the gravel plain the dominant plant was a small shrubby perennial, Rhanterium epapposum (Asteraceae) with at intervals Acacia tortilis (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae). The planted trees are young ghaf trees, Prosopis cineraria. Within the cages around the trees, encouraged by the irrigation and protected from grazing, are plants of Arnebia hispidissima (Boraginaceae).

Site 16. Al Maha Gate

A non-irrigated sandy area with the dominant plant being Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae).

Site 17. Low sand dunes (Figure 7)

Irrigated planted trees in netting cages with Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae) growing within the cages.

Site 18. Camel Farm

A small grove of date palms watered by irrigation furrows. The camels are all restrained in cages. The banks of the furrows, cavities in palm tree stumps and insect borings in palm leaf bases offer nesting sites for wasps and bees. Also present outside the Ddate Palm grove are Gghaf trees.

Site 19/20 Tawi Manana lake (Figure 8) and drip irrigation area (Figure 9)

Figures 8–13.

Study sites in DDCR: 8 Site 19/20 Tawi Manana Lake 9 Site 19/20 Tawi Manana drip irrigation area 10 Site 24 Lucerne Farm 11 Site 24 Lucerne Farm grazing and browsing exclusion area 12 Site 25 Sand dunes with isolated Calotropis procera trees 13 Site 26 Faqah watering point with planted Prosopis cineraria.

The area sampled for flower visitors was the main level drip irrigation area, which is surrounded on all four sides by a border of palm trees, the outer, less moist, sloping sandy drip area and the surrounding non-irrigated area. The drip area is mainly level with a strong growth of low shrubby perennials, principally Dipterygium glaucum with to a lesser degree than at Tawi Ruwayyan Heliotropium kotschyi and Fagonia indica, growing along the irrigation lines. The area attracts grazing and browsing by oryx and gazelle and so there is little evidence of the more palatable plants, particularly annuals. On the lower slopes of the dunes above the main drip area were a large number of flowering, well-grown, scattered plants of palatable Limeum arabicum (Molluginaceae). Also present are a Calotropis procera tree and a clump of ghaf trees, Prosopis cineraria.

Site 21. Sand dunes, Calotropis procera tree

Site 22. Sand dunes, Calotropis procera tree

Site 23. Sand dunes, Calotropis procera tree

Site 24. Lucerne Farm grazing and browsing exclusion area (Figures 10 and 11)

Between the fenced fields of lucerne, which are irrigated, and the perimeter fence is a large area of non-irrigated dunes protected from grazing and browsing by oryx and gazelle. In this area were a few scattered, well grown, flowering Calotropis procera, Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Acacia tortilis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae), and numerous scattered flowering Heliotropium kotschyi, Tribulus macropterus with less abundantly flowering Moltkiopsis ciliata (Boraginaceae) and a few scattered flowering Polycarpaea repens (Caryophyllaceae) and Neurada procumbens (Neuradaceae). Only one plant each of Indigofera intricata, Crotalaria aegyptiaca and Citrullus colocynthis (Cucurbitaceae) were noted.

Site 25. Sand dunes with scattered Calotropis procera trees (Figure 12)

Site 26. Faqah watering point (Figure 13)

Faqah is in the extreme south of the Reserve, the last area from which camels and domestic stock were removed. The area surrounding the watering point was very dry with no plants in flower. The planted Prosopis cineraria, which were in flower, were therefore the only plants sampled for flower visitors.

Sites to the west of DDCR to the coast

Crossing from the DDCR to the coast the dunes level out and the dominant plants are scattered plants of Zygophyllum species (Zygophyllaceae), not found within the DDCR (Figure 14), until the coast is neared where the plants become more diverse.

Figures 14–16.

Study sites to the west of DDCR: 14 Crossing from the DDCR to the coast the dunes level out and the dominant plants are scattered plants of Zygophyllum species (Zygophyllaceae), not found within the DDCR 15 Site 28. Ghantoot. In addition to Zygophyllum qatarense (Zygophyllaceae), well grown plants of Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae) were abundant and in flower 16 Site 30. EMEC, coastal sand inland from beach.

Site 27. Roadside, sandy depression

The plants in the depression were more diverse than in the surrounding area. In addition to flowering Zygophyllum simplex and Zygophyllum qatarense, some plants of a species of Asteraceae were present.

Site 28. Ghantoot, sandy plain (Figure 15)

In addition to Zygophyllum qatarense, well grown plants of Heliotropium kotschyi were abundant and in flower.

Site 29. EMEC, coastal sand inland from beach

The dominant plant in flower was Zygophyllum qatarense.

Site 30. EMEC, coastal sand inland from beach (Figure 16)

The dominant plant in flower in the dry sandy area was Zygophyllum qatarense with its root parasite Cistanche tubulosa (Schenk) Wright (Orobanchaceae). Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) C. Koch (Chenopodiaceae) was also present in the more saline areas associated with channels. In this area of the coast there are in addition salt pans, where Z. qatarense is absent and the dominant plant is Salsola imbricata Forssk (Chenopodiaceae), and mud flats dominated by mangroves, Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh. (Acanthaceae).

Study sites east of the DDCR to the coast

Most of the sites chosen east of the DDCR in the Hajar Mountains were localities from which Anticharis arabica Endl. (Scrophulariaceae: Aptosimae) has been recorded (coordinates of localities supplied by Tamer Khafaga). The reason for this choice being that in southern Africa all Aptosimae are visited by and pollinated by Masarinae (Gess and Gess 2014) and it was hoped that an equivalent association would be found. However, due to the dryness no plants of A. arabica were found. The sites in the Hajar Mountains, mostly wadis, ranged in elevation from 284 m to 355 m.

Site 1. Sandy roadside

Scattered plants of Tribulus spp., Heliotropium kotschyi, Dipterygium glaucum and a species of Convolvulaceae were in flower.

Site 2. Shawka

Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae) was in flower, fringing the area from which the water had retreated. (Figure 17)

Figures 17–19.

Study sites to east of DDCR: 17 Site 2. Shawka dam Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae) fringing the area from which water had retreated 18 Site 3. Wadi in Hajar Mountains 19 Site 6. Khor Kalba, Ramsa outside Mangrove and Alhafeya Protected Area.

Site 3. Wadi

Very dry, little in flower other than Acacia tortilis. (Figure 18)

Site 4. Wadi

Very dry, almost all plants in fruit.

Site 5. Munay, outskirts of village

Most plants were dried up. Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae), in flower near a leaking tap, was sampled for flower visitors.

Site 6. Khor Kalba, Ramsa outside Mangrove and Alhafeya Protected Area

Heliotropium kotschyi and Zygophyllum qatarense were in flower along the sandy bank of lagoon. Avicennia marina was in flower at water’s edge. (Figure 19)

All other plants dried out.

Results

Flowering plants recorded

Forty-six plant species were recorded by Tamer Khafaga from the dunes and gravel plains of the DDCR in his 2008/2009 study of the vegetation after rain (Khafaga 2009). These include 41 species of dicots and only five species of monocots. Of the dicots 33 were noted in the present survey (Table 2). The smaller number of species of plants noted can to a large degree be attributed to the sampling period in 2015 having followed seven dry years, resulting in a paucity of annual plants. Launaea procumbens (Asteraceae), widespread in the northern emirates, and an exotic weed, Sesuvium verrucosum (Aizoaceae) were found growing inside the cages surrounding planted trees.

Dicotyledonous plants recorded for the DDCR by Khafaga (2009) and in the present survey, flower visitors collected and sites where sampled in the present survey.

Plant family Plant genus and species Recorded by Khafaga 2009 Recorded in present survey Flowers visitors collected Sites where sampled
Aizoaceae Sesuvium verrucosum Raf. - + + Site 11.
Amaranthaceae Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) + + + Site 8.
Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae (formerly Asclepiadaceae) Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton + + + Sites 9, 10, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24
Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne. + + + Site 24
Asteraceae Atractylis carduus (Forssk.) C. Chr. + + -
Centaurea pseudosinaica Czerep. + + + Site 8.
Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya & Rajogopal - + + Site 17
Rhanterium epapposum Oilv. + + + Site 15.
Boraginaceae Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC. + + + Site 8.
Heliotropium digynum (Forssk.) Asch. ex C. Chr. + + -
Heliotropium kotschyi (Bge.) Gurke + + + Site 10, 16, 20, 24. Also outside DDCR, Site 28
Moltkiopsis ciliata (Forssk.) I.M.Johnst. + + + Site 24.
Ogastemma pusillum (Coss. & Durand ex Bonnet & Baratte) Brummitt + - -
Brassicaceae Brassica muricata (L.) Asch. + - -
Eremobium aegyptiacum (Spreng.) Boiss. + - -
Farsetia linearis Decne. Ex Boiss. + + + Site 24
Sisymbrium erysimoides Desf. + - -
Capparaceae Dipterygium glaucum Decne. + + + Sites 8, 10, 20, 24
Caryophyllaceae Polycarpaea repens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf. + + + Site 24.
Sclerocephalus arabicus Boiss. + - -
Silene villosa Forssk. + + -
Chenopodiaceae Haloxylon salicornicum (Moq.) Bunge ex Boiss. + + -
Cucurbitaceae Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. + + -
Euphorbiaceae Chrozophora oblongifolia (Delile) Spreng. + + -
Fabaceae: Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne. + + + Site 20, also Site 3. Wadi to east
Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce. + + + Site 10, 20, 26
Fabaceae: Papilionoideae Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth. + + + Site 14, 24
Indigofera colutea (Burm. f.) Merr. + + -
Indigofera intricata Boiss. + + -
Geraniaceae Monsonia nivea (Decne.) Webb + - -
Molluginaceae Limeum arabicum Fried. + + + Sites 8, 20, 24
Neuradaceae Neurada procumbens L. + + + Site 24.
Plantaginaceae Plantago boissieri Hausskn. & Bornm. + + -
Polygalaceae Polygala erioptera DC. + - -
Polygonaceae Calligonum comosum L’ Her. + + -
Rumex dentatus L. - - + Site 2. East of DDCR
Salvadoraceae Salvadora persica L. + + - Site 10
Solanaceae Lycium shawii Roem. & Schult. + + +
Solanum nigrum L. - - + Site 5. East of DDCR
Tamaricaceae Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. + + -
Zygophyllaceae Fagonia indica Burm. f. + + -
Fagonia sp. + - -
Tribulus macropterus Boiss. + + + Site 24
also Site 13. roadside outside DDCR
Tribulus omanense Hosni + + + Site 24
Tribulus pentandrus Forssk. + + -
Zygophyllum qatarense Hadidi - - + Sites 28, 29, 30 - west of DDCR
Zygophyllum simplex - - + Site 27 - west of DDCR

The monocots are not included in Table 2 or in Appendix 1. They are the common and widespread palatable sedge, Cyperus conglomeratus (Cyperaceae), and four grass species (Poaceae). Grasses were noted in the present survey but were not identified. They were uncommon and outside the enclosures had been heavily grazed.

