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Research Article
Eustochomorpha Girault, Neotriadomerus gen. n., and Proarescon gen. n. (Hymenoptera, Mymaridae), early extant lineages in evolution of the family
expand article infoJohn T. Huber
‡ Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

Eustochomorpha Girault, with one described species, E. haeckeli Girault, from Australia is redescribed. Neotriadomerus Huber, gen. n., is described, together with seven new species, all from Australia: N. burwelli Huber, sp. n., N. crassus Huber, sp. n., N. darlingi Huber, sp. n., N. gloriosus Huber, sp. n., N. longiovipositor Huber, sp. n., N. longissimus Huber, sp. n. (one of the largest species of Mymaridae), and N. powerae Huber, sp. n. Proarescon Huber, gen. n., is described for P. primitivum (Huber), comb. n., transferred from Borneomymar Huber, and P. similis Huber, sp. n., from Thailand. The previously unknown male of Borneomymar madagascar Huber is described and the genus is redescribed from critical point dried and slide mounted specimens. Triadomerini, stat. n., is proposed to include six genera: Borneomymar, Eustochomorpha and Neotriadomerus, and the Cretaceous Carpenteriana Yoshimoto, Macalpinia Yoshimoto and Triadomerus Yoshimoto. Aresconini is proposed to include five (possibly six) genera: Arescon Enock, Kikiki Huber and Beardsley, Proarescon Huber and Tinkerbella Huber and Noyes, and the Cretaceous Myanmymar Huber and, tentatively, also Enneagmus Yoshimoto. The two tribes are proposed as being the earliest lineages in Mymaridae, with Neotriadomerus and Triadomerus being sister genera to the remaining extant and extinct genera, respectively.

Keywords

Taxonomy, Chalcidoidea, fairyfly, new genera, Australia, Thailand, earliest lineages

Introduction

Eustochomorpha Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) includes a single species, E. haeckeli Girault (Girault 1915). Annecke and Doutt (1961) included Eustochomorpha in a world key, basing its placement in the key only on Girault'S, succinct but accurate original description; they did not locate the type. Dahms (1984) provided notes on the holotype and only known specimen but otherwise the genus remained unknown. Based mainly on two specimens collected in Western Australia Eustochomorpha is redescribed. Specimens of an undescribed genus, apparently related to Eustochomorpha, were found in various collections and are described. A third genus is proposed for Borneomymar primitivum Huber (Huber 2002). A key is given to these genera and their included species. Several other genera are included because they may well be closely related. An attempt to place the Cretaceous fossils of Mymaridae in context with the extant fauna is made.

Methods

This study is based on about 35 specimens on card-mounts, point-mounts and slides. Slides of the specimens were prepared as described in Huber (2015). Morphological terms used in the descriptions are mostly as defined in Gibson (1997) and Huber (2012, 2015). All measurements of specimens are given in micrometers and, depending on specimen length and preparation, taken with an ocular micrometer attached to a Nikon compound microscope at 200× magnification or a Leitz-Wetzlar binocular microscope at 64× and 160× magnification. Because of rounding errors, it appears that the ratios are slightly incorrect compared to those calculated using the absolute measurements (micrometers) but, in fact, those calculated from the ocular micrometer readings before converting to micrometers are more accurate, so are given in the descriptions. Photographs of slide mounts were taken with a ProgRes C14plus digital camera attached to a Nikon Eclipse E800 compound microscope, and a selection of the resulting layers combined electronically in Zerene StackerTM. Card- or point mounted specimens were photographed with a Leica DFC 500 camera mounted on a Leica Z16 APO Zoom macroscope or on the Nikon compound microscope. Abbreviations used in the descriptions are: flx for funicle segment, gtx for gastral tergum and mps for multiporous plate sensilla. Because the number and position of setae and the type of sculpture on species within a given genus of Mymaridae is usually quite similar the sculpture and setation are described in detail under the single species in Eustochomorpha, the single new species under one of the new genera and, to avoid repetition, under the genus name for the new genus containing seven new species. The number and position of setae is described for one side of the body only. So when observing a specimen in dorsal view the total number of setae on a particular structure is twice that described. The setae of appendages (antenna, mouthparts, wings, legs, genitalia) are usually excluded because they are numerous and often similar; only obviously different ones are mentioned, where informative. In general, the position of body setae, particularly on the mesosoma, is fairly stable and consistent within and even among genera, though setal shape, length and thickness may vary. Specimens are deposited in the following institutions:

ANIC Australian National Insect Collection, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia;

CAS California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, USA;

CNC Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids and Nematodes, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada;

NZAC New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Auckland, New Zealand;

QMBA Queensland Museum, Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;

QDPC Queensland Primary Industries Insect Collection, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia;

QSBG Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden, Chiang Mai, Chiang Mai, Thailand;

ROM Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada;

UCRC Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside, California, USA.

