Catalogue
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Catalogue
An online photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea (Hymenoptera) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution
expand article infoElijah J. Talamas, Joseph Thompson, Amy Cutler, Samantha Fitzsimmons Schoenberger, Anthony Cuminale, Trenton Jung, Norman F. Johnson§, Alejandro A. Valerio§, Ashton B. Smith, Victoria Haltermann, Elizabeth Alvarez§, Collin Schwantes, Catherine Blewer, Coline Bodenreider, Annika Salzberg, Pei Luo, Debra Meislin, Matthew L. Buffington
‡ Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States of America
§ The Ohio State University, Columbus, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

A photographic catalog of primary types of Platygastroidea housed in the National Insect Collection, National Museum of Natural History, is here made available online at the image database at The Ohio State University (specimage.osu.edu). Following examination of this collection we enact the following taxonomic changes: Leptacis piniella MacGown syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Leptacis pinicola MacGown; Sacespalus indicus Mani is transferred to Platygaster Latreille; Platygaster indica Mukerjee is given the replacement name Platygaster chaos Talamas, n. n.; Synopeas rugiceps (Ashmead), comb. n. is transferred from Leptacis Förster; Axea atriclava (Kieffer), comb. n. is transferred from Psilanteris Kieffer; Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma), comb. n. is transferred from Paridris Kieffer; Paridris dubeyi Sharma, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Chakra pachmarhica; Holoteleia indica (Mani) is transferred to Opisthacantha Ashmead and given a replacement name, Opisthacantha nomados Talamas, n. n.; Psilanteris nigriclavata (Ashmead), comb. n. is transferred from Anteris Förster; Probaryconus grenadensis (Ashmead), comb. n. is transferred from Monoteleia Kieffer; Monoteleia syn.n. is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer; Paridris karnatakensis Sharma, syn. n is treated as a junior synonym of Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat; Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead), comb. n. is transferred from Oxyteleia Kieffer; Triteleia bengalensis (Saraswat), comb. n. is transferred from Alloteleia Kieffer; Trimorus varius Fouts, syn. n. and Trimorus pulchricornis Fouts, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead); Neotypes are designated for Gryon leptocorisae (Howard), Idris seminiger (Ashmead), Telenomus graptae Howard, Telenomus persimilis Ashmead, and Telenomus rileyi Howard; lectotypes are designated for Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead, Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead), Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead) and Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead).

Keywords

Taxonomy, Scelionidae, Platygastridae

Introduction

Stability in taxonomic name usage derives from the objectivity provided by primary type specimens. The National Insect Collection, housed in the National Museum of Natural History Museum, Smithsonian Institution, presently houses 728 primary types of Platygastroidea, and an additional eight species are represented by syntypes. The past decade has seen huge advancements in the amount of data that can be disseminated electronically, but also has seen a continuation of species descriptions that do not include examination of primary types. Our intention is to make high quality images of primary types easily accessible to facilitate proper recognition and to contribute to a functional classification of Platygastroidea. We also hope that our effort to making holotype images available online will encourage others to do the same.

In addition to imaging primary types, we photographed a large number of determined species in the National Insect Collection, focusing on paratypes when possible and when needed to supplement images of primary types. For specimens without indication of a determiner, we make no guarantees about their accuraccy, and these should be considered as simply a digital representation of the collection, and not necessarily a basis for making taxonomic decisions. The determiner of each specimen, when these data were available, are indicated in the specimen records.

Authorship

This project would not have been possible in the time frame allotted without the contribution of many participants in the Smithsonian Internship Program. Because this publication is a photographic catalog, all contributors are included as authors according to the number of primary types photographed. Non-photographic contributions are as follows: specimen databasing: EJT, NFJ, AAV; intern training: EJT; taxonomy: EJT; manuscript preparation: EJT, NFJ, AAV, MLB; database development and maintenance: NFJ; project oversight: EJT, MLB.

In some cases, primary types were photographed and made publicly available during the course of the Platygastroidea Planetary Biodiversity Inventory. These types were given identifiers in the format “USNM ” or “USNM Type No. ”, which we maintain as alternative identifiers in addition to “USNMENT” collecting unit identifiers. We reference the publications in which these images were made available in Suppl. material 1.

Materials and methods

The list of primary types is presented in Suppl. material 1 and contains paratype or paralectotype specimens that were photographed to supplement images of incomplete primary types. Photographs are available for many determined species of Platygastroidea housed in USNM. A list of these species and specimens is presented in Suppl. material 2.

The numbers prefixed with “USNMENT” or “OSUC ” are unique collecting unit identifiers (CUIDs) for the individual specimens (note the blank space after some acronyms). Details on the data associated with these specimens may be accessed at the following link, purl.oclc.org/NET/hymenoptera/hol, and entering the identifier in the form. Persistent URIs for each taxonomic concept were minted by xBio:D in accordance with best practices recommend by Hagedorn et al. (2013). Taxonomic synopses were generated by the Hymenoptera Online Database (hol.osu.edu).