Flower visitors were observed and sampled on 21 species of plants within the DDCR and on two additional species east of the Reserve and two west of the Reserve (Table 3 and Appendix 1, giving global distributions). Of these 25 species, four species are known only from the Arabian Peninsula. The distributions of the other 19 variously include: the Mediterranean fringe; the Middle East; Asia; North Africa and Asia; North Africa; the Middle East and Asia; Africa from north to south; Africa from north to south together with the Middle East and Asia; and Europe together with the Mediterranean and Asia.

Plants with flowers visited by aculeate wasps and bees, the wasp and bee visitors, the number and sex of the voucher specimens and the sampling Sites.

Plant Family Pant Genus and species Wasps Bees and Pollen Wasps
AMARANTHACEAE
Aerva javanica VESPIDAE: Polistinae
Polistes watti Site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus, 2 f, Site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix freygessneri, 1f, 1f, Site 8
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Anthidiini
Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum, 1 Site 8
AIZOACEAE
Sesuvium verrucosum HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
Nomioides klausi 1f Site 11
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
Calotropis procera CHRYSIDIDAE
VESPIDAE: Eumeninae
Rhynchium oculatum Site 24
POMPILIDAE: Pompilinae
Telostegus argyrellus 1f, Site 21
TIPHIIDAE
1m Site 9
SCOLIIDAE: Campsomerinae
Campsomeriella thoracica 1f, 1f, Site 24
Micromeriella hyalina 1f Site 21
SCOLIIDAE: Scoliinae
Scolia flaviceps 2f, Site 19/20
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Larrini
Tachytes comberi 1m Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Eremiaspheciinae
Laphyragogus sp. nov 1m Site 21
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix hauseri 3f Site 19/20, 5f Site 9, 3f Site 24
Bembix kohli 1f, Site 2 (flying), 1m, Site 24
Crabronidae: Philanthinae: Philanthini
Philanthus coarctatus 3f, Site 21
Philanthus pallidus 1m, Site 21
Crabronidae: Philanthinae: Cercerini
Cerceris chromatica 1m, 1m, Site 9, 1m, Site 21
HALICTIDAE: Nomiinae
Ceylalictus karachiensis 1f, 3m Site 9
APIDAE: Xylocopinae
Xylocopa fenestrata
Xylocopa aestuans
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina (carrying polinia), 1f & 2m Site 21
APIDAE: Apinae: Apini
Apis florea (carrying polinia)
Leptadenia pyrotechnica CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 1m Site 24
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix hameri 1f Site 24
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile concinna 1f Site 24
Megachile patellimana 1m Site 24
ASTERACEAE
Centaurea pseudosinaica CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 2f Site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix fregessneri 1f Site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae: Philanthini
Philanthus pallidus 1f Site 8
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile patellimana 1f Site 8
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini
Xylocopa fenestrata (Fabricius) 1f Site 8
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina 1f Site 8
Rhanterium epapposum CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Larrini
Gastrosericus moricei 1f Site 15
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 1f Site 15
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae: Philanthini
Philanthus coarctatus 1m Site 15
Launaea procumbens two small halictid bees, Site 17
BORAGINACEAE
Arnebia hispidissima CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 2f Site 8
Apidae: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina 1f, 1f, 1m Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi CHRYSIDIDAE
One sp. 1 Site 10
POMPILIDAE: Ceropalinae
Ceropales kriechbaumeri 1f Site 10
SCOLIIDAE
Micromeriella hyalina 1m, Site 10
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus bisignatus 1f Site 24
Palarus laetus 1f Site 10, 1f Site 24
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix freygessneri 1f, 1f & 2m, 1f Site 24
Bembix hameri 1f, 1f, 1m Site 24
Bembix hauseri 1f Site 19/20, 1f Site 24
Bembix kohli 1f Site 24
Bembix rochei 1f Site 24
Bembix saadensis 1m Site 24
VESPIDAE: Masarinae
Celonites jousseaumei (flying above flowers) 1f Site 10
Quartinia nubiana 2f Site 10
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
Ceylalictus karachiensis 1f, 5m Site 10
Ceylalictus punjabensis 1f Site 10
Ceylalictus variegatus 1m Site 10
Nomioides klausi 1f, 2m, Site 10,
2 Site 19/20
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile concinna 1f, 1m Site 24, 1f site 19/20
Megachile patellimana 1f & 1m, 2f Site 10, 1f & 1m, 1f & 1m, 1m Site 24, 1f & 2m Site 19/20
Coelioxys indica 1 Site 10
Megachilinae: Anthidiini
Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum, 1f Site 10
Megachilinae: Osmiini
Haetosmia circumventa 1f, Site 24, 2m, 3m, 6m Site 10, 2f Site 27
APIDAE: Xylocopinae
Ceratina parvula Site 24
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina 1f Site 19/20, 1f & 1m Site 24
Anthophora tenella 1m Site 10, 1m Site 28
APIDAE: Apinae: Melectini
Thyreus hyalinatus 1m, 1f Site 10
Moltkiopsis ciliata CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix hauseri 2f and 1m Site 24
VESPIDAE: Masarinae
Celonites jousseaumei (flying above flowers) site record
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
Ceylalictus karachiensis 1f Site 24
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Anthidiini
Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum, 1f Site 24
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina (Klug) 3f, 2f Site 24
BRASSICACEAE
Farsetia linearis APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini
Ceratina parvula 1f Site 24
CAPPARACEAE
Dipterygium glaucum CHRYSIDIDAE
Chrysidid 1 site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix saadensis 1f Site 24
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina 1m Site 10
APIDAE: Apinae: Melectini
Thyreus elegans 1f Site 8
CARYOPHYLLACEAE
Polycarpaea repens CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus parvulus 1m Site 24
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Acacia tortilis SCOLIIDAE
Micromeriella hyalina 1m Site 3
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Oxybelini
Oxybellus lamellatus 1m Site 3
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Stizoides assimilis 1f Site 3
Bembix chopardi 2m Site 3
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
1 male Ceylalictus variegatus 1m Site 3
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilnae: Megachilini
Megachile concinna 1f, 1m Site 3
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini
Ceratina tarsata 1f Site 3
APIDAE: Apinae: Melectini
Thyreus hyalinatus 1f Site 10
Prosopis cineraria SPHECIDAE: Sphecinae
Prionyx nigropectinatus 1f Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Miscophini
Plenoculus vanharteni 1f Site 10
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Larrini
Tachysphex micans 1f Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 1f & 6m Site 26
Palarus parvulus 1m Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix freygessneri 1f Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae
Cerceris albocincta 5m Site 26
Cerceris chromatica 2f & 6m Site 26
Cerceris sp. 1 Site 10
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
Ceylalictus karachiensis 1f, 3m Site 9
Ceylalictus punjabensis 1f Site 10
Ceylalictus variegatus 1m Site 10, 1f Site 21
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile minutissima 1m Site 10
Megachile patellimana 1f Site 10
APIDAE: Apinae: Apini
Apis florea hive Site 10
FABACEAE: Papilionoideae
Crotalaria aegyptiaca CRABRONIDAE: Eremiaspheciinae
Laphrogogus n. sp. 2m Site 14
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Anthidiini
Icteranthidium sp., 1m, 1m & 3f Site 14
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile patellimana 1f Site 24
APIDAE: Apinae
Amegilla byssina 2f Site 14
MOLLUGINACEAE
Limeum arabicum CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus bisignatus 1f & 4m, 1m Site 24
Palarus dongalensis 1 Site 24
Palarus parvulus 1m Site 8
CRABRONIDAE: Eremiaspheciinae
Laphyrogogus n. sp. 1m Site 19/20
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix gazella 1m Site 24
Bembix saadensis 1f Site 24
HALICTIDAE: Nomiinae
Pseudapis nilotica 1f Site 24
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini
Ceratina parvula 1f & 2m Site 24
NEURADACEAE
Neurada procumbens 1 halictid bee
POLYGONACEAE
Rumex dentatus VESPIDAE: Eumeninae
Delta esuriens esuriens 1 Site 2
VESPIDAE: Polistinae
Polistes watti 2 Site 2
VESPIDAE: Vespinae
Vespa orientalis
POMPILIDAE
Anoplius suspectus 1f Site 2
SPHECIDAE: Sceliphronini
Sceliphron madraspatanum pictum 1 Site 2
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix arenaria 1f Site 2
Bembix oculata 2f Site 2
HALICTIDAE: Halictinae
Seladonia lucidipennis 1f, 1m Site 2
SOLANACEAE
Solanum nigrum POMPILIDAE: Ceropalinae
Ceropales kriechbaumeri 2f Site 5
SCOLIIDAE: Campsomerinae
Micromeriella hyalina 1 Site 5
SPHECIDAE: Ammophilinae
Ammophila rubripes 1m Site 5
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae
Cerceris sp. 1 Site 5
HALICTIDAE: Nomiinae
Crocisaspidia vespoides 1m Site 5
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Tribulus macropterus CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus laetus 1m, 1m Site 24
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix fregessneri 1f Site 24
Bembix gazella 1m, 4m, 1m Site 24
Bembix kohli 1f & 1male Site 24
Bembix rochei 1f Site 13, 2f Site 24
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
1 male Nomioides klausi 1m Site 24
MEGACHILIDAE; Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile patellimana 6f &1m, 6f, 4f Site 24
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini
Ceratina parvula 1f, 2 Site 24
Zygophyllum qatarense POMPILIDAE: Pompilinae
Telostegus argyrellus 2 Site 30
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Larrini
Gastrosericus waltlii 1m Site 30
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae
Cerceris albicincta 1m
Cerceris chromatica 1m Site 29
Zygophyllum simplex TIPHIIDAE: Thynninae
1m Site 27
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus parvulus 1m Site 27
CRABRONIDAE: Philanthinae
Cerceris sp. 1 Site 27
MEGACHILDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile 1 Site 27

Aculeate wasps and bees recorded

In the present first survey 53 species of aculeate wasps and 26 species of bees were recorded (Appendix 2, giving global distributions). Known distributions suggest that of these species, 11% are known only from the Arabian Peninsula, 65% include North Africa, 27% include in addition to North Africa, the Middle East and Asia, 9% further include Europe, 6% further include Africa from north to south and west to east, 8% in addition to Arabia have distributions only extending east into Asia, 8% have circum-Mediterranean distributions, 3% distributions from Arabia to southern Africa and 2% distributions from Arabia north into the Middle East as well as south through Africa.

Some understanding of the biogeography of bees in Sahara and Arabian deserts has resulted from the analysis by Patiny and Michez (2007), however, the taxa used in their study (19 species in seven sub-families) are not ones encountered in the present survey, making their conclusions of doubtful merit in the present context.