Results

Eustochomorpha Girault, 1915

Figs 1–3, 4–7, 8–10, 11–18, 19–24, 25–31

Type species

Eustochomorpha haeckeli Girault, by monotypy.

Diagnosis

Female. Antenna with funicle 8-segmented and clava 2-segmented (Figs 3, 7, 14). Venation about 0.9× fore wing length. Postmarginal vein distinct, uniformly thick and about 0.7× marginal vein length, with at least 2 short, socketed setae (Fig. 8, apical one indicated by arrow, Fig. 20c). Hypochaeta possibly present (Fig. 20a), originating on the parastigma instead of on the costal cell. Ovipositor strongly extending posteriorly beyond gastral apex but not extending anteriorly under mesosoma (Figs 2, 4, 28, 30).

Description

Female. Body ≈1280–1290 μm in length, excluding section of ovipositor exserted beyond apex of hypopygium. Colour. Generally brown (Fig. 4), with a few metallic reflections (an artefact of lighting?) on gaster. Gaster at base and most parts of legs lighter brown to white. Wings hyaline, with venation light brown. Head. Head about 1.7× as wide as long, 1.3× as wide as high and 1.4× as high as long; in lateral view with anterior surface convex, receding strongly from ventral margin of eye to mouth opening, and bulging medially compared to laterally (at preorbital groove); posterior surface slightly, evenly convex (Fig. 4). Face about as wide as high (Fig. 5), without subantennal grooves; preorbital groove ventral to torulus straight then, more ventrally, slightly curving medially to ventrolateral margin of mouth opening. Torulus in slight triangular depression about 2.0× as high as torulus width and separated by 1.5× torulus width from transverse trabecula (Fig. 5). Vertex in lateral view (Fig. 11) sloping obliquely to transverse trabecula to form an obtuse angle with face, and vertex posteriorly merging smoothly into occiput medially but separated laterally from occiput by short transverse vertexal suture. Ocellar triangle raised slightly above level of rest of vertex, the mid ocellus almost vertical, the lateral ocelli oblique, facing posterolaterally; ocelli with POL about 2.0× LOL and about 1.26 OOL. Transverse trabecula separated at each apex from supraorbital trabecula (Fig. 5); preorbital trabecula (apparently absent because not sclerotized) short, extending to inner orbit at about dorsal margin of torulus (Fig. 5); supraorbital trabecula in 2 subequal sections, the posterior sections slightly converging and the sutures outside posterior sections continuing onto occiput as the occipital grooves (short lines each appearing as posterior extension of supraorbital suture and strongly converging towards occipital foramen) (Fig. 6) separating occiput medially from temple dorsolaterally. Occiput separated from vertex by vertexal suture, this only present laterally behind lateral ocelli (Fig. 12). Eye large with numerous (about 100) small facets, in lateral view slightly higher than wide (10:9) and clearly separated dorsally from back of head (temple about 0.3× eye width). Ocular apodeme fairly long, crooked, needle-like. Malar sulcus absent (Fig. 11). Gena at level of ventral margin of eye wider than malar space. Occiput entire, not separated by transverse groove into upper and lower portions (Fig. 6a). Mouthparts. Labrum with 2? setae; mandible with 3 teeth. Antenna. Scape about 2.6× as long as wide, with radicle distinct from rest of scape and about 0.25× total scape length (Fig. 13); pedicel about 2.1× as long as wide, almost as wide and about 0.7× as long as entire scape; funicle 8-segmented; clava 2-segmented (Figs 3, 7, 14), 1.08× as wide as apical funicle segment and 0.32–0.36× as long as entire funicle. Mesosoma. Mesosoma about 2.2× as long as wide, 2.3× as long as high and 1.1× as wide as high. Pronotum entire (Figs 9, 12, 15), in dorsal view clearly visible, medially about 0.3× as long as mesoscutum; collar almost horizontal, with a shallow median longitudinal impression and prominent angular shoulders; neck shorter than collar, posteriorly strongly sloping up to collar; in lateral view, pronotum rectangular, slightly overlapping anterior margin of mesoscutum, with lateral surface merging smoothly into dorsal surface, with a shallow, oblique impression for femur. Spiracle (Figs 17, 18) apparently slightly stalked, at posterolateral angle of pronotum in a slight depression and facing dorsolaterally. Propleura near anterior apex not quite abutting, then gap widening slightly more anteriorly. Prosternum rhomboidal, incompletely