Photographs were captured with a Z16 Leica lens with a JVC KY-F75U digital camera using Cartograph or Automontage software, or a Leica DMRB compound microscope with a GT-Vision Lw11057C-SCI digital camera attached. In both systems, lighting was achieved using techniques summarized in Buffington et al. (2005), Kerr et al. (2009) and Buffington and Gates (2009). Single montage images were produced from image stacks with the either Automontage or CombineZP. In some cases, multiple montage images were stitched together in Photoshop CS4 to produce larger images at high resolution and magnification.

Full resolution images are archived at the image database at The Ohio State University (specimage.osu.edu) which is searchable by taxon name and CUID.

Taxonomy

Leptacis pinicola MacGown

Figures 1–6

Leptacis pinicola MacGown, 1979: 24, 101 (original description. Keyed).

Leptacis piniella MacGown, syn. n., 1979: 24, 104 (original description. Keyed).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=11677

Figures 1–6. 

1 Leptacis piniella, holotype female (USNMENT01059210), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 2 Leptacis pinicola, holotype female (USNMENT01059099), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 3 Leptacis piniella, holotype female (USNMENT01059210), head, anterior view 4 Leptacis piniella, holotype female (USNMENT01059210), head and mesosoma, dorsal view 5 Leptacis pinicola, holotype female (USNMENT01059099), head, anterior view 6 Leptacis pinicola, holotype female (USNMENT01059099), head and mesosoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype of L. pinicola, female: UNITED STATES: VA, Fairfax Co., Vienna, 20.XI.1941, J. C. Bridwell, USNMENT01059099 (deposited in USNM). Holotype of L. piniella, female: UNITED STATES: CO, Jefferson Co., Evergreen, 30.VIII.1937, USNMENT01059210 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

The treatment of L. pinicola and L. piniella as different species is perplexing, given that they were described in the same publication. The key to species in McGown (1979) separated them on the basis of the scape “long and slim” versus “stouter, not noticeably long and slim”. Our examination reveals that the shapes of the scape in these species are essentially identical (Figures 3, 5)

Platygaster indica (Mani), comb. n.

Figures 7–8

Sacepalus indicus Mani, 1975: 75 (original description, spelling error).

Sacespalus indicus Mani: Mani and Sharma 1982: 213 (description); Vlug 1995: 74 (cataloged, type information); Buhl 2009: 901 (keyed).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=12100

Figures 7–8. 

Platygaster indica (Mani), holotype female (USNMENT01109916) 7 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 8 head, mesosoma, metasoma, ventral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, female: INDIA: Maharashtra, Mahabaleshwar, 16.IX.1971, Mani, USNMENT01109916 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

This species clearly does not belong in Sacespalus Kieffer (Figures 9–11): it has distinct felt fields on S2, A2 is not lamellate, and it lacks the robustly crenulate orbit of the compound eye. Despite the flattened state of the specimen, the characters of this specimen are surprisingly accessible.

Figures 9–11. 

Sacespalus 9 female (OSUC 334129), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 10 female (OSUC 334129), head, anterior view 11 female (OSUC 240805), head and mesosoma, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Platygaster chaos Talamas, n. n.

Platygaster indicus Mukerjee, 1978: 88 (original description); Mani and Sharma 1982: 212 (description); Vlug 1995: 55 (cataloged, type information); Ushakumari 2004: 590 (keyed); Buhl 2008: 552 (keyed).

Link to distribution map

Material examined

Holotype, female, P. indicus: INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Kullu Valley, Naggar, 18.VI.1972, Mani, USNMENT01109854 (deposited in USNM).

Replacement name

The transfer of Sacespalus indicus Mani (1975) into Platygaster creates a homonym with Platygaster indica Mukerjee (1978). The former species name has priority and thus we provide a replacement name, “chaos”, for Platygaster indica, reflecting the present taxonomic state of Platygaster.

Synopeas rugiceps (Ashmead)

Figures 12–15

Amblyaspis rugiceps Ashmead, 1893: 267, 269 (original description. Keyed).

Leptacis rugiceps (Ashmead): Fouts 1924: 117, 122 (description, generic transfer, lectotype designation, keyed); Kieffer 1926: 637, 643 (description, keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 82 (type information); Vlug 1995: 38 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=11685

Figures 12–15. 

Synopeas rugiceps, lectotype male (USNMENT00979264) 12 mesosoma and metasoma, lateral view 13 mesosoma and fore wings, dorsal view 14 antenna, lateral view 15 metapleuron, T1–T2, S1–S2, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Lectotype, male, A. rugiceps: UNITED STATES: Washington, 23-VI, USNMENT00979264 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

The absence of a long fringe of setae on the posterior margin of the fore wing and the fusion of T1 and T2 place this species in Synopeas Förster, not Leptacis Förster. Fouts described numerous species in Leptacis that were later transferred to Synopeas (Masner, in Krombein and Burks 1967), and his transfer of this species from Amblyaspis Förster into Synopeas reflects his concepts of these genera.