Of the wasps, 40 species were from the DDCR and the additional 11 from our transect to the east of and two from our transect to the west of the DDCR. Of the bees, 21 species were from the DDCR and an additional two from our transect to the east of the Reserve. Flower sampling yielded flower visiting records for 39 species of aculeate wasps and 23 species of bees. The results of flower sampling are presented in Tables 3 and 4.

Aculeate wasps and bees collected visiting flowers, plants, collection Sites and sex of wasp and bee voucher specimens.

Aculeate Family and Subfamily Aculeate genus and species Plant Family Plant genus and species
CHRYSIDOIDEA
CHRYSIDIDAE APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
CAPPARACEAE
Calotropis procera 1 Site 21
Heliotropium kotschyi 1 Site 10
Dipterygium glaucum 1 Site 8
VESPOIDEA
VESPIDAE: Masarinae
Celonites jousseaumei (flying above flowers) BORAGINACEAE Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 10
Moltkiopsis ciliata site record
Quartinia nubiana BORAGINACEAE Heliotropium kotschyi 2f Site 10
VESPIDAE: Eumeninae
Delta esuriens esuriens POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus Site 2
Rhynchium oculatum APOCYNACEAE: Ascepiadoideae Calotropis procera Site 24
Vespidae: Polistinae
Polistes watti AMARANTHACEAE Aerva javanica Site 8
POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 2 Site 2
POMPILIDAE: Pompilinae
Anoplius suspectus POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 1f Site 2
Telostegus argyrellus APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Calotropis procera 1f, Site 21
Zygophyllum qatarense 2 Site 30
POMPILIDAE: Ceropalinae
Ceropales kriechbaumeri BORAGINACEAE
SOLANACEAE
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 10
Solanum nigrum, 2f Site 5
TIPHIIDAE APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae Calotropis procera 1, Site 9
TIPHIIDAE: Thynninae ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Zygophyllum simplex 1 Site 27
SCOLIIDAE: Campsomerinae
Campsomeriella thoracica APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae Calotropis procera 1f, 1f, Site 24
Micromeriella hyalina APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
SOLANACEAE
Calotropis procera 1f Site 21
Heliotropium kotschyi 1m, Site 10
Acacia tortilis 1m Site 3
Solanum nigrum 1 Site 5
SCOLIIDAE: Scoliinae
Scolia flaviceps APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae Calotropis procera 2f Site 19/20
SCOLIIDAE: Campsomerinae
Campsomeriella thoracica
Micromeriella hyalina
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
Calotropis procera 1f, 1f, Site 24
Calotropis procera 1f Site 21
APOIDEA: SPHECIFORMES
SPHECIDAE: Sphecinae
Prionyx nigropectinatus FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Prosopis cineraria 1f Site 26
SPHECIDAE: Sceliphrinae
Sceliphron madraspatanum pictum POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 1 Site 2
SPHECIDAE: Ammophilinae
Ammophila rubripes SOLANACEAE Solanum nigrum 1m Site 5
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Larrini
Gastrosericus moricei ASTERACEAE Rhanterium epapposum 1f Site 15
Gastrosericus waltlii ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Zygophyllum qatarense 1m Site 30
Tachytes comberi APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae Calotropis procera 1m Site 26
Tachysphex micans FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Prosopis cineraria 1f Site 26
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Oxybelini
Oxybellus lamellatus FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis 1m Site 3
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Palarini
Palarus bisignatus BORAGINACEAE
MOLLUGINACEAE
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 24
Limeum arabicum 1f & 4m, 1m Site 24
Palarus dongalensis MOLLUGINACEAE Limeum arabicum 1 Site 24
Palarus laetus AMARANTHACEAE
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Aerva javanica 2f Site 8
Leptadenia pyrotechnica 1f Site 24
Centaurea pseudosinaica 2f Site 8
Arnebia hispidissima 2f Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 10, 1f Site 24
Prosopis cineraria 1f & 6m Site 26
Tribulus macropterus var, arabicus 1m, 1m Site 24
Palarus parvulus CARYOPHYLLACEAE
MOLLUGINACEAE
Polycarpaea repens 1m Site 24
Limeum arabicum 1f & 2m Site 24
CRABRONIDAE: Crabroninae: Miscophini
Plenoculus vanharteni FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Prosopis cineraria 1f Site 10
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae: Bembicini
Bembix arenaria POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 1f Site 2
Bembix chopardi FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis 2m Site 3
Bembix freygessneri AMARANTHACEAE
ASTERACEAE
BORAGINACEAE
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Aerva javanica 1f, 1f, Site 8
Centaurea pseudosinaica 1f Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f, 1f & 2m, 1f Site 24
Tribulus macropterus 1f Site 24
Bembix gazella
MOLLUGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Limeum arabicum 1m Site 24
Prosopis cineraria 1f Site 26
Tribulus macropterus 1m, 4m, 1m Site 24
Bembix hameri APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
Leptadenia pyrotechnica 1f Site 24
Heliotropium kotschyi (Bge.) Gurke, 1f, 1f, 1m Site 24
Bembix hauseri APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
Calotropis procera 3f Site 19/20, 5f Site 9, 3f Site 24
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 19/20, 1f Site 24
Moltkiopsis ciliata 2f & 1m Site 24
Bembix kohli APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Calotropis procera 1f, Site 2 (flying), 1m, Site 24
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 24
Tribulus macropterus 1f & 1m Site 24
Bembix oculata POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 2f Site 2
Bembix rochei BORAGINACEAE
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 24
Tribulus macropterus 1f Site 13
2f Site 24
Bembix saadensis BORAGINACEAE
CAPPARACEAE
MOLLUGINACEAE
Heliotropium kotschyi 1m Site 24
Dipterygium glaucum 1f Site 24
Limeum arabicum 1f Site 24
Stizoides assimilis FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis 1m Site 3
CRABRONIDAE: Eremiaspheciinae: Eremiaspheciini
Laphyragogus sp. nov APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
FABACEAE: Papilionoideae
MOLLUGINACEAE
Calotropis procera 1m Site 21
Crotalaria aegyptiaca 2m Site 14
Limeum arabicum, 1m Site 19/20
CRABRONIDAE: Bembicinae
Philanthinae: Philanthini
Philanthus coarctatus APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
Calotropis procera 3f, Site 21
Rhanterium epapposum, 1m Site 15
Philanthus pallidus
APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
Calotropis procera 1m, Site 21
Centaurea pseudosinaica 1f Site 8
Bembicinae
Philanthinae: Cercerini
Cerceris albocincta
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Prosopis cineraria 5m Site 26
Zygophyllum qatarense 1m
Cerceris chromatica APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
FABABCEAE: Mimosoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Calotropis procera 1m, 1m, Site 9, 1m, Site 21
Prosopis cineraria 2f & 6m Site 26
Zygophyllum qatarense 1m Site 29
Cerceris sp. FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Prosopis cineraria 1 Site 10
Cerceris sp. SOLANACEAE Solanum nigrum 1 Site 5
Cerceris sp. ZYGOPHYLLACEAE Zygophyllum simplex 1 Site 27
APOIDEA: APIFORMES
HALICTIDAE: Halictinae
Halictus lucidipennis POLYGONACEAE Rumex dentatus 1f, 1m, Site 2
HALICTIDAE: Nomiinae
Nomia vespoides SOLANACEAE Solanum nigrum 1m Site 5
Pseudapis nilotica MOLLUGINACEAE Limeum arabicum 1f Site 24
HALICTIDAE: Nomioidinae
Ceylalictus karachiensis APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE

FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Calotropis procera 1f, 3m, Site 9
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f, 5m, Site 10
Moltkiopsis ciliata 1f, Site 24
Prosopis cineraria 1f, 3m Site 9
Ceylalictus punjabensis BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f, Site 10
Prosopis cineraria 1f, Site 10
Ceylalictus variegatus BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Heliotropium kotschyi 1m, Site 10
Acacia tortilus 1m, Site 3
Prosopis cineraria 1m Site 10, 1f Site 21
Nomioides klausi AIZOACEAE
BORAGINACEAE
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Sesuvium verrucosum 1f Site 11
Heliotropium kotschyi 2 Site 19/20
Tribulus macropterus 1m Site 24
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Megachilini
Megachile concinna APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Leptadenia pyrotechnica 1f Site 24
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f, 1m Site 24, 1f Site 19/20
Acacia tortilis 1m Site 3
Megachile minutissima FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Prosopis cineraria 1m Site 10
Megachile patellimana APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
BORAGINACEAE

BRASSICACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
FABACEAE: Papilionoideae
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Leptadenia pyrotechnica 1m Site 24
Centaurea pseudosinaica 1f Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f & 1m, 2f Site 10, 1f & 1m, 1f & 1m, 1m Site 24, 1f & 2m Site 19/20
Farsetia linearis 1f Site 24
Prosopis cineraria 1m Site 10
Crotalaria aegyptiaca 1f Site 24
Tribulus macropterus 6f &1m, 6f, 4f Site 24
Coelioxys indica Heliotropium kotschyi Site 10
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Osmiini
Haetosmia circumventa BORAGINACEAE Heliotropium kotschyi 1f Site 24, 2m, 3m, 6m Site10, 2f Site 27
MEGACHILIDAE: Megachilinae: Anthidiini
Icteranthidium n. sp. FABACEAE: Papilionoideae Crotalaria aegyptiaca, 1m, 1m&3f Site 14
Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum AMARANTHACEAE
BORAGINACEAE
Aerva javanica, 1f, Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi, 1f, 3 Site
Moltkiopsis ciliata, 1F, site 24
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini
Xylocopa fenestrata APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
Calotropis procera 1f Site 8
Centaurea pseudosinaica 1f Site 8
Xylocopa aestuans APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae Calotropis procera site records
APIDAE: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini Ceratina parvula BORAGINACEAE
MOLLUGINACEAE
ZYGOPHYLLACEAE
Heliotropium kotschyi 1 Site 24
Limeum arabicum 1f & 2m Site 24
Tribulus macropterus 1f, 2 Site 24
Ceratina tarsata FABACEAE: Mimosoideae Acacia tortilis 1f Site 3
APIDAE: Apinae: Anthophorini
Amegilla byssina APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
ASTERACEAE
BORAGINACEAE


CAPPARACEAE
FABACEAE: Papilionoideae
Calotropis procera 1f & 2m Site 21
Centaurea pseudosinacea 1f
Arnebia hispidissima 1f, 1f, 1m Site 8
Heliotropium kotschyi 1f & 1m Site 24
Moltkiopsis ciliata 3f, 2f Site 24
Dipterygium glaucum 1m Site 10
Crotalaria aegyptiaca 2f Site 14
Anthophora tenella BORAGINACEAE Heliotropium kotschyi 1m Site 10, 1m Site 28
APIDAE: Apinae: Melectini
Thyreus elegans CAPPARACEAE Dipterygium glaucum 1f Site 8
Thyreus hyalinatus BORAGINACEAE
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Heliotropium kotschyi 1m, 1f Site 10
Prosopis cineraria 1f Site10
APIDAE: Apinae: Apini Apis florea APOCYNACEAE: Asclepiadoideae
FABACEAE: Mimosoideae
Calotropis procera (carrying polinia)
Prosopis cineraria (hive in tree) Site 10

Flowers visited by aculeate wasps and bees

Table 3 lists the plants, from the flowers of which aculeate wasps and bees were collected, together with the names, number and sex of the wasps and bees, and the collection sites. Visits by hunting wasps and nest parasites were for imbibing nectar and visits by bees and pollen wasps for imbibing nectar and/or gathering pollen. Pollen and nectar collecting visits were not distinguished. Following Jongbloed (2003, The comprehensive guide to the wild flowers of the United Arab Emirates) the plant families have been arranged in alphabetical order not grouped under Orders.