divided medially by faint longitudinal groove posteriorly. Mesoscutum about 1.7× as long as scutellum, in dorsal view with shallow, thin, slightly diverging notauli apparently absent posteriorly (Figs 9, 15, 16), in lateral view mesoscutum (Fig. 4) almost flat except anteriorly. Scutellum slightly wider than long; anterior scutellum about 3× as long as narrowly trapezoidal, transverse frenum and separated from it by a shallow, curved frenal depression (Figs 9, 16); campaniform sensilla small, slightly closer to lateral margins of anterior scutellum than to each other, with apex of large, cone-shaped fenestra projecting anteriorly between them (Fig. 9). Axilla slightly advanced, the transscutal articulation laterally forming an obtuse angle with median section (Fig. 16); axillula long and narrow, separated from anterior scutellum by posteriorly recurved axillular groove; mesophragma widely convex posteriorly, extending to posterior apex of propodeum. Prepectus probably spindle-shaped (Fig. 17, partly hidden by fore leg); mesopleuron somewhat rectangular, with shallow depression separating mesepisternum from mesepimeron (Fig. 17). Metanotum with distinct lens-shaped dorsellum (only visible Fig. 9, a cleared, slide mount) and lateral panel length (toward hind wing articulation) about half length of dorsellum (Fig. 16). Metapleuron triangular, with a narrow anterior extension almost to base of hind wing, the margin at junction with mesopleuron deeply concave and posterior margin straight and vertical. Propodeum with a complete longitudinal groove medially, in lateral view weakly sloping, almost in same plane as dorsellum, in dorsal view with faint median longitudinal groove. Propodeal spiracle facing dorsolaterally in a slight depression and separated from anterior margin of propodeum by about its own diameter. Wings. Fore wing (Figs 4, 8, 19) wide, with completely transparent membrane sparsely scattered with minute microtrichia. Venation complete; submarginal vein with 1 subbasal seta and about 16 bullae, the most apical one at level of proximal macrochaeta (Fig. 8); parastigma, 0.5× submarginal vein length; marginal vein present, its length (from distal macrochaeta) about 2.0× length of parastigma; stigmal vein short but distinct, curving away from wing margin (Fig. 20) then closely paralleling it, with 4 apical campaniform sensilla (Fig. 21b); postmarginal vein present, about 0.8× as long and as thick as marginal vein, with 4 microchaetae along anterior margin; hypochaeta absent (Fig. 8) but one similar to it originating on parastigma (Fig. 20a); proximal campaniform sensillum near posterior margin of marginal vein just beyond apical macrochaeta (far removed from the 4 campaniform sensilla on stigmal vein). Hind wing (Fig. 8) with membrane not extending to base of wing, relatively wide medially, tapering gradually almost to a point apically. Fore wing membrane with one irregular row of microtrichiae basally and two or three distally. Legs. Profemur and metafemur narrow (Fig. 17), metafemur widest, about 2× as wide as mesofemur. Tarsi 5-segmented. Calcar (moveable protibial spur) apparently without setae along outer margin, and with the inner tine about 0.5× as long as outer tine. Middle and hind legs with tarsomere 1 shorter than tarsomere 2. Metasoma. About 2.2× as long as wide, 2.3× as long as high and 0.9× as wide as high; its length, excluding exserted part of ovipositor, about 2.0× that of mesosoma (Fig. 4). Petiole ring-like, about 0.3× as long as wide. Gastral terga apparently with fine longitudinal wrinkles except gt7; gt1 shorter than remaining terga and apparently gt6 the longest tergum, gt7 apically acutely triangular. Cercus a distinctly raised, longer than wide, peg-like plate, with 4 setae (Figs 22, 25). Gt6 with spiracle minute (apparently absent). Hypopygium extending posteriorly well beyond level of cercus (Figs 4, 23, 25). Ovipositor sheath exserted beyond gastral apex by about one third of its total length and abruptly upturned apically, apparently without subapical seta (Figs 22, 24).

Male. Unknown.

Hosts and habitat

Hosts are unknown. The holotype was collected in forest (Girault 1915).

Eustochomorpha haeckeli Girault

Figs 1–3, 4–7, 8–10, 11–18, 19–24, 25–31

Eustochomorpha haeckeli Girault 1915: 156 (original description); Annecke and Doutt, 1961: 4, 14 (key, diagnosis); Dahms, 1984: 675 (holotype data); Lin et al., 2007: 33 (diagnosis in part, figs 129–131).