Axea atriclava (Kieffer), comb. n.

Figures 16–21

Psilanteris atriclava Kieffer, 1916: 177 (original description. Keyed); Kieffer 1926: 433, 434 (description, keyed); Dodd 1931: 77 (description, position uncertain); Baltazar 1966: 182 (cataloged, distribution); Masner 1976: 51 (description, excluded from Psilanteris, type information); Johnson 1992: 468 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=5135

Figures 16–21. 

Axea atriclava, female holotype (USNMENT01059257) 16 head and mesosoma, lateral view 17 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 18 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 19 metasoma, dorsal view 20 fore wing venation, dorsal view 21 head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, female: PHILIPPINES: Laguna Prov., Luzon Isl., Mount Makiling, no date, Baker, USNMENT01059257 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

Masner (1976) stated that this species did not belong in Psilanteris and suggested that it belonged in an undescribed genus. This has proven to be the case, as the genus into which we transfer this species was described by Masner and Johnson (Yoder et al. 2009). Axea atriclava does not match any of the species described in Yoder et al. (2009) and is a new species for the genus.

Chakra pachmarhica (Sharma), comb. n.

Figures 22–25, 26–29

Probaryconus pachmarhicus Sharma, 1978: 24 (original description).

Paridris dubeyi Sharma, syn. n., 1982: 336 (original description); Johnson 1992: 459 (cataloged); Rajmohana 2007: 57 (keyed).

Paridris pachmarhicus (Sharma): Mani and Sharma 1982: 178 (description); Johnson 1992: 460 (cataloged); Rajmohana 2007: 57 (keyed).

Paridris pachmarhica (Sharma): Talamas et al. 2012: 32 (gender emended).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-full.html?id=313332

Figures 22–25. 

Chakra pachmarhicus (Sharma), female holotype (USNMENT01109836) 22 head and mesosoma, lateral view 23 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 24 mesoscutellum, metascutellum, propodeum, T1, dorslateral view 25 head, anterolateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 26–29. 

Chakra pachmarhicus. 26 male holotype of Paridris dubeyi Sharma (USNMENT01197116), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 27 male holotype of Paridris dubeyi Sharma (USNMENT01197116), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 28 male (USNMENT01109626), mesosoma, lateral view 29 male holotype of Paridris dubeyi Sharma (USNMENT01197116), head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Comments

Paridris dubeyi and Probaryconus pachmarhicus, despite that they are conspecific, were placed in separate genera by Sharma (1972, 1982). The concept of Probaryconus, at least since Masner (1976), excludes species with a metascutellum that projects posteriorly (“armed”), and includes species that have spines or protrusions on the propodeum. Chakra pachmarhica matches neither of these character states. Paridris is a more polymorphic genus that was recently diagnosed by Talamas et al. (2011) and does not include species with an epomial carina. Until now, Chakra has been a monotypic genus, and the metascutellum of C. sarvatra Rajmohana & Veenakumari has a metascutellum with a single spine. We here expand the concept of Chakra to include species with two or three metascutellar spines. The salient characters of Chakra, as mentioned by Rajmohana and Veenakumari (2014), are the diagnostic form of sculpture on the head, mesoscutum, and mesoscutellum; the postmarginal vein shorter than the stigmal vein, and Scelio-type ovipositor. The limits of Chakra with respect to Trissoscelio (presently a junior synonym of Opisthacantha) are unclear. The presence of an epomial carina in Chakra holds promise as a diagnostic character, but this character exhibits a significant degree of variation among the undescribed African species of Chakra. A species of Chakra from Southeast Asia has a trispinose metascutellum (Figure 31) and the length of these spines exhibits a great deal of size related variation. Consequently, Chakra is a genus with a hypervariable metascutellum and this structure is of only modest use for identifying the genus. We think it is noteworthy that all of the species of Chakra that we have examined have the metapleural and paracoxal sulci well-defined and separate in the dorsal half of the metapleuron (Figures 32–33) and, at the moment, this serves as a useful diagnostic character for the genus.

Figures 30–35. 

30 Chakra sp., male (OSUC 170290), head and mesosoma, dorsal view 31 Chakra sp., female (OSUC 261908), head and mesosoma, dorsal view 32 Chakra sp., male (OSUC 170291), head and mesosoma, lateral view 33 Chakra sp., female (OSUC 261908), head and mesosoma, lateral view 34 Chakra sp., male (OSUC 170291), head and pronotum, anterolateral view 35 Chakra sp., female (OSUC 261908), head and mesosoma, anterolateral view. Scalebars in millimeters.

Diagnosis of Chakra

Scelio-type ovipositor; propodeum coarsely rugose; epomial carina present; head, mesoscutum and mesoscutellum punctate with interstitial micrcosculpture; malar striae present; facial striae present; occipital carina complete; lines of sculpture extending around interantennal process; clypeus divided dorsoventrally by transverse furrow.

Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead

Cremastobaeus bicolor Ashmead, 1893: 229 (original description); Ashmead 1894: 228 (redescribed as new, keyed); Kieffer 1926: 354 (description, keyed); Johnson 1992: 365 (cataloged).

Link to distribution map

Lectotype designation

We here designate specimen USNMENT01223775 as the lectotype female of Cremastobaeus bicolor: SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Saint Vincent Island, no date, H. H. Smith, (deposited in USNM).

Gryon leptocorisae (Howard)

Figures 36–39

Hadronotus leptocorisae Howard, 1885: 215 (original description); Ashmead 1893: 230, 231 (description, keyed); Brues 1910: 47 (keyed); Kieffer 1926: 454, 462 (description, keyed).

Hadronotus hungaricus Szabó, 1966: 430, 433 (original description. Keyed. Preoccupied by Hadronotellus hungaricus Szabó (1966) and Pannongryon hungaricum Szabó (1966). Synonymized by Mineo (1980)); Johnson 1992: 386 (type information).

Gryon leptocorisae (Howard): Muesebeck and Masner 1967: 299 (generic transfer); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 36 (lectotype designation); Mineo 1980: 197 (synonymy); Mineo 1981: 119, 132 (variation, keyed); Masner 1983: 154 (description); Mineo 1990: 52 (assigned to leptocorisae species group); Johnson 1992: 386 (cataloged, type information); Mineo and Caleca 1994: 122 (distribution); Kononova and Kozlov 2008: 326, 370 (description, keyed).

Gryon reduviophagus Kozlov, 1971: 48 (original description. Synonymized by Mineo (1979)); Viggiani and Mineo 1974: 154, 160 (diagnosis, keyed); Kozlov 1978: 620 (description); Mineo 1979: 257 (junior synonym of Gryon hungaricus (Szabó)); Kozlov and Kononova 1989: 79 (keyed); Kozlov and Kononova 1990: 267, 285 (description, keyed); Johnson 1992: 387 (cataloged, type information); Kononova 1995: 84 (keyed); Kononova and Petrov 2002: 54 (keyed).

Gryon hungaricus Szabó: Mineo 1979: 251 (variation).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=4416

Figures 36–39. 

Gryon leptocorisae 36 remnants of lectotype specimen (USNMENT00989859) 37 neotype female (USNMENT00989860), head, anterior view 38 neotype female (USNMENT00989860), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 39 neotype female (USNMENT00989860), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Neotype designation

The lectotype specimen is essentially lost, as only a few legs remain glued to the point (Figure 36). We here designate paralectotype specimen (USNMENT00989860) as the neotype for Gryon leptocorisae. This specimen was reared from the same egg mass as the lectotype and has identical collection data.

Material examined

Lectotype, female, H. leptocorisae: UNITED STATES: FL, Putnam Co., Crescent City, no date, reared from egg, H. G. Hubbard, USNMENT00989859 (deposited in USNM). Neotype, female, H. leptocorisae: UNITED STATES: FL, Putnam Co., Crescent City, no date USNMENT00989860 (deposited in USNM).

Idris seminiger (Ashmead)

Figures 40–41

Acoloides seminiger Ashmead, 1893: 170, 173 (original description. Keyed. Synonymized by Huggert (1979)); Harrington 1900: 184 (type information); Kieffer 1926: 166, 168 (description, keyed); Johnson 1992: 416 (type information).

Idris seminiger (Ashmead): Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 39 (lectotype designation); Huggert 1979: 6 (junior synonym of Idris subapterus (Ashmead)).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=9176

Figures 40–41. 

Idris seminiger, neotype female (USNMENT01109324) 40 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 41 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Neotype designation

The lectotype designated by Masner and Muesebeck (1968) is lost. We here designate the paralectotype female (USNMENT01109324), which has label data identical to that of the previous lectotype, to be the neotype of Acoloides seminiger.

Material examined

Neotype female, Acoloides seminiger: CANADA: Ontario, Ottawa, no date, W. H. Harrington USNMENT01109324 (deposited in USNM).

Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead)

Cacus insularis Ashmead, 1894: 226, 227 (original description. Keyed); Ashmead 1900: 243, 328 (distribution).

Cacellus insularis (Ashmead): Kieffer 1908: 120 (generic transfer); Kieffer 1926: 414 (description, keyed).

Oethecoctonus insularis (Ashmead): Johnson 1992: 444 (cataloged).

Lectotype designation

We here designate specimen USNMENT01109356 as the lectotype female of Oethecoctonus insularis: SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Saint Vincent Island, no date, H. H. Smith, (deposited in USNM).

Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead)

Cacus laticinctus Ashmead, 1894: 226, 227 (original description. Keyed); Ashmead 1900: 328 (distribution).

Cacellus laticinctus (Ashmead): Kieffer, 1908: 120 (generic transfer); Kieffer 1926: 414, 415 (description, keyed).