Discussion

The Arabian Peninsula lies between similar latitudes in the northern hemisphere as do the semi-arid to arid desertic areas in southern Africa, the principal area in which Sarah Gess with Friedrich Gess made a 40 year study of aculeate wasps and bees. Although the preliminary survey of flower visiting by aculeate wasps and bees here reported and discussed spanned only a matter of weeks it is of interest and informative to make some comparisons.

Amaranthaceae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for 10 species of Amaranthaceae occurring in the UAE, most to the east or west of the DDCR. Only one species, Aerva javanica (Figure 20), the only species widespread in the central dune desert, has been recorded for the DDCR (Khafaga 2009). By comparison Amaranthaceae forms a notable component of the vegetation of northern Namaqualand and Namibia where the most numerous species of solitary wasp and bee visitors belong to the Crabronidae: Bembicinae (formerly Nyssonidae) and of solitary bees to the Megachilidae (Gess and Gess 2006). It is perhaps significant that in the present study these two taxa are represented amongst the small number of wasps and bees recorded from Aerva javanica. The only other wasp visiting the flowers was Polistes watti (Polistinae) and the only bee, unexpectedly, the small anthidiine, Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum, otherwise collected from Boraginaceae both in the reserve and to the east.

Figure 20–21.

20 Amaranthaceae, Aerva javanica 21 Aizoaceae, Sesuvium verrucosum in tree cage.

Aizoaceae

Whereas Aizoaceae, both Mesembryanthema (formerly Mesembryanthemaceae) and non-Mesembryanthema are widespread and species diverse in the semi-arid to arid areas of Southern Africa only one species of Mesembryanthema and three species of non-Mesembryanthema, all coastal species, are recorded from the UAE in Jongbloed (2003).

In the present study one species Sesuvium verrucosum (non-Mesembryanthema) was recorded. It was growing inside the cage of an irrigated planted tree in the DDCR (Figure 21). It is an American species, which has become naturalized in the UAE where it is most usually found along the west coast. One halictid bee, a female Nomioides klausi, was visiting the flowers. At other sites this bee was visiting Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae) and Tribulus macropterus (Zygophyllaceae).

Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for eight species of Asclepiadoideae in the UAE. Of these most occur to the east of the DDCR. Two species of perennial woody Asclepiadoideae, Calotropis procera (Figures 22 and 23) and Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Figures 24 and 25), which are characteristic of the central dune desert, are listed for the DDCR in Khafaga (2009). They are widely present on the dunes where, not being palatable, they are often the only plants. Samples of wasps and bees visiting C. procera were taken at five widely separated sites. Wasps represented in total were of the wasp families Chrysididae (1 sp.), Tiphiidae (1 sp.), Vespidae: Eumeninae (1 sp.), Scoliidae 2 spp.), Pompilidae (1 sp.), Crabronidae: Bembicinae (2 spp.), Eremiaspheciinae (1 sp.) and Philanthinae (2 spp.) and the bee family Apidae (Apinae: Apini (1 sp.) and Anthophorini (1 sp.) and Apidae: Xylocopinae (2 spp.)).

Figures 22–25.

Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae: 22, 23 Calotropis procera 24, 25 Leptadenia pyrotechnica.

In a detailed study of the pollination of Calotropis procera in Pakistan (Ali and Ali 1988) a much more limited range of visitors was recorded. Insects bearing polinia were classified as pollinators. On this basis those authors concluded that two Apidae, Xylocopa pubescens Spinola and X. fenestrata were the main pollinators and that a third Apis florea was a minor pollinator. It is likely that in the DDCR Xylocopa fenestrata and X. aestuans are similarly potential pollinators of C. procera. In the present survey visitors carrying pollinia were two Apidae, Amegilla bysina and Apis florea, and one crabronid, Bembix kohli, making them additional potential pollinators of this plant.

The diversity of visitors to Calotropis procera, though not as great, is comparable with that to a shrubby species of Asclepiadoideae, Gomphocarpus filiformis (E. Mey.) Dietr., in the western semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa, which also includes Chrysididae (2 spp.), Vespidae, Pompilidae (9 spp.), Scoliidae (3 spp.), Crabronidae: Crabroninae (7 spp.) and Bembicinae (2 spp.), Apidae: Apinae (6 spp.) and Xylocopinae (2 spp.) with, however, in addition Tiphiidae (4 spp.), Sphecidae (7 spp.), and one species each of Bradynobaeinidae, Halictidae, Colletidae, and Melittidae (Gess and Gess 2003 and Gess and Gess 2006).

Leptadenia pyrotechnica, though widespread, was being less commonly visited, flower visitors having been observed only at Site 24, the Lucerne Farm enclosure. There the visitors obtained were less diverse, wasps of Crabronidae: Crabroninae (1sp.) and Bembicinae (1 sp.) and Palarini (1 sp.), and bees of Megachilidae: Megachilinae: Megachilini (2 spp.), with sight records for Apis florea.

Asteraceae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for 58 species of Asteraceae in the United Arab Emirates most having been recorded from the mountainous area to the East of the DDCR. Khafaga (2009) recorded only three, Atractylis carduus, Centaurea pseudosinaica and Rhanterium eppaposum, from the DDCR (Table 2). Of these C. pseudosinaica (Figure 26) and R. eppaposum (Figures 17 and 18) were found in flower and in addition Launaea procumbens (Figure 29), a common and widespread weed, was found growing and flowering, like S. verrucosum, inside the cage of a planted tree.

At the time of sampling, Centaurea pseudosinaica was being visited by three species of aculeate wasps of three sub-families of Crabronidae, one species of Megachilidae and two species of Apidae, one each of Apinae and Xylocopinae. However, Rhanterium eppaposum was visited solely by Crabronidae of two sub-families and Launaea procumbens by two small halictid bees.

Figures 26–29.

Asteraceae: 26 Centaurea pseudosinaica 27, 28 Rhanterium epapposum 29 Launaea procumbens.

A greater diversity of visitors had been expected. In the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa, where Asteraceae is the largest family in the Karoo-Namib Region (Cowling and Hilton Taylor 1999), it was recorded as being visited by a diverse range of aculeate wasps of eight families, including pollen wasps, and all families of bees (Gess and Gess 2006).

Boraginaceae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for 22 species of Boraginaceae occurring in the UAE. Of these, four species are given as widespread in the central desert, all are listed in Khafaga (2009) for the DDCR. In the present study all four, Arnebia hispidissima (Figure 30), Heliotropium digynum, Heliotropium kotschyi (Figures 31 and 32) and Moltkiopsis ciliata (Figure 33 and 34), were sampled for flower visitors. The only species not being visited at that time was H. digynum. Heliotropium kotschyi, the most widespread and abundant species, was sampled for flower visitors at three sites within the DDCR and one site near to the coast west of the DDCR. At all three sites in the reserve wasps of the family Crabronidae (sites grouped, Crabroninae: Palarini, 2 spp. and Bembicinae: Bembicini, 6 spp.) and bees of the families Megachilidae (sites grouped together, Megachilinae: Megachilini 3 spp., Osmiini 1 sp. and Anthidiini 1 sp.) and Apidae (sites grouped together Xylocopinae: Ceratinini 1 sp., Apinae: Anthophorini 2 spp.) were recorded, with in addition from the drip area at Tawi Ruwayyan wasps of the families, Chrysididae (1 sp), Vespidae: Masarinae (2 spp.), Pompilidae (1sp.), Scoliidae (1 sp.), and from the drip area at Tawi Manana bees of the family Halictidae (4 spp.). Other noticeable but not common visitors to the flowers were braconid wasps in the DDCR and bombyliid flies both in the DDCR and at Ghantoot, inland from the west coast.

Figures 30–34.

Boraginaceae: 30 Arnebia hispidissima 31, 32 Heliotropium kotschyi 33, 34 Moltkiopsis ciliata.

The two species of Masarinae were Quartinia nubiana (2 females caught visiting flowers) and Celonites jousseaumei (flying over flowers).

Of particular interest was the presence of an oligolectic osmiine bee, Haetosmia circumventa, which specialises in collecting pollen from the flowers of Heliotropium (Gotlieb et al. 2014).

Arnebia hispidissima and Moltkiopsis ciliata were only present and sampled at one site each, Quarn Nazwa and the dune enclosure at the Lucerne Farm respectively. Both, like Heliotropium kotschyi, were receiving visits from Amegilla byssina (Apidae: Apinae) with the former in addition Palarus laetus (Crabronidae: Crabroninae: Palarini) and the latter Bembix hauseri (Crabronidae: Bembicinae) and Ceylalictus karachiensis (Halictidae: Nomiinae). Of particular interest was a site record for M. ciliata of a Celonites, presumably jousseaumei.

The associations with Celonites jousseaumei are of further interest when considered together with a close association of this pollen wasp with Heliotropium in Morocco (Volker Mauss, pers. com.) and close associations between Heliotropium and other masarines, Trimeria buyssoni Brethes in South America (Neff and Simpson 1985) and Jugurtia namibicola Gess and Celonites heliotropii Gess with Heliotropium tubulosum Gess in Namibia (Gess, F.W. 2004, Gess, F.W. 2007, Gess, S.K. and Gess, F.W. 2010, Gess, S.K. and Gess, F.W. 2014).

In the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa six genera of Boraginaceae (sensu lato) were sampled. Grouped together they were recorded as visited by 12 species of wasps representing four families, including pollen wasps, and 52 species of bees representing five families. In addition to the two apparently monophagous species of pollen wasps closely associated with Heliotropium tubulosum E. Mey. Ex A.DC., two further species of pollen wasps, Jugurtia codoni Gess and Quartinia codoni Gess (Gess 2007) were found to be closely associated with Codon royeni L.

Brassicaceae

Brassicaceae is well represented in the UAE, 23 species having been recorded in Jongbloed (2003). Of these most are found to the east of the DDCR. Khafaga (2009) lists three annuals, Brassica muricata, Eremobium aegyptiacum, Sisymbrium erysimoides, and one perennial, Farsetia linearis, within the DDCR.