Type material

Holotype female (QMBA) on slide labelled as shown (Fig. 1). The holotype (Fig. 2) is in uncleared in Canada balsam under 1 coverslip fragment between two other fragments and is poorly mounted more or less dorsoventrally with legs mostly folded up against body; left antenna with clava missing; right antenna (Fig. 3) detached beyond pedicel and positioned next to left (very faint) hind wing; other hind wing detached and its membranous portion hidden under head; right fore wing folded over and partly hidden by legs. Except for estimated body length, measurements of the holotype are not given in the species description below (my measurements were inaccurate when I borrowed the specimen).

Diagnosis

Female. Among extant genera, E. haeckeli is distinguished from the first new genus described below, having a 2-segmented clava (3-segmented in the first new genus), and the ovipositor strongly exserted posteriorly beyond apex of gaster and not extending anteriorly under the mesosoma. It differs from the second new genus described below by the postmarginal vein shorter than the marginal vein (postmarginal vein longer than marginal vein in the second new genus), hypochaeta absent (hypochaeta present in the second new genus), and it differs from Borneomymar by its 2-segmented clava (1-segmented in Borneomymar).

Figures 1–3. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, holotype female. 1 type slide, specimen under middle cover slip 2 body + legs 3 antenna. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Figures 4–7. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, female. 4 habitus (Australia, WA, Stirling Range National Park) 5 head, anterior; 6a head, posterior 6b tentorium 7 antenna. Scale bar for 4 = 500 μm; 5–7 = 100 μm.

Figures 8–10. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, female. 8, wings 9 mesosoma, dorsal 10 metasoma, dorsal. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Figures 11–18. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, female. 11 head + prothorax, lateral 12 head + prothorax, dorsal 13 base of antenna, lateral (right antenna) and ventral (left antenna) 14 apex of antenna 15 mesosoma, dorsal 16 mesosoma, posterolaterodorsal 17 mesosoma, lateral 18 base of wings + mesosoma, lateral (medial portion). Scale bar for 11, 12, 16 = 50 μm; 13, 14, 18 = 20 μm; 15, 17 = 100 μm.

Figures 19–24. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, female. 19 wings 20a parastigma, ventral 20b base of marginal vein, ventral 20c apex of marginal vein, stigma + postmarginal vein, ventral 21a parastigma, dorsal 21b stigma, dorsal 22 gaster apex showing cerci, posterolaterodorsal 23 gaster apex showing cerci, dorsal 24 gaster apex, posterolaterodorsal. Scale bar for 19 = 200 μm; 20a, 20b, 21b, 22–24 = 20 μm; 20c, 21a = 50 μm.

Figures 25–31. 