Oethecoctonus laticinctus (Ashmead): Masner, 1965: 85 (type information); Johnson 1992: 444 (cataloged, type information).

Lectotype designation

We here designate specimen USNMENT01109358 as the lectotype female of Oethecoctonus laticinctus: SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Saint Vincent Island, no date, H. H. Smith, USNMENT01109358 (deposited in USNM).

Opisthacantha nomados Talamas, n. n.

Figures 42–45

Baryconus (Holoteleia) indica Mani, 1975: 73 (original description).

Holoteleia indica (Mani): Mani and Sharma 1982: 181 (description, generic transfer); Johnson 1992: 401 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=4550

Figures 42–44. 

Opisthacantha indica, female holotype (USNMENT01109813) 42 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 43 mesoscutellum, mesoscutellum, propodeum, T1, T2, dorsolateral view 44 head, mesosoma, metasoma, ventral view 45 head, ventral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, female: INDIA: Maharashtra St., Khandala, 21.IX–22.IX.1971, Mani, USNMENT01109813 (deposited in USNM).

Replacement name

Mani (1975) described Opisthacantha indica in the same paper in which Baryconus (Holoteleia) indica was originally described. We resolve this homonymy by proposing a replacement name for the latter. We selected the epithet, “nomados”, which is Greek for “wanderer” for this species as it roams from one genus to another. The names is treated as a noun in apposition.

Comments

Malar and facial striae are present in the holotype specimen of O. nomados, both of which exclude this species from Holoteleia in the concept of this genus presented by Masner (1980), Masner (1994) and Talamas and Buffington (2015). The placement of Baryconus indica by Mani and Sharma (1982) in Holoteleia is also inconsistent with the concept of the genus presented by Mani and Sharma (1982), which stated that the genus has a “metanotum narrow, medially without lamina or lamella”. Examination of the holotype reveals that the metascutellum forms a large posteriorly projecting plate (Figure 43), consistent with the form found in Opisthacantha (Trissoscelio) nigriceps Kieffer. Trissoscelio Kieffer is currently treated as a junior synonym of Opisthacantha Ashmead, but changes to the classification of the genera presently treated as Opisthacantha are likely to occur when this complex is reanalyzed. We note that O. nomados should follow Opisthacantha (Trissoscelio) nigriceps in the event of such change.

Probaryconus Kieffer

Baryconus (Probaryconus) Kieffer, 1908: 118, 165, 168 (original description. Type: Baryconus (Probaryconus) spinosus Kieffer, by monotypy. Keyed); Kieffer 1910: 64, 84 (description, list of species, keyed).

Procacus Kieffer, 1910: 319 (original description. Type: Procacus striatigena Kieffer, by monotypy. Synonymized by Masner (1976)); Kieffer 1910: 64, 77 (description, list of species, keyed); Kieffer 1913: 228 (description); Kieffer 1926: 269, 415 (key to subgenera, keyed); Nixon 1931: 356 (keyed); Nixon 1933: 292 (keyed); Muesebeck and Walkley 1956: 388 (citation of type species); Baltazar 1966: 180 (cataloged, catalog of species of the Philippines); Masner 1976: 33 (junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer); De Santis 1980: 314 (catalog of species of Brazil).

Amblyconus Kieffer, 1913: 221 (original description. Type: Amblyconus quadridens Kieffer, first included species. Synonymized by Masner (1965)); Kieffer 1914: 325 (description); Kieffer 1926: 269, 484 (description, keyed); Muesebeck and Walkley 1956: 327 (citation of type species).

Neurocacus Kieffer, 1913: 428 (original description. Type: Neurocacus philippinensis Kieffer, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymized by Kieffer (1926)); Muesebeck and Walkley 1956: 374 (citation of type species).

Probaryconus Kieffer: Kieffer 1913: 220 (description, change to generic status); Kieffer 1914: 323 (description); Kieffer 1926: 270, 485 (description, keyed, key to species); Maneval 1940: 113 (keyed); Mani 1941: 28 (catalog of species of India); Muesebeck and Walkley 1956: 388 (citation of type species); Muesebeck and Masner 1967: 299 (second supplement to Muesebeck and Walkley (1951)); Kozlov 1971: 40 (keyed); Kozlov 1971: 40 (keyed); Masner 1976: 33 (description, key to Calliscelio Ashmead, Paridris Kieffer, Oethecoctonus Ashmead, and Probaryconus Kieffer); Kozlov 1978: 614 (description); Muesebeck 1979: 1155 (catalog of species of U.S. and Canada); Mani and Sharma 1982: 176 (description); Galloway and Austin 1984: 7, 20, 28, 36 (diagnosis, list of species described from Australia, keyed); Kozlov and Kononova 1990: 95, 173 (keyed); Johnson 1992: 462 (cataloged, catalog of world species); Kononova 1995: 60, 69 (keyed, diagnosis, key to species of Russian Far East); Austin and Field 1997: 22, 68 (structure of ovipositor system, discussion of phylogenetic relationships); Lê 2000: 31, 72 (keyed, description, key to species); Loiácono and Margaría 2002: 558 (catalog of Brazilian species); Mineo 2006: 45 (genotype information); Rajmohana 2006: 116, 129 (description, keyed); Kononova and Kozlov 2008: 22, 219 (description, keyed); Talamas et al. 2011: 53 (keyed); Popovici and Johnson 2012: 381 (description of internal genitalia).