Farsetia linearis was encountered only in the enclosure at the Lucerne Farm where only one flower visitor, a female Ceratina parvula (Xylocopinae) was recorded.

Capparaceae

Jongbloed (2003) gives an account of 11 species of Capparacae occurring in the UAE. Most species occur to the east or west of the central desert. Only two species are expected in the central desert, the most widespread, Dipterygium glaucum, is the only species recorded from the DDCR by Khafaga (2009) and the only species found in flower and sampled in the present study. The other species likely to bee found within the DDCR is Cleome amblyocarpa Barr. & Murb.

During the present study the flowering of Dipterygium glaucum (Figure 35) was nearing its end and very few flower visitors were observed. At Quarn Nazwa one chrysidid and one Thyreus elegans (Apidae: Apinae: Melectini) were recorded, from Tawi Ruwayan one Amegilla byssina (Apidae: Apinae) and one megachilid, and from the enclosed dune area at the Lucerne Farm one Bembix saadensis (Crabronidae: Bembicinae). This is unlikely to be truly representative. Petals were being eaten by two species of meloid beetles.

Figure 35.

Capparaceae: Dipterygium glaucum.

Caryophyllaceae

Twenty-one species of Caryophyllaceae are given in Jongbloed (2003), most to the east or west of the central desert and are therefore not expected in the DDCR. Khafaga (2009) recorded Polycarpaea repens, Sclerocephalus arabicus and Silene villosa. In the present study none was common, however, scattered plants of P. repens and S. villosa were present in flower in the enclosed area of the Lucerne Farm. Only one visitor to P. repens, Palarus parvulus (Crabronidae: Crabroninae: Palarini), was recorded.

Fabaceae: Mimosoideae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for three species of Acacia and three species of Prosopis, one exotic, occurring in the UAE. Of these Khafaga (2009) recorded Acacia tortilis and Prosopis cineraria from the DDCR. Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile has been introduced in various areas where trees have been planted.

Surprisingly, within the DDCR Acacia tortilis (Figures 36 and 37) was receiving very few visits, only Thyreus hyalinatus (Apidae: Apinae: Melectini) having been recorded. However, at a site to the east of the reserve, in a single sampling, Scoliidae (1 sp.), Crabronidae (Crabroninae 3 spp., Bembicinae 2 spp.), Halictidae (Nomioidinae 1 sp.), Megachilidae (Megachilinae: Megachilini 1 sp.), and Apidae (Apinae: Anthophorini 1 sp., Xylocopinae: Ceratinini 1 sp) were recorded.

Figures 36–40.

Fabaceae, Mimosoideae: 36, 37 Acacia tortilis 38–40 Prosopis cineraria.

Prosopis cineraria (Figures 38–40) in some parts of the reserve was receiving very few visits whereas in others it was well visited, receiving visits from wasps Sphecidae: Sphecinae, Crabronidae (Crabroninae 4 spp., Bembicinae 1 sp.) and Philanthinae (3 spp.) and bees Halictidae (Nomioidinae 3 spp.), Megachilidae (Megachilinae (2 spp.), and Apinae (Apis (Micrapis) florea which had a hive in one of the trees at Tawi Ruwayan). Occasionally the flowers were visited by braconid wasps.

It seems probable that in a good season there would be a much greater diversity of flower visitors. In the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa activity varies considerably from year to year, however, in the survey by the Gesses over many years, the total number of wasp species visiting Mimosoideae was 114 species representing eight families (30.04% of the total number of species of wasps recorded from flowers) with, however, only 28 species of bees, all polyphagous, of four families (6.2% of the total number of species of bees recorded from flowers) (Gess and Gess 2006).

Fabaceae: Papilionoideae

Papilionoideae are well represented in the UAE by 44 species (Jongbloed 2003). Most species occur to the east and west of the central desert. As could be expected from known distributions Khafaga (2009) recorded three species, Crotalaria aegyptiaca, Indigofera colutea and I. intricata from the DDCR.

During the present study Crotalaria aegyptiaca and Indigofera intricata were found in flower and were observed for flower visitors, the former in the dune enclosure where there were a good number of plants and the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure where only one plant each of this species and of I. intricata were found.

Within the Dune Enclosure Crotalaria aegyptiaca (Figures 41–43) was well visited by two species of bees, an un-described species of Icteranthidium (Megachilidae: Anthidiini), not recorded from any other plant and therefore possibly specializing in visiting the flowers of the Papilionoideae, and by polyphagus Amegilla byssina (Apidae: Apinae). Both in size and behavior are potential pollinators, however, Icteranthidium is likely to be the most reliable pollinator. The only other visitor to the flowers was a small polyphagous wasp, an undescribed species of Laphrogogus (Crabronidae: Eremiaspheciinae), which can be discounted as a potential pollinator.

Figures 41–43.

Fabaceae: Papilionoideae: Crotalaria aegyptiaca.

The presence of Anthidiini in the samples from Papilionoideae but not from Mimosoideae is expected, if comparison is made with Papilionoideae and Mimosoideae in southern Africa (Gess and Gess 2006).

The only visitor recorded as visiting Crotalaria aegyptiaca in the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure was a polyphagous bee, Megachile patellimana (Megachilini), also recorded from Apocynaceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae, and Zygophyllaceae in the dune enclosure at the Lucerne Farm. It is of interest that M. patellimana, in Namibia was recorded from flowers of Crotalaria podocarpa DC (Papilionoideae) (Gess and Gess 2003).

Molluginaceae

Only one species of Molluginaceae, Limeum arabicum, was listed for the DDCR by Khafaga (2009). However, Jongbloed (2003) gives in addition two other species, Limeum obovatum and Gisekia pharnaceoides L., occurring in the central desert. Gisekia pharnaceoides is known to occur in the DDCR after rain (Greg Simkins pers. com.) and Limeum obovatum may well be found in the DDCR.

During the present survey Limeum arabicum (Figures 44 and 45), growing on sand dunes, was sampled for flower visitors in the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure, at Tawi Manana and at Quarn Nazwa. At all three sites the flowers were being visited by polyphagous crabronid wasps, represented in the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure by two species of Palarus (Crabroninae) and two species of Bembix (Bembicinae), at Quarn Nazwa by a third species of Palarus and at Tawi Manana by the undescribed species of Laphrogogus. At the Lucerne Farm, only, bees were amongst the visitors. They were of two families Halictidae, represented by Pseudapis nilotica (Nomiinae), and Apidae, represented by Ceratina parvula (Xylocopinae). Three species of meloid beetles were present on the flowers, eating them.

Figures 44–45.

Molluginaceae: Limeum arabicum.

In the arid areas of southern Africa although all Crabronidae visiting Limeum are polyphagous, flowers of Limeum species are considered to be an important nectar source for these wasps and that in all probability they provide a pollination service (Gess and Gess 2006).

Neuradaceae

Neuradaceae is a small family restricted to semi-arid to arid regions. One genus Neurada is represented in North Africa across the Middle East and Arabia to India. In southern Africa it is represented by two genera Grielum and Neuradopsis.

In the UAE (Jongbloed 2003) Neuradaceae appears to be represented by only one species, Neurada procumbens (Figure 46), common and widespread except in the mountains. It is recorded from the DDCR (Khafaga 2009). During the present study N. procumbens was found in very small numbers only in the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure where the only recorded visitor to its small white flowers was a small halictid bee (Tables 3 and 4).

Figure 46.

Neuradaceae: Neurada procumbens.

The southern African species have larger yellow flowers that attract bees from five families, including Halictidae. Also amongst their visitors is a pollen wasp, a species of Quartinia, and a chrysidid.

Polygonaceae

For Polygonaceae Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for eight species in four genera. Of these only the woody shrub Calligonum comosum (Figures 47 and 48), common on sand dunes and plains in the UAE, was recorded from the DDCR (Khafaga 2009). At the time of this survey no plants were found in flower.

Figures 47–50.

Polygonaceae: 47, 48 Calligonum comosum 49, 50 Rumex dentatus.

To the east of the Reserve Rumex dentatus, recorded by Jongbloed from scattered locations along the Gulf Coast, was found in flower fringing the area from which the water had retreated at Shawka dam in the Haja Mountains. At this site R. dentatus (Figures 49 and 50) was attracting visits from aculeate wasps of the families, Vespidae (Eumeninae and Polistinae), Pompilidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae and bees of the family Halictidae (Tables 3 and 4).

Solanaceae

For Solanaceae Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for eight species, in seven genera. Of these all but one, a woody shrub, Lycium shawii (Figures 51 and 52), are absent from the central desert and it is only this species that is listed for the DDCR (Khafaga 2009). In the present study L. shawii was observed for flower visitors at several scattered localities, including Quarn Nazwa, where it was growing on the sides of dunes. From sampling Lycium flowers in the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa it was expected that the flowers would be visited by diverse wasps and bees (Gess and Gess 2006), however, no visitors were observed.

Figures 51–53.

Solanaceae: 51–52 Lycium shawii 53 Solanum nigrum.

An exotic weed, Solanum nigrum (Figure 53), which offers nectar produced from extra-floral nectaries on petioles, leaves and stems (Anderson and Simon 1985), was growing near a dripping tap on he outskirts of the village of Munay in the east. It was sampled, yielding one species each of the families Pompilidae, Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Crabronidae and Halictidae.

Zygophyllaceae

Jongbloed (2003) gives accounts for 11 species of Zygophyllaceae, three species of Fagonia, five species of Tribulus, and three species of Zygophyllum. Of these Khafaga (2009) lists Fagonia indica, Fagonia sp., Tribulus macropterus, T. omanense, and T. pentandrus.

Fagonia indica (Figure 54) was in flower during the present survey but no visitors to its flowers were observed.

Figures 54–59.

Zygophyllaceae: 54 Fagonia indica 55, 56 Tribulus macropterus 57, 58 Zygophyllum qatarense 59 Zygophyllum simplex.

Well grown plants of Tribulus macropterus (Figures 55 and 56) in full flower were abundant within the Lucerne Farm dune enclosure where they were being well visited. Sampling was undertaken on three days, yielding most commonly five species of crabronid wasps, Palarus laetus (Crabroninae: Palarini) and four species of Bembix (Bembicinae: Bembicini), and by a megachilid bee, Megachile patellimana. Less commonly two other bees were represented, Ceratina parvula (Apidae: Xylocopinae: Ceratinini) and Nomioides klausi (Halictidae: Nomioidinae). Several species of meloid beetles were commonly present, eating the petals of the flowers. Outside the enclosure scattered remnants of grazed plants were occasionally found.

Along the side of the Margham Road outside the DDCR large plants of Tribulus macropterus were in flower. Some of these were checked, briefly, for visitors. The only visitor recorded was a single female of Bembix rochei, one of the four species of Bembix recorded at the Lucerne Farm.