Eustochomorpha haeckeli, female. 25 gaster apex, lateral 26 ovipositor apex, dorsal 27 ovipositor apex, ventral 28 ovipositor + sheaths, lateral 29 apex of ovipositor + sheaths, lateral 30 ovipositor + sheaths, dorsal 31 apex of sheaths (one sheath folded over on itself). Scale bar for 25 = 50 μm; 26, 27 = 5 μm; 28, 30 = 100 μm; 29, 31 = 20 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈1280 (critical point dried specimen, Stirling Range National Park). Colour. Body mainly brown (Fig. 4). Ocellar triangle, mesothorax and fine longitudinal line laterally on gaster darker brown. Base of gaster, especially basal sterna, legs except metacoxa and metafemur and apical tarsomere of all legs, flagellum and mouthparts except mandibles, and a faint transverse band at level of anterior ocelli lighter brown to white. Head. Width 202. Face with weak reticulate sculpture medially, stronger laterally (Fig. 5), with setae distributed as follows: 3 medial to torulus and 8 ventral to torulus, the 2 submedially above mouth margin the shortest. Vertex smooth anterior to mid ocellus and reticulate posterior to mid ocellus (Fig. 5), with 2 setae on anterior orbit lateral to transverse trabecula and 2 setae on dorsal orbit, in angle between eye and posterior section of supraorbital trabecula; ocellar triangle with 2 short setae lateral to mid ocellus and 1 short setae just posteromedial to lateral ocellus. Malar area apparently with 3 setae. Gena and occiput laterally longitudinally reticulate (Fig. 6a), the reticulations on occiput shallower and transverse medially; occiput with 2 short setae submedially above occipital foramen, about 9 setae sublaterally and laterally; tentorium with two very short dorsal arms (Fig. 6b). Antenna. Fl1–fl8 respectively with 0, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3 mps; clava 1 with 3 (4?) mps on first segment and 5 (6?) mps on second segment (Figs 3, 7). Length/width measurements (n=1): scape 70/27, pedicel 55/26, fl1 33/18, fl2 32/20, fl3 39/25, fl4 40/25, fl5 44/25, fl6 42/25, fl7 42/24, fl8 42/26, clava 112/31 (first segment 42, second segment 69). Mesosoma. Width 200 and length 415. Pronotum with reticulate sculpture, with 3 short setae along posterior margin and 3 towards anterior margin. Propleuron faintly, longitudinally reticulate, with 2 seta about midway between anterior and posterior apices. Prosternum smooth, with 1 seta submedially almost at anterior margin and 1 setae laterally midway between anterior and posterior margins. Mesoscutum faintly longitudinally reticulate, with 1 setae along inner margin midway between anterior and posterior apices of notaulus, and 1 setae at lateral angle of side lobe. Anterior scutellum smooth, with 1 setae on lateral margins level with campaniform sensillum; frenum faintly reticulate. Axilla reticulate, and with 1 seta at anteromedian angle and 1 dorsally on longitudinally reticulate lateral panel; axillula smooth. Metanotum smooth medially, faintly reticulate laterally, with 2 short setae along anterior margin of relatively wide lateral panel. Propodeum smooth, with 2 propodeal setae close together. Wings. Fore wing length (n=1) 723, width 259, length/width 2.98, longest marginal setae 72. Marginal vein with about 11 microchaetae along its length; cubital line with few setae extending to level of distal apex of retinaculum. Hind wing length 685, width 57, longest marginal setae 68. Legs. Femora and tibiae of all legs with faint longitudinal reticulation. Protibia at mid length with 2 short pegs. Metasoma. Petiole 54 wide, 18 long. Gaster 212 wide, 597 long (to apex of apical tergum), with a few short setae on most terga, the terga difficult to distinguish from one another (anterior and posterior margins not distinct) and apparently with fine longitudinal wrinkles at least laterally; gt1 shorter than remaining terga, apparently with 1 lateral setae, gt2 and gt6 apparently with 1 submedian seta; gt3 – gt5 with about 4 submedian to sublateral setae in an irregular transverse row; gt7 acutely triangular, with a small apical seta. Cercus with the first two cerci subequal in length, the third the longest and the fourth the shortest (Fig. 25). Hypopygium weakly sclerotized (almost transparent) dorsally and extending beyond gastral apex by ≈180, with a submedian and lateral row of about 8 setae. Ovipositor length 1074, its exserted part (posterior to hypopygium apex) 360.

Male. Unknown.

Material examined

Two females, collected in Malaise traps in combination with yellow pan traps underneath. AUSTRALIA. Western Australia: Yanchep National Park, 20–21.xii.1986, J.S. Noyes (1♀ on slide, CNC); Stirling Range National Park, 11–15.i.1987, J.S. Noyes (1♀ on point, BMNH).

Neotriadomerus Huber, gen. n.

Figs 32152

Eustochomorpha: Lin et al., 2007: 33 (diagnosis in part, figs 132–134).

Type species

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor Huber, by present designation.

Diagnosis

Female. Antenna with funicle 8-segmented and clava 3-segmented (Figs 39, 69). Venation about 0.85–0.90× fore wing length. Postmarginal vein distinct, uniformly thick and about 1.3–1.6× marginal vein length (Figs 70, 122). Hypochaeta present or, apparently, sometimes absent. Ovipositor strongly extending anteriorly under mesosoma (Figs 59, 74) at least to level of hind wing base but not or only slightly extending posteriorly beyond apex of gaster (Figs 75, 77). Male. Similar to female, but flagellum with 11 relatively wide segments (Figs 40–43, 82, 95), each with several mps; the segments progressively becoming narrower towards flagellar apex, fl11 sometimes only a little over half as wide as fl1. Genitalia encapsulated, with thick walls (Figs 124, 143) and, in lateral view, paramere thick (Figs 65, 66).