Procacus (Neurocacus) Kieffer: Kieffer 1926: 416 (description, change to subgeneric status).

Procacus (Procacus) Kieffer: Kieffer 1926: 415 (description).

Urundia Risbec, 1957: 142 (original description. Type: Urundia biarmata Risbec, by monotypy and original designation. Synonymized by Masner (1976)); Masner 1976: 34 (junior synonym of Probaryconus Kieffer).

Monoteleia Kieffer, syn. n., 1926: 272, 545 (original description. Type: Macroteleia grenadensis Ashmead, by original designation. Keyed, key to species); Muesebeck and Walkley 1956: 372 (citation of type species); Masner 1976: 35 (description, taxonomic status); Johnson 1992: 440 (cataloged, catalog of world species).

Comments

Probaryconus is a cosmopolitan and variable genus that includes numerous elongate forms. We agree with the suggestion of Masner (1976) that Monoteleia represents a morphological extreme of Probaryconus, not a phylogenetically distinct lineage. Our concept of Probaryconus accommodates Monoteleia without issue, and we note that metasomal length alone has not proven to be of real use at the generic level anywhere in Platygastroidea.

Probaryconus grenadensis (Ashmead), comb. n.

Figures 46–51

Macroteleia grenadensis Ashmead, 1900: 243, 327 (original description); Kieffer 1908: 170 (keyed).

Cacellus grenadensis (Ashmead): Kieffer 1908: 120 (generic transfer).

Monoteleia grenadensis (Ashmead): Kieffer 1926: 545 (generic transfer, description, keyed); Masner 1976: 35 (description, type information); Johnson 1992: 440 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-full.html?id=4929

Figures 46–51. 

Probaryconus grenadensis 46 holotype male (USNMENT01059137), head, anterior view 47 female (OSUC 396818), head, anterior view 48 female (OSUC 396818), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 49 holotype male (USNMENT01059137), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 50 holotype male (USNMENT01059137), head and mesosoma, lateral view 51 female (OSUC 396818), head and mesosoma, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, male, M. grenadensis: GRENADA: Saint Andrew Parish, windward side, Grand Etang Lake, 1900ft, no date, H. H. Smith, USNMENT01059137 (deposited in USNM). Other material: (1 female, 1 male) GRENADA: 1 female, OSUC 396818 (CNCI). SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: 1 male, OSUC 396819 (CNCI).

Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat

Figures 52–55, 56–57

Probaryconus cauverycus Saraswat, 1978: 22 (original description); Mani and Sharma 1982: 176 (description); Johnson 1992: 463 (cataloged).

Probaryconus karnatakensis (Sharma), syn. n., 1982: 338 (original description); Johnson 1992: 459 (cataloged); Rajmohana 2007: 57 (keyed).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=5096

Figures 52–55. 

Probaryconus cauverycus 52 female holotype of Paridris karnatakensis (USNMENT01109963), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 53 female holotype of Probaryconus cauverycus (USNMENT01109607), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 54 female holotype of Paridris karnatakensis (USNMENT01109963), head, anterior view 55 female holotype of Probaryconus cauverycus (USNMENT01109607), head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 56–57. 

Probaryconus cauverycus 56 female holotype of Paridris karnatakensis (USNMENT01109963), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 57 female holotype of Probaryconus cauverycus (USNMENT01109607), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Female holotype of Probaryconus cauverycus: INDIA: Karnataka St., Tala Kaveri, 10.III.1975, M. S. Mani, USNMENT01109607 (deposited in USNM). Female holotype of Paridris karnatakensis: INDIA: Karnataka St., Attur, 20.V–10.VI.1978, M. S. Mani, USNMENT01109963 (deposited in USNM). Other material: THAILAND: 1 female, USNMENT01223894 (USNM).

Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead), comb. n.

Figures 58–61

Caloteleia punctata Ashmead, 1894: 218, 221 (original description. Keyed); Ashmead 1900: 327 (distribution).

Ceratoteleia punctata (Ashmead): Kieffer 1908: 121 (generic transfer. Kieffer, in the same publication, placed this name under both Oxyteleia and Ceratoteleia).

Oxyteleia punctata (Ashmead): Kieffer 1908: 118 (generic transfer); Kieffer 1926: 516 (description, keyed); Johnson 1992: 455 (cataloged).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=5042

Figures 58–61. 