Although it would appear from distributions given in Jongbloed (2003) that some species of Zygophyllum might be found in the DDCR none was recorded by Khafaga (2009) and none was found in the DDCR during the present survey.

Zygophyllum species are amongst the dominant plants across the sandy plains to the west coast. Zygophyllum qatarense (Figure 33), a perennial dwarf shrub, and Z. simplex (Figure 34), a succulent annual, were sampled to the west of the reserve during the one-day transect to the west coast.

Zygophyllum qatarense (Figures 57 and 58) and Z. simplex (Figure 59), like Tribulus macropterus, were principally visited by Crabronidae, however, the assemblages did not share species in common. Recorded were two species of Cerceris (Philanthinae) and Gastrosericus waltlii (Larrini) also recorded visiting flowers of Z. simplex in Namibia, southern Africa (Gess and Gess 2003). In addition Telostegus argyrellus, the only pompilid recorded from Zygophyllaceae was visiting Z. qatarense at the coast.

In southern Africa, Zygophyllum is more species diverse and more diverse in habit than in Arabia and the suites of visitors are, not surprisingly, more diverse. However, comparable species are Z. simplex, which is widespread from northern Richtersveld northwards through Namibia, and several northern coastal and desert perennial dwarf shrubs. Z. simplex is an important resource for wasps and bees in that area. Amongst the visitors Gess and Gess (2006) recorded 21 species of hunting wasps representing six families, five species of pollen wasps and 15 species of bees. The perennial dwarf shrubs are equally attractive to hunting wasps, pollen wasps and bees although they never attract as great a diversity and as great a number of individuals as does Z. simplex.

Aculeate wasps and bees visiting flowers

Table 4 lists the names of the aculeate wasps and bees recorded from flowers with the plant names together with the numbers and sex of the visitors and the collection sites.

Chrysidoidea

Chrysididae

Very few Chrysididae were observed during the survey. Single specimens, not identified beyond family, were collected from flowers of Asclepiadoideae, Calotropis procera, Boraginaceae, Heliotropium kotschyi, and Capparaceae, Dipterygium glaucum, at three widely separated sites within the DDCR.

Vespoidea

Vespidae

Masarinae

At the time of the survey Masarinae were uncommon, two species, Celonites jousseaumei and Quartinia nubiana, were collected within the DDCR and one, Celonites yemenensis, to the east of the reserve.

The flower associations were for two species of Boraginaceae. Quartinia nubiana, represented by two females, was visiting flowers of Heliotropium kotschyi at Tawi Ruwayyan. One specimen of C. jousseaumei was caught flying over flowering Heliotropium kotschyi at the same site and another was observed flying away from an isolated plant of Moltkiopsis ciliata at the Lucerne Farm, suggesting an association with Heliotropium and its allies, supported by an association of this species with Heliotropium in Morocco (Volker Mauss pers. com.).

Two specimens of Celonites yemenensis in flight, not associated with flowers, were collected, one in a wadi in the Hajar Mountains and the other on the bank of the lagoon at Khor Kalba where it was flying between Zygophyllum qatarense and Heliotropium kotschyi.

Of interest is the photographic record of M. Hauser of Jugurtia jemenensis Kostylev visiting flowers of Asteraceae (plate 74 in Gusenleitner 2010). No locality is given, however, the collection records given for this species are all wadis in the Hajar Mountains.

Eumeninae

Remarkably few Eumeninae were encountered during the present survey. Within the DDCR the only eumenine observed visiting flowers was Rhynchium oculatum, which was recorded from flowers of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadoideae). The only other species taken from flowers was Delta esuriens esuriens visiting Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae), growing around Shawka Dam east of the reserve.

Polistinae

One species of Polistinae, Polistes watti, was encountered at two sites within the DDCR, Quarn Nazwa watering point at the northern end of the reserve and the palm grove at the Camel Farm, and one site, Shawka Dam, east of the reserve. Water was being imbibed at all sites, and nests were present in the palm grove. Flower visiting was observed at only two plants, Aerva javanica (Amaranthaceae) at Quarn Nazwa and Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae) at Shawka Dam.

Vespinae

Vespa orientalis was not observed in the DDCR but was present to the east at Shawka Dam where it was associated with plants of Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae).

Pompilidae

Remarkably few pompilids were encountered during the present survey: three species of Pompilinae, Anoplius suspectus, visiting Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae) to the east of the reserve at Shawka Dam; Telostegus argyrellus, visiting Calotropis procera (Asclepiadoideae) at one site in the reserve, and Zygophyllum qatarense to the west of the reserve; and one species of Ceropalinae, Ceropales kriechbaumeri on Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae) within the reserve and on the solanaceous weed, Solanum nigrum, to the east.

Tiphiidae

In the present survey only two species of tiphiids were observed visiting flowers: Calotropis procera (Asclepiadoideae) within the DDCR, and Zygophyllum simplex to the west of the reserve.

Mutillidae

No mutillidae were observed visiting flowers. Those seen were males coming to the light in the evening.

Scoliidae

Scoliids were observed principally visiting the flowers of Calotropis procera (Asclepiadoideae) from which, due to the size of the plant, they were difficult to catch, however, voucher specimens of two Campsomerinae, Campsomeriella procera (two females, one on each of two days) and Micromeriella hyalina (one female), and one Scoliinae, Scolia flaviceps (four females, two on each of two days) were taken from three sites within the DDCR, two of which offered a good diversity of flowers. Clearly, though not restricted to C. procera, scoliids appear to be strongly attracted to this plant. They are, however, only one of six families of wasps and one family of bees visiting this plant.

Males of the third species, Micromeriella hyalina, were caught on Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae) at a fourth site in the reserve, and at two sites east of the reserve, at one on Acacia tortilis (Mimosoideae) and at the other on a weed, Solanum nigrum (Solanacae) on the outskirts of a village.

Apoidea - Spheciformes

Sphecidae

Sphecidae were remarkably uncommon. Only one species was encountered within the reserve, namely Prionyx nigropectinatus (Sphecinae), which was visiting the flowers of Prosopis cineraria (Mimosoideae) at the Faqah watering point at the southern end of the reserve.

Two other species were found east of the reserve: Ammophila rubripes (Ammophilinae) visiting the solanaceous weed, Solanum nigrum; and Sceliphron madraspatanum pictum (Sceliphrinae) visiting Rumex dentatus (Polygonaceae).

Crabronidae

Crabronidae was the only family of wasps well represented during the present survey, with 27 species from within the DDCR, five additional species to the east and another one to the west – in all 33 species representing 14 genera, nine tribes and five sub-families with almost a third of the species belonging to the genus Bembix.

In all Crabronidae were recorded from 10 plant families, 59% of the families from which flower visitors were recorded. The percentages of these species visiting these 10 families was 57% Fabaceae (Mimosoideae), 43% Zygophyllaceae, 38% Apocynaceae (Asclepiadoideae), 38% Boraginaceae, 29% Molluginaceae, 24% Asteraceae, and 10% and fewer Amaranthaceae, Capparaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Fabaceae (Papilionoideae), Solanaceae and Polygonaceae.

Of interest, a specimen of Bembix kohli, collected from Calotropis procera, was carrying pollinia, making it a potential pollinator of this plant.

ApoideaApiformes

The total number of species of bees (23 spp.), 20 from within the DDCR and an additional three from the east, was surprisingly low, compared with the number of Crabronidae.

Halictidae

Of the large family Halictidae only six species representing four genera were recorded from flowers: within the DDCRNomia (Pseudapis) (1 sp.) (Nomiinae), and Ceylalictus (3 spp.) and Nomioides (1 sp.) (Nomioidinae); and to the east the same species of Nomia (Pseudapis) plus Nomia (Crocisaspidia) (1 sp.). Strangely no Halictinae were recorded.

In total, flowers of five families of plants within the reserve and two further to the east, were recorded as visited, the number of families visited by single species ranging from one to three. The plant families visited by more than one species were Boraginaceae, four species, and Fabaceae (Mimosoideae) three species, all within the reserve.

In the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa Halictidae are species diverse and include some of the commonest bees (Eardley et al. 2010, Eardley and Urban 2010, Gess and Gess 2014). Gess and Gess (2004 and 2014) recorded a high incidence of polyphagy throughout the family with possible preferences being discernable in the Halictinae.

Colletidae

One species only of Colletidae was collected but it was not associated with a flower.

Megachilidiae

Megachilidae collected in the DDCR were represented by seven species of Megachilinae: five Megachilini, Megachile concinna, M. minutissima, M. patellimana, M. maxillosa and Coelioxys indica; one Osmiini, Haetosmia circumventa; and two Anthidiini, Icteranthidium n. sp. and Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum.

Megachile concinna, M. minutissima and M. patellimana, were all collected from flowers of Fabaceae (Mimosoideae); M. concinna and M. patellimana in addition from Apocynaceae (Asclepiadoidea), Leptadenia pyrotechnica; and M. patellimana, the most common species, in addition from Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaeae, Fabaceae (Papilionoideae) and Zygophyllaceae but most commonly from Heliotropium kotschyi at three sites and Tribulus macropterus at one of the same sites, none the less demonstrating broad polyphagy.

A female Megachile patellimana, captured carrying leaf pieces, was nesting in the sand beneath H. eliotropium kotschyi where Coelioxys indica was seen to be inspecting burrow openings. Coelioxys indica was visiting H. eliotropium kotschyi together with M. patellimana. As Coelioxys are known to be cleptoparasites of megachilids it is suggested that M. patellimana is a host of Coelioxys indica.

Megachile patellimana is represented in Namibia, where it has been collected from flowers of Crotalaria podocarpa DC (Papilionoideae) (Gess and Gess 2003).

No visits to flowers were observed for Megachile maxillosa, although it was nesting in trap nests, one bundle tied to a branch of Calotropis procera outside the drip irrigation area at Tawi Ruwyyan and the other on the trunk of a palm tree in the grove at the Camel Farm. This species was commonly collected visiting flowers in the semi-arid to arid areas of South Africa and Namibia (Gess and Gess 2003) where it was shown to be polyphagous, having been collected from flowers of Acanthaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae (Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae and Papilionoideae), Pedaliaceae and Polygalaceae, however, in Namibia it was most commonly visiting Papilionoideae, most notably species of Crotalaria.

Haetosmia circumventa was collected from three sites during five collecting events. All specimens were visiting flowers of Heliotropium kotschyi (Boraginaceae), suggesting a preference for Boraginaceae, supported by Gotlieb et al. (2014) in which it is recorded that H. circumventa is oligolectic, specialising in collecting pollen from the flowers of Heliotropium, for which purpose the mouthparts are modified to extract pollen from narrow floral tubes.