Description

Female. Body 1380–5500 in length, excluding basal sac of gaster (enclosing anterior extension of ovipositor). Colour. Generally brown (Figs 81, 128, 144, 146, 147) to dark brown, scape and pedicel, legs in part and sometimes basal sac of gaster lighter brown to yellowish. Wings hyaline, the venation light brown. Head. Head about 2.0–2.9× as wide as long, about 1.2–1.6× as wide as high and about 1.3–2.3× as high as long; in lateral view with anterior surface almost flat, at most barely receding ventral to eye, slightly depressed medially compared to laterally at preorbital groove; posterior surface in lateral view slightly convex except slightly indented at postorbital groove (Figs 33, 45). Face about 1.2–1.3× as wide as high (Fig. 32), in lateral view almost flat, barely receding from ventral margin of eye to mouth opening; subantennal grooves absent; preorbital groove ventral to level of torulus straight all the way to lateral margin of mouth opening. Torulus in somewhat circular depression about 1.2× as high as torulus width and separated by less than 0.4× torulus width from transverse trabecula (Fig. 33). Vertex in lateral view usually almost in same plane as face, but sometimes almost horizontal and forming a right angle with face, and vertex posteriorly forming an almost right angle with occiput and separated from it laterally by a short transverse vertexal suture extending to or just medial to posterior ocellus but absent between posterior ocelli (Fig. 33). Ocellar triangle almost flat or raised slightly above level of rest of vertex, the mid ocellus oblique to almost vertical, lateral ocelli oblique, facing laterally or posterolaterally; ocelli with POL about 2.0× LOL and about 1.7–1.8× OOL (varying slightly with species); ocellar area (in cleared slide mounts) with frontofacial suture (seen as white lines) between mid and lateral ocellus, frontal suture (seen as white lines) from mid ocellus to corner of transverse trabecula, and sometimes also a median longitudinal line from mid ocellus to middle of transverse trabecula (Fig. 116). Transverse trabecula apparently separated (Fig. 67) or not (Figs 36, 37) from supraorbital trabecula; preorbital trabecula short, extending to about level of dorsal margin of torulus; supraorbital trabecula in 2 equal or unequal sections, the anterior sections diverging posteriorly, the posterior, sometimes longer, sections slightly converging, and the sutures outside posterior sections continuing onto occiput as short, almost parallel lines, the occipital grooves, ventrally to level of foramen, thus separating occiput medially from temple laterally (Fig. 68). Eye large with numerous small facets, in lateral view at most about 1.4× as high as wide and clearly but narrowly separated dorsally from back of head (temple in lateral view at most about 0.25× eye width). Ocular apodeme short, straight, and thin (Fig. 119, inset). Malar sulcus absent. Gena at level of ventral margin of eye at most as wide as length of malar space. Head posteriorly with curved postorbital groove extending across head above dorsal margin of occipital foramen to posterior margin of eye (Fig. 68) and separating occiput/temple dorsally from gena/postgena ventrally. Mouthparts. Labrum with 4 or 6 setae; mandible with 4 uneven teeth, the ventral one the longest (Fig. 34). Antenna. Scape about 3.0–3.9× as long as wide, with radicle distinct from rest of scape and about 0.24–0.29× total scape length; pedicel about 1.1–1.6× as long as wide, 0.72–1.09× as wide and about 0.36–0.42× as long as entire scape; funicle 8-segmented (Fig. 69); clava 3-segmented (Fig. 39), 1.07–1.22× as wide as apical funicle segment and 0.18–0.23× as long as entire funicle. Mesosoma. About 1.8–2.4× as long as wide, 2.4–2.8× as long as high and 1.0–1.3× as wide as high (card- or point-mounted specimens, air- or critical-point dried). Pronotum entire, in dorsal view clearly visible, medially about 0.3–0.6× as long as mesoscutum; collar almost horizontal, medially flat to slightly convex and without evident shoulders (Fig. 44); neck not or barely differentiated from collar; in lateral view, pronotum with lateral surface merging smoothly into dorsal surface, with a shallow, oblique ventroanterior impression margined by an oblique groove posteriorly for reception of femur (when fore leg folded against body). Spiracle (Fig. 46) very slightly stalked, at posterolateral angle of pronotum in a slight depression and facing posterodorsally. Propleura near anterior apex not quite abutting then widening more anteriorly towards the cervical sclerites (Fig. 141). Prosternum rhomboidal, almost completely divided medially by longitudinal groove (Fig. 141). Mesoscutum about 1.1–1.6× as long as scutellum, in dorsal view with narrow, distinctly diverging notauli (Fig. 44) appearing in slide mounts wider and shallower near transscutal articulation (Fig. 72), in lateral view almost flat except anteriorly (Figs 45, 81). Scutellum slightly longer than wide (at widest point on frenum), the anterior scutellum narrower and slightly shorter to slightly longer than transversely biconvex frenum and separated from it by an evenly curved frenal line; campaniform sensilla as far apart from each other as to lateral margin of anterior scutellum and slightly farther apart than their distance to transcutal articulation, with apex of cone-shaped fenestra not extending to level of campaniform sensilla. Axilla slightly advanced, the transscutal articulation laterally almost in line with median section, and about as wide anteriorly as width of anterior scutellum at transcutal articulation; axillar pit separated from anterior scutellum by curved axillular groove; mesophragma convex posteriorly, extending to posterior apex of propodeum (Fig. 72, faintly visible under propodeum). Prepectus rather rectangular, at widest point about 0.8× as wide as long. Mesopleuron somewhat spindle shaped, with shallow oblique depression separating mesepisternum from mesepimeron and almost straight groove extending from anterior margin to mesocoxal insertion (Fig. 92). Metanotum with distinct biconvex (slide mount, Fig. 87) or somewhat triangular (SEM, Figs 44, 48) dorsellum and lateral panel length at hind wing articulation about one-third to half length of dorsellum. Metapleuron quadrangular, with almost straight sides (Figs 56, 123). Propodeum in lateral view weakly sloping, almost in same plane as dorsellum and in dorsal view flat medially, without median or submedian grooves or other ornamentation (Figs 44, 46, 56, 72). Propodeal spiracle facing dorsolaterally, separated from anterior margin of propodeum by much less than half its own diameter. Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 113) about 2.6–3.7× as long as wide, evenly and densely covered with microtrichia from wing apex proximally to at most about level of distal macrochaeta but almost without microtrichia behind submarginal vein (Figs 48, 113) and parastigma (Figs 50, 51) and just behind much or all of marginal vein (Fig. 70); an oblique and usually distinct setal line extending more or less horizontally from apical margin of wing to about halfway towards base of marginal vein; cubital line ending proximally either at about same level as remaining mictrotrichiae or extending to base of parastigma; marginal setae short, the longest not more than about 0.13× wing width (Fig. 70). Venation complete (Fig. 122); submarginal vein with 1 proximal seta; parastigma (from distal macrochaeta to base) about 0.5–0.7× submarginal vein length; marginal vein length (from distal macrochaeta to junction of stigmal and postmarginal veins) about 1.2–1.5× parastigma length; stigmal vein short but distinct, about 0.15–0.17× marginal vein length, curving away from wing margin then closely paralleling it (Fig. 122), with 4 apical campaniform sensilla (Fig. 52); postmarginal vein about 1.3–1.6× as long and as thick as marginal vein, with a few microchaetae along anterior margin; hypochaeta usually present, occasionally apparently absent (broken off?), much closer to proximal than distal macrochaeta; proximal campaniform sensillum near posterior margin of marginal vein just apical to distal macrochaeta. Hind wing with membrane not extending to base of wing, relatively wide medially, with a rounded apex, uniformly covered with microtrichia almost to base of membrane (Figs 49, 70). Legs. Profemur and mesofemur narrow; metafemur widest, about 1.4× as wide as mesofemur (Figs 77, 92). Tarsi 5-segmented. Calcar (moveable protibial spur) with setae along outer margin, and with inner tine about 0.4× as long as outer tine (Figs 53, 54). Pretarsus normal (Fig. 55). Mid and hind legs with tarsomere 1 at least as long as tarsomeres 2 + 3. Metasoma. Petiole usually ring-like, about 0.4–0.5× as long as wide (Fig. 72) but in one (the largest) species 0.7–1.0× as long as wide. Gaster 1.18–3.25× as long as mesosoma. Gaster with gt1 and gt6 usually slightly the longest terga (Figs 56, 73, 89, 92). Cercus distinctly raied as a thin flap above surface of gt7 (Fig. 62) with 4 setae about equal in length (Fig. 65). Hypopygium distinct (Fig. 56), extending about 0.3–0.6× length of gaster, sometimes as far as level of spiracle. Ovipositor sheath barely projecting posteriorly beyond apex of gaster but strongly projecting anteriorly (inside basal sac of gaster) from at least middle of mesosoma (Fig. 74) to well in front of head (Fig. 126), apparently with 1 subapical seta. Body sculpture and setation. Sculpture generally uniform and so faint that body often appearing almost smooth and shiny (Figs 81, 82, 126129, 144147). Head with engraved, slightly transverse (longitudinal on gena and postgena) or almost isodiametric reticulations becoming raised and slightly imbricate ventrally on face and on occiput (Figs 32–34). Mesosoma with faint isodiametric to elongate reticulations either transverse, mainly on pronotum, or longitudinal, mainly on scutellum. Metasoma apparently without sculpture (Figs 5662) except anterior apex of basal sac of gaster in at least one species. Head with few to numerous setae on face ventral to toruli, and on gena (Figs 32–34) but one (Fig. 36) or two (Fig. 32) just medial to torulus. Vertex with 2 setae, 1 between mid and lateral ocelli and 1 more laterally. Eye orbit with 3 setae dorsoanteriorly and 3 dorsally and posterodorsally. Occiput with 1 submedial seta dorsally and, more ventrally, 1 seta sublaterally and 1 seta submedially. Gena/postgena with several setae. Pronotum with about 3 setae along posterior margin and about 5 shorter setae anteriorly. Propleuron with a few small scattered setae (Figs 44, 116). Prosternum (Fig. 141) with 1–3 setae mainly in anterior half. Mesosoma with a few short setae (not treated here) around insertions of wings and some longer setae as follows. Mesoscutum with 1 adnotaular seta in posterior half of midlobe, 1 anteromedial and 1 posterolateral seta on lateral lobe and a few small pits (Figs 44–46). Anterior scutellum with 1 seta at lateral margin just anterior to axillular groove (represented by a curved medial edge at junction with frenum). Axilla with 1 anteromedial seta and 1 lateral seta. Propodeum with 2 or, occasionally, 3 propodeal setae laterally behind spiracle. Petiole apparently with 1 minute seta ventrally on anterior margin. Gaster with setae on terga increasing in number from gt1 to gt6 but apparently none on sterna except 1 or 2 short ones laterally on basal sac of gaster and longer ones on hypopygium (Fig. 56). Gt1 with about 3 lateral and 1 dorsal in 1 row; gt2 and gt3 with a few more lateral and dorsal in 1 row; gt4–gt6 with even more in 2 or more irregular rows, those around spiracle often shorter; gt7 with about 10 setae in one row. Hypopygium with about 4 ventral setae. Cerci with 4 fairly long curved setae.