Probaryconus punctatus, female holotype (USNMENT01109350) 58 head, mesosoma, metasoma, ventral view 59 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 60 head and mesosoma, lateral view 61 head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Lectotype designation

We here designate specimen USNMENT01109350 as the lectotype female of Probaryconus punctatus (Ashmead).

Material examined

Lectotype, female, Caloteleia punctata: SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Saint Vincent Island, no date, H. H. Smith, USNMENT01109350 (deposited in USNM). Paralectotype, female, Caloteleia punctata: SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES: Saint Vincent Island, no date, H. H. Smith, USNMENT01109351 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

Oxyteleia Kieffer has an Oriental distribution and this species does not have its most obvious diagnostic characters: a bispinose metascutellum and posteriorly directed spines derived from the axillular carinae on the lateral mesoscutellum.

Psilanteris nigriclavata (Ashmead), comb. n.

Figures 62–64

Opisthacantha nigriclavata Ashmead, 1905: 399 (original description); Kieffer 1926: 398 (description, keyed); Baltazar 1966: 179 (cataloged, type information, distribution).

Paratrimorus nigriclavatus (Ashmead): Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 41 (type information, generic transfer).

Anteris nigriclavata (Ashmead): Johnson 1992: 337 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-full.html?id=3971

Figures 62–64. 

Psilanteris nigriclavata, female holotype (USNMENT0089029) 62 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 63 head and mesosoma, anterodorsal view (sk=skaphion) 64 head and mesosoma, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, female, O. nigriclavata: PHILIPPINES: Metropolitan Manila Reg., Manila, no date, R. Brown, USNMENT00989029 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

Placement of this species in the correct genus has undoubtedly been hampered by glue that obscured some of its diagnostic characters. In order to sufficiently assess the specimen it was soaked in ethanol until the glue became soft enough for removal with forceps and a fine pin to observe the skaphion and dorsal head. The specimen was then left in the remaining glue (as seen in Figs 62–64). The presence of a skaphion, single metascutellar spine, and absence of a postmarginal vein enable us to confidently place this species in Psilanteris.

Triteleia bengalensis (Saraswat), comb. n.

Figures 65–69

Alloteleia bengalensis Saraswat, 1978: 18 (original description); Mani and Sharma 1982: 173 (description); Johnson 1992: 335 (cataloged).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=3960

Figures 65–69. 

Triteleia bengalensis, female holotype (USNMENT01109608) 65 head and mesosoma, lateral view 66 head and metasoma, dorsal view 67 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 68 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 69 head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Holotype, female: INDIA: Assam St., Jaldhapara, 13.IV–15.IV.1976, M. S. Mani, USNMENT01109608 (deposited in USNM).

Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead)

Figures 70–72, 73–75, 76–79

Prosacantha annulicornis Ashmead, 1893: 186, 188 (original description. Keyed).

Hoplogryon (Allogryon) annulicornis (Ashmead): Kieffer 1910: 95 (subgeneric assignment); Kieffer 1926: 221, 231 (description, keyed).

Trimorus annulicornis (Ashmead): Fouts 1948: 100, 129 (generic transfer, type information, keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 47 (lectotype designation); Johnson 1992: 523 (cataloged, type information).

Trimorus pulchricornis Fouts, syn. n., 1948: 98, 104 (original description. Keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 56 (type information); Johnson 1992: 546 (cataloged, type information).

Trimorus varius Fouts, syn. n., 1948: 99, 120 (original description. Keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 59 (type information); Johnson 1992: 555 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=3467

Figures 70–72. 

70 Trimorus pulchricornis, female holotype (USNMENT01109147), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 71 Trimorus varius, male holotype (USNMENT01109222), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 72 Trimorus annulicornis, female (USNMENT01059271), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 73–75. 

73 Trimorus pulchricornis, female holotype (USNMENT01109147), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 74 Trimorus varius, male holotype (USNMENT01109222), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 75 Trimorus annulicornis, female lectotype (USNMENT01059271), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 76–79. 

76 Trimorus pulchricornis, female holotype (USNMENT01109147), head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 77 Trimorus pulchricornis, female holotype (USNMENT01109147), head, anterior view 78 Trimorus varius, male holotype (USNMENT01109222), head, anterior view 79 Trimorus annulicornis, female lectotype (USNMENT01059271), head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Material examined

Lectotype, male, P. annulicornis: UNITED STATES: Washington, 14-X, USNMENT01059271 (deposited in USNM). Paralectotype: UNITED STATES: 1 unsexed, USNMENT01029368 (USNM). Other material: UNITED STATES: 6 females, 1 male, USNMENT01109667, USNMENT01197090, USNMENT01197091, USNMENT01197092, USNMENT01197093, USNMENT01197094, USNMENT01197279 (USNM). Holotype of Trimorus varius, male: UNITED STATES: MD, Montgomery Co., Cabin John, 30.VII.1924, Fouts, USNMENT01109222 (deposited in USNM). Holotype of Trimorus pulchricornis, female: UNITED STATES: MD, Montgomery Co., Glen Echo, no date, R. M. Fouts, USNMENT01109147 (deposited in USNM).