Icteranthidium n. sp was observed during two collecting events at Crotalaria aegyptiaca to be the most common visitor to flowers of this plant. Furthermore, it was not visiting other flowers at the same or any other site, suggesting that it may specialize in visiting Papilionoideae, which taken together with its behavior and fit would suggest that it is a likely pollinator of C. aegyptiaca.

Pseudoanthidium ochrognathum was most commonly observed visiting flowers of Boraginaceae, Heliotropium kotschyi and Moltkiopsis ciliata, suggesting a preference for Boraginaceae, however, one specimen was taken from Aerva javanica growing in close proximity to M. ciliata.

It would appear that in the DDCR, as in the semi-arid to arid areas of southern Africa (Gess and Gess 2004 and 2014) Megachilini are polyphagous but for some species of Osmiini and Anthidiini strong preferences are suggested.

Apidae

During the course of the present survey, remarkably few species of Apidae were observed visiting flowers: six species of Apinae, two Apini and four Anthophorini; and four species of Xylocopinae, two Xylocopini and two Ceratinini.

The two species of Apis, A. (Micrapis) florea and A. mellifera, are well known to be broadly polyphagous.

The two species of Anthophorini, Amegilla bysina and Anthophora tenella, and one of the two species of Melectini, Thyreus hyalinatus, were represented amongst the visitors to Heliotropium kotschyi. However, A. bysina, typically for Amegilla, is broadly polyphagous. In the DDCR it was represented in samples from, Asclepiadoideae, Asteraceae and Papilionoideae, in addition to Boraginaceae.

Anthophora tenella was taken not only from flowers of Boraginaceae but also of Mimosoideae. Thyreus elegans was uncommon, only one specimen, a single female, having been found visiting flowers of Dipterygium glaucum (Capparaceae). As Thyreus are nest parasites of anthophorines it was surprising that they were so uncommon.

The two large carpenter bees, Xylocopa fenestrata and X. aestuans were both commonly seen visiting Calotropis procera (Asclepiadoideae) at various sites. At Quarn Nazwa, where C. procera was not present, X. fenestrata was collected from flowers of Centaurea pseudosinaica (Asteraceae).

The two small carpenter bees, Ceratina parvula and C. tarsata were not represented in samples from Calotropis procera. In the dune enclosure at the Lucerne farm, where C. procera is well represented, C. parvula was visiting flowers of Heliotropium kotschyi, Limeum arabicum and Tribulus macropterus. Ceratina tarsata, represented by a single female, was taken in a sample of visitors to flowers of Acacia tortilis at a site east of the DDCR.

Conclusions

Although this first survey of flower visiting by wasps and bees in the UAE, with the DDCR as the focus of the study, was conducted over a limited period of time, during a dry spring, following seven dry years, it has provided sufficient data to draw some general conclusions.

  • Most of the plants sampled attract visits from a complex of both wasps and bees.

  • The flowers of some of these plants attract a wide range of wasps and bees but there were no flowers that were attractive to all available wasps and bees at any one site.

  • Very few species of the wasps and bees encountered were specialists.

  • The plants on which these specialist wasps and bees were dependent were not themselves dependent on these wasps and bees for pollination, however, some of the specialist wasps and bees are likely to be their most dependable pollinators.

Acknowledgements

Grateful thanks are expressed by Sarah Gess to the following people and organizations:

Greg Simkins, Manager of the DDCR, for his invitation to work in the DDCR, for having made available, Peter Roosenschoon, Conservation Officer, DDCR, as her co-worker, for the map showing her collection sites (Figure 1), for having provided transport, accommodation, meals and laundry during her stay; Rhodes University for her airfare and travel insurance; Tamer Khafaga, Conservation Officer, DDCR, for assistance with plant determinations; Christian Schmid-Egger, Berlin, Germany, for the determinations of most of the wasps; Denis Michez, University of Mons, Belgium, for coordinating the determinations of most of the bees – Denis Michez and Alain Pauly, Royal Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels (Halictidae), Christophe Pratz, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland (Megachilidae, Megachilinae, Megachilini and Osmiini), Jessica Litman, Muséum d'histoire naturelle de Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Megachilidae, Megachilinae, Anthidiini), Pierre Razmont, University of Mons, Belgium (Apidae, Apinae, Anthophorini), Max Schwarz, Ansfelden, Austria, (Apidae, Apinae, Anthophorini and Coelioxys indica Friese), and Michael Terzo, University of Mons, Belgium (Apidae, Xylocopinae); Greg Simkins and Denis Michez for reading and commenting on the manuscript before submission; Jack Neff, Subject Editor, Journal of Hymenoptera Research, for his very careful reading of the manuscript and his detailed corrections; the three reviewers for their helpful comments.

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Appendix 1

List of plants from the flowers of which aculeate wasps and bees were collected, with global distributions.

ACANTHACEAE: Aerva javanica (Burm. f.) Juss. ex Schult. – Northern Africa to southwestern Asia. Introduced and naturalised in northern Arabia (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

AIZOACEAE

Sesuvium verrucosum Raf. – native to the Americas, where it can be found in the southwestern quadrant of the United States (California, Oregon, Baja California, east to Utah, Kansas, Texas) and northern Mexico, it also occurs in southern Brazil. It is naturalized in the Arabian Peninsula (http://www.llifle.com/Encyclopedia/SUCCULENTS/Family/Aizoaceae/28896/Sesuvium_verrucosum) Sampled in DDCR

APOCYNACEAE (Asclepiadoideae)

Calotropis procera (Aiton) W.T. Aiton – native to West Africa as far south as Angola, North and East Africa, Madagascar, the Arabian Peninsular, Southern Asia and Indo-China to Malaysia. Introduced and naturalized in Australia, many Pacific Islands, Mexicao, Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

Leptadenia pyrotechnica (Forssk.) Decne – Senegal, Mauritania to north of Nigeria, the semi-desert areas across Africa (Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Chad, Libya, Algeria) to Western India (Pakistan and India) – (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

ASTERACEAE

Centaurea pseudosinaica Cerep. – Western Asia, Iraq, Iran, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/details/species/id/6a39f8876432e32027c6dcb108b5781f/source/tree) Sampled in DDCR

Launaea procumbens (Roxb.) Ramayya and Rajagopal – Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Asia (Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Burma, China). Arabian Peninsula including the UAE (eol.org) Sampled in the DDCR

Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. – Western North Africa, Iraq, Iran, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

BORAGINACEAE

Arnebia hispidissima (Lehm.) DC; Heliotropium digynum (Forssk.) Asch. ex Chr. – Northern Africa (Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Egypt) to the Arabian Penisula, northern India and Pakistan (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) DDCR

Heliotropium kotschyi (Bge.) Gurke – Arabian Peninsula. Sampled in DDCR and also west of the DDCR

Moltkiopsis ciliata (Forssk.) I.M. Johnst. – Widely distributed in Mediterranean Region and Arabia including UAE (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

BRASSICACEAE

Farsetia linearis Decne. Ex Boiss. Arabian Peninsula, Yemen, Oman, UAE. Sampled in DDCR

CAPPARACEAE:

Dipterygium glaucum Decne. – Northern Sudan and Egypt east of the Nile through the Arabian Peninsula to the desert areas of North West India (Rajasthan, Gujarat and Pakistan) (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Polycarpaea repens (Forssk.) Asch. & Schweinf. – Mauritania, Niger, Chad, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Sahara, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Israel, Sinai, Arabian Peninsula (www.gbif.org) Sampled in DDCR

FABACEAE: Mimosoideae

Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne – Widespread in Africa from South Africa northwards to Algeria and Egypt, extending to Asia and southern Arabia. Cultivated in India and Pakistan (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR and also east of the DDCR

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce – India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, Arabian Peninsula (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR

FABACEAE: Papilionoideae

Crotalaria aegyptiaca Benth. – Egypt, Somalia, Iran, Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, UAE), Jordan, Palestine, Israel (http://www.ddcr.org/florafauna) Sampled in DDCR.

MOLLUGINACEAE

Limeum arabicum Friedr. – Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, UAE (http://www.catalogueoflife.org) Sampled in DDCR

NEURADACEAE

Neurada procumbens L. – North Africa, East Mediterranean Region, Sinai, Sahara, Sudan, Ethiopia, Arabia to Indian Desert. (http://eol.org/pages/6872917/overview) Sampled in DDCR

POLYGONACEAE

Rumex dentatus L. – Europe, Mediterranean region, Arabia, Asia (http://eol.org/pages/587351/details#overview) Sampled to the west of the DDCR

SOLANACEAE

Solanum nigrum L. – native to Europe and western Asia, introduced in North America, Africa, Asia and Australia (http://www.globinmed.com/) and Arabia. Sampled to the west of the DDCR

ZYGOPHYLLACEAE

Tribulus macropterus Boiss. – Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Palestine, Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, Sudan (http://eol.org/pages/5633281/details) Sampled in DDCR

Zygophyllum qatarense Hadidi – Arabian Penisula. Sampled to the west of the DDCR

Zygophyllum simplex L. – Africa, Madagascar, Arabia, Palestine, India (http://eol.org/pages/5633281/details) Sampled to the west of the DDCR

Appendix 2

List of aculeate wasps and bees collected in the DDCR and from the transect to the east and west coasts, with global distributions.

Chrysidoidea

Chrysididae

Undetermined, DDCR

Vespoidea

Vespidae

Masarinae

Celonites jousseaumei du Buysson, 1906, Algeria to Israel, southwards to Sudan and the Arabian Peninsula, including the UAE (Schmid-Egger 2015) DDCR

Celonites yemenensis Giordani Soika, 1957, Arabian Peninsula including UAE, Ethiopia (Schmid-Egger 2015) in present survey found to the east of the DDCR

Quartinia nubiana Richards, 1962, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and UAE (Schmid-Egger 2015) DDCR

Eumeninae

Delta esuriens esuriens (Fabricius, 1787), India through to Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Gusesenleitner 2010) in present survey found to the east of the DDCR

Rhynchium oculatum (Fabricius, 1781), Mediterranean Region to India, Arabian Peninsula including UAE (Gusesenleitner 2010) DDCR

Polistinae

Polistes watti Cameron, 1900, Arabian Peninsula including UAE to China (Gusesenleitner 2010) DDCR

Vespinae

Vespa orientalis Linnaeus, 1771, Southern Italy and Libya to India and Nepal, UAE (Gusesenleitner 2010) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Pompilidae

Pompilinae

Anoplius suspectus (Saussure, 1904), North Africa, Algeria, Egypt; Arabia, Yemen; Asia, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Laos, Thailand, Sumba (Wahis 2006) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Gonaporus israelicus Wolf, 1990, Israel, UAE, DDCR

Telostegus argyrellus (Klug, 1834), North Africa, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Libya, Egypt; West Africa, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal; Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Iran; Asia, Pakistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan; Europe, Portugal, Spain (insectoid.info/checklist/pompilini/ and Gahari et al. 2014) UAE, DDCR