Comments

Fouts (1948) described Trimorus pulchricornis and T. varius in the same publication, which also included T. annulicornis in his key to species. Even a cursory examination suggests that these three belong to a single species, giving us serious doubts about the quality of Fouts’s taxonomy, at least as far as Trimorus is concerned. We suspect that many more of Fouts species of Trimorus will be treated as junior synonyms but will require more thorough study that is beyond the scope of this publication.

Telenomus graptae Howard

Figures 80–82

Telenomus graptae Howard, 1889: 1896 (original description. Type not found in USNM (Masner and Muesebeck 1968)); Ashmead 1893: 144, 145, 151 (description, keyed); Brues 1916: 545, 546 (description, keyed); Kieffer 1926: 28, 45 (description, keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 65 (type information); Johnson 1992: 590 (cataloged, type information).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=2821

Figures 80–82. 

Telenomus graptae, female neotype (USNMENT01109318) 80 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 81 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 82 head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Neotype designation

We here designate specimen USNMENT01109318 to be the neotype female of Telenomus graptae: UNITED STATES: White Mountains, 6.VIII.1887, reared from egg, (deposited in USNM).

Comments

Masner and Muesebeck (1968) clarified that this specimen could not be the holotype of T. graptae because the original male and female syntypes were mounted on slides, both of which are lost. This specimen bears a label “LECTOTYPE ♀ Telenomus graptae How. By L. Masner, 1964”, but it is not eligible to be a lectotype because lectotypes must be selected from a syntype series. This specimen is in the best condition among those of this species determined by Howard and thus we consider it to be the best candidate for a neotype.

Telenomus persimilis Ashmead

Figures 83–85

Telenomus persimilis Ashmead, 1893: 143, 150 (original description. Type lost (Masner and Muesebeck 1968). Keyed); Brues 1916: 545, 546 (description, keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 69 (type information); Johnson 1984: 50, 63 (description, keyed); Johnson 1992: 607 (cataloged, type information).

Microphanurus persimilis (Ashmead): Kieffer 1926: 93, 107 (description, generic transfer, keyed).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=3018

Figures 83–84. 

Telenomus persimilis, female neotype (USNMENT01109322) 83 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 84 head, anterior view 85 head and mesosoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Neotype designation

Telenomus persimilis was described from a single specimen, and in the original description Ashmead (1893) stated that he had since examined specimens from Agricultural College, Michigan, that were conspecific. Masner and Muesebeck (1968) stated that these specimens have since been used for identification of this species. We here designate one of the females from this series (USNMENT01109322) as the neotype of this species.

Material examined

Neotype female: UNITED STATES: Michigan, 4.VIII.1901, reared from hemipteran egg USNMENT01109322 (USNM)).

Telenomus rileyi Howard

Figures 86–88

Telenomus rileyi Howard, 1889: 1896 (original description. Type lost (Masner and Muesebeck 1968)); Brues 1916: 545, 548 (description, keyed); Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 70 (type information); Johnson 1992: 611 (cataloged, type information).

Telenomus Rileyi Howard: Ashmead 1893: 144, 156 (description of male, keyed).

Phanurus rileyi (Howard): Kieffer 1926: 51, 58 (description, generic transfer, keyed).

Link to distribution map

http://hol.osu.edu/map-large.html?id=3067

Figures 86–88. 

Telenomus riley, female neotype (OSUC 115283) 86 head, mesosoma, metasoma, lateral view 87 head, anterior view 88 head and mesosoma, dorsal view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Neotype designation

The disappearance of the type series of Telenomus rileyi was documented by Masner and Muesebeck (1968). A series with “type” labels was reared from the same host, Asterocampa clyton (Boiduval & Leconte), as the type series in 1884, and likely was determined as T. rileyi by Howard. We here designate a female from this series (OSUC 115283) to be the neotype specimen

Material examined

Neotype female: UNITED STATES: IL, Livingston Co., Fairbury, III-1884 (OSUC 115283 (USNM)).

Acknowledgments

We thank Joe Cora and Luciana Musetti (C. A. Triplehorn Collection, The Ohio State University) for database support; Thomas Henry of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory (USDA/ARS) for allowing us to use his imaging system; Mary Sangrey (NMNH) and David Adamsky (Systematic Entomology Laboratory (USDA/ARS) for coordinating interns in the Smithsonian Internship Program; and Patricia Gentili-Poole (National Museum of Natural History) for providing CUID labels. This work was made possible by funding from the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, the Beneficial Insect Introduction Research Unit, the National Institute of Food and Agriculture–Specialty Crop Research Initiative (USDA–NIFA–SCRI) #2011-51181-30937, and the National Science Foundation under grant No. DEB–0614764 to N.F. Johnson and A.D. Austin. The USDA does not endorse any commercial product mentioned in this research. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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