Ceropalinae

Ceropales kriechbaumeri Magretti, 1884, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Uganda (http://www.waspweb.org/Vespoidea/Pompilidae/Ceropalinae/Ceropales/index.htm), UAE, DDCR

Tiphiidae: Thynninae

In present survey one specimen of one species west of the DDCR

Mutillidae

To light in DDCR

Scoliidae

Campsomerinae

Campsomeriella thoracica (Fabricius, 1787), Sahel area of the Afrotropical Region, the Mediterranean area, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Schulten 2007) DDCR

Micromeriella hyalina (Klug, 1832), Sahel area of the Afrotropical Region, the Mediterranean area, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Schulten 2007) DDCR

Scoliinae

Scolia flaviceps Eversmann, 1846, Crete, Iraq, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Central Asia, Cyprus, Transcaucasia, Greece, southern France, Italy, Balkans to the eastern Mediterranean Region, including Egypt to the Caspian Sea, Turkey, Turkmenistan (Samin, Bağriaçik and Gadallah 2014) DDCR

Apoidea - Spheciformes

Sphecidae

Sphecinae

Prionyx nigropectinatus Taschenberg, 1869, Libya, Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Mauritania, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Oman, Yemen, Iran (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Sceliphrinae

Sceliphron madraspatanum pictum F. Smith, 1856, Mediterranean Region, Iraq, Arabian Peninsula including UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011) in the present survey found east of the DDCR (Sceliphron madraspatanum (Fabricius, 1781), India, Maldives, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Philippines, Japan, China, Kazakhstan, western Russia (Pulawski 2016)

Ammophilinae

Ammophila rubripes Spinola, 1838, widespread throughout Africa from north to south and west to east, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, UAE, Israel, Syria (Pulawski 2016) in the present survey found east of the DDCR

Crabronidae

Astatinae

Astata prosii Schmid-Egger, 2014, UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Crabroninae: Larrini

Gastrosericus moricei E. Saunders, 1910, North Africa (Algeria, Libya and Egypt), Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Oman and UAE), Israel, Sinai Peninsula, Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Gastrosericus waltlii Spinola, 1839, South western Africa (Namibia), North Africa (Western Sahara, Algeria, Morocco, Libya, Egypt), south east Western Russia, southern France, Cyprus, Turkey, Israel, Iran, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Oman, UAE), Sri Lanka, Central Asia, Tajikistan, Kazakh, Uzbekistan, China (Pulawski 2016) in present survey found west of the DDCR

Prosopigastra globiceps Morice, 1989, Mali, Sudan, Egypt, Israel to Central Asia and northwest China, and Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011) DDCR

Tachysphex erythropus (Spinola, 1839), Morocco, Libya, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Sri Lanka (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Tachysphex micans (Radoszkowski, 1877), Morocco, Libya, Egypt, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Tachysphex quadrifurci Pulawski, 1971 = brevipennis Mercet, 1909, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Ukraine, Crimea, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Iran, UAE, India, Zimbabwe, South Africa (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Tachytes comberi Turner, 1917, Libya, Mauritania, Pakistan, Arabian Peninsula, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Crabroninae: Oxybelini

Oxybelus lamellatus Olivier, 1811, From Southwest Europe and North Africa to Northwest India, southwards to Mali, Nigeria and Niger, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011), West Africa (Mauritania), North Africa (Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia), Mediterranean Europe (Spain, Italy, Greece, Cyprus), Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, UAE), Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, China (Pulawski 2016), DDCR

Crabroninae: Palarini

Palarus bisignatus F. Morawitz, 1890, Central Asia, Saudi Arabia, UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011 and Pulawsi 2016) DDCR

Palarus dongalensis Klug, 1845, North Africa (Egypt and Sudan), Iran, Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011 and Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Palarus laetus Klug, 1845, North Africa (Tunisia, Morocco, Egypt, Djibouti), Iraq, Iran, Arabia (Kuwait, Oman, UAE), India (Schmid-Egger 2011 and Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Palarus parvulus de Beaumont, 1949, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt) Israel, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Crabroninae: Miscophini

Plenoculus vanharteni Schmid-Egger, 2011, Northeast Coast of UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011 and Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembicinae: Alyssontini

Didineis bucharica Gussakovskij, 1937, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011 and Pulawski 2016) in the present survey found east of the DDCR

Bembicinae: Bembicini

Bembix arenaria Handlirsch, 1893, Tunisia, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Iran, Palestine, UAE (Pulawski 2016) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Bembix chopardi Berland, 1950, North west Africa (Niger), North Africa (Egypt), Arabia (Saudi Arabia, UAE (Pulawski 2016) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Bembix freygessneri Morice, 1897, North-west Africa (Mauritania, Chad), North Africa (Algeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan), Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, UAE) (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembix gazella Guichard, 1989, Oman (Muscat) and UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembix hameri Guichard, 1989, UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembix hauseri Schmid-Egger, 2011, Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembix kohli Morice, 1897, Egypt, Iran/Baluchistan and UAE (Schmid-Egger 2011) DDCR

Bembix oculata Panzer, 1801, Europe (Germany, Austria, Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria), Ukraine, Russia, North Africa (Western Sahara, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, Sudan), Cyprus, Albania, Turkey, Syria, Israel, Iran, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, UAE), Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, China (Mongolia), (Pulawski 2016) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Bembix rochei Guichard, 1989, North-west Africa (Mali), North Africa (Algeria, Tunisia), Arabia (UAE), India (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Bembix saadensis Guichard, 1989, Arabia (UAE) (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Stizoides assimilis Fabricius, 1787, North Africa (Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Sudan), Palestine, Israel, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, UAE), India, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikstan, (Pulawski 2016) east of the DDCR

Eremiaspheciinae: Eremiaspheciini

Laphyragogus sp. (a new species to be described by Christian Schmid-Egger) DDCR

Philanthinae: Philanthini

Philanthus coarctatus Spinola, 1839, North west Africa (Mauritania, Chad), North Africa (Western Sahara, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia), Italy, Turkey, Jordan, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Asia (Kazakhstan), Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE) (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Philanthus pallidus Klug, 1845, North-west Africa (Mauritania), North Africa (Morocco, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE), Iran (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Philanthus triangulum Fabricius, 1775, Widespread in Europe from north to south, Africa from north to south, Middle East, Arabia including UAE, Western and central Asia (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Philanthinae: Cercerini

Cerceris albicincta Klug, 1845, North-west Africa (Chad), North Africa (Western Sahara, Algeria, Morocco, Egypt, Sudan) Palestine, Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia and UAE (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Cerceris chromatica Schletterer, 1887, North Africa (Algeria, Egypt) Israel, Arabia (Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE) (Pulawski 2016) DDCR

Cerceris sp. DDCR

ApoideaApiformes

Halictidae

Halictinae

Halictus (Seladonia) lucidipennis (Smith, 1853), Southern Palaearctic and Oriental Regions, including North Africa, Asia from Palestine, Arabian Peninsula, Asia Minor, Iran, Iraq, Central Asia to Mongolia and N China, south to Sri Lanka, Cape Verde Islands, northern part of Afrotropical Region, south to Kenya, Central Thailand, UAE (Dathe 2009) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Sphecodes sp. UAE, DDCR

Nomiinae

Nomia (Crocisaspidia) vespoides (Walker, 1871), Sudan, Eritrea, Iran, Pakistan, Oman, UAE (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) in present survey found east of the DDCR

Pseudapis (Pseudapis) nilotica (Smith, 1875), North Africa to Pakistan (Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, Djibouti, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan) (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Nomioidinae

Ceylalictus (Ceylalictus) punjabensis (Cameron, 1907), Cape Verde Islands, North Africa, Arabian Peninsula, including UAE), Israel, Jordan, S Iran, S Afghanistan, Pakistan, NW India (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Ceylalictus (Ceylalictus) variegatus (Olivier, 1789), warm habitats in Central and Southern Europe, North Africa, steppes and deserts of western Asia to China, northern India and Mongolia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, Bahrain, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Ceylalictus (Meganomioides) karachiensis (Cockerell, 1911), Mauritania, Oman, S Pakistan, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Nomioides (Nomioides) klausi Pesenko, 1983, North Africa, Arabian Peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Oman, UAE), SW Iran (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Colletidae

Undertermined, DDCR

Megachilidae

Megachilinae

Megachilini

Megachile (Euchtricharea) concinna Smith, 1879, USA, Azores, Spain, France, Corscia, Italy, Sicily, Slovenia, Greece, Morocco, Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Turkey, Yemen, UAE (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) DDCR sub-species leucostoma

Megachile (Euchtricharea) minutissima Radoszkowski, 1876, Egypt, Eritrea, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Megachile (Euchtricharea) patellimana Spinola, 1838, widely distributed in western Palaearctic, particularly in the Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Egypt and UAE, also south-western Africa, Sudan, Niger and Mozambique (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Megachile (Maximegachile) maxillosa Guérin-Méneville, 1845, Senegal, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Kenya, Sudan, Ethiopia, Saudi Arabia, Yemen (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) DDCR

Coelioxys indica Friese, 1925, India, West Africa, East Africa, UAE (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) DDCR

Osmiini

Haetosmia circumventa (Peters, 1974), Canary Islands, Morocco, Libya, Sudan, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Anthidiini

Icteranthidium n. sp. (to be described by Jessica Litman) DDCR

Pseudoanthidium (Pseudanthidium) ochrognathum (Alfken, 1932), Egypt, Israel, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Apidae

Xylocopinae

Xylocopini

Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) fenestrata (Fabricius, 1798), Palestine to India, Iraq north to Bagdad, south coast of Iran, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) aestuans Linnaeus, 1758), SE Asia to Mediterranean (Morocco, Mauritania, S Sahara, Egypt, Turkey, Iran), UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Ceratinini

Ceratina (Ceratinula) parvula Smith, 1854, Circum-Mediterranean (Crete), near East, Turkey, Turkmenistan, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Ceratina (Pithitis) tarsata Morawitz, 1872, Eastern Mediterranean (Crete), Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Yemen, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Apinae

Anthophorini

Amegilla (Micramegilla) byssina (Klug, 1845), Desert areas from Algeria to eastern Arabia, including UAE, Egypt, Pakistan (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Anthophora (Heliophyla) tenella (Klug, 1845) Algeria, Egypt (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) DDCR

Apinini

Apis (Apis) mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, Worldwide, DDCR

Apis (Micrapis) florea Fabricius, 1787, NW India to Borneo, Afghanistan, Iran, Oman, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Melectini

Thyreus elegans (Morawitz 1878), North Africa from Mauritania to Egypt, Palestine, Turkey, Pakistan, Central Asia, Saudi Arabia, UAE (Dathe 2009) DDCR

Thyreus hyalinatus (Vachal, 1903) Senegal, Mauritania, Nigeria, Chad, Egypt, Sudan, Eritrea, Djibouti, Tanzania, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Iran UAE (Distribution Map at www.discoverlife.org) DDCR