Male. Similar to female. Body 1280–2560 in length (males still unknown for the largest species). Flagellum with 11 relatively wide segments (Figs 40–43, 95). Gaster (card- or point mounted specimens) narrower than mesosoma, laterally compressed, with posterior apex in dorsal view wider and in lateral view usually higher than anterior apex (at petiole). Sculpture and setation of male similar to female but with fewer setae on gt6. Genitalia encapsulated, with thick walls; aedeagal apodemes evenly curved anteriorly towards each other, and shorter than aedeagus; paramere shorter than aedeagus and high in lateral view, with 3 or 4 short apical and ventral setae.

Figures 32–37. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 32 N. gloriosus female head, anterior 33 N. darlingi male head + pronotum, dorsal 34 N. gloriosus lower face + mouthparts, anterior 35 N. gloriosus maxillae + labium, anterior 36 N. longissimus head, scape and mandibles, dorsoanterolateral 37 N. longissimus radicle, anterolateral (and showing 3-way junction of transverse, supraorbital and preorbital trabeculae). Scale bar for 32, 33, 36 = 100 μm; 34 = 50 μm; 35, 37 = 20 μm.

Figures 38–43. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 38 N. longissimus female scape–base of fl2, lateral 39 N. sp. female fl8 + clava, lateral 40 N. darlingi male apex of pedicel–base of fl2, lateral 41 N. darlingi male fl11–fl13, lateral 42 N. darlingi male fl11, lateral 43 N. darlingi male apex of fl11, lateral. Scale bar for 38 = 100 μm; 39, 41 = 50 μm; 40, 42, 43 = 20 μm.

Figures 44–49. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 44 N. darlingi mesosoma, dorsal 45 N. sp. mesosoma, dorsolateral (arrows indicate pores) 46 N. sp. base of left wings (ventral) and surrounding mesosoma, dorsolateral 47 N. darlingi fore wing base, dorsal 48 N. longissimus fore wing base, ventral 49 N. sp., hind wing attachment to fore wing, ventral. Scale bar for 44, 45, 48 = 100 μm; 46, 47, 49 = 50 μm.

Figures 50–55. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 50 N. darlingi male parastigma, dorsal 51 N. longissimus female parastigma, ventral 52 N. darlingi male stigmal vein, dorsal 53 N. longissimus female calcar, lateral 54 N. sp. female calcar, dorsolateral 55 N. sp. female pretarsus, dorsolateral. Scale bar for 50, 53, 54 = 50 μm; 51 = 100 μm; 52, 55 = 20 μm.

Figures 56–60. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 56 N. sp. metasoma, lateral 57 N. sp. metasoma, ventral 58 N. sp. apex of metasoma, ventral 59 N. sp. mesosoma and ovipositor sac, ventral 60 N. sp. apex of ovipositor sac, lateral. Scale bar for 56, 57, 59 = 200 μm; 58, 60 = 50 μm.

Figures 61–66. 

Neotriadomerus spp. 61 N. sp. apex of gaster, lateral 62 N. sp. gt7 + ovipositor apex, lateral 63 N. longissimus ovipositor sac, lateral 64 N. sp. male ovipositor apex, lateral 65 N. darlingi apex of gaster, posterolateral 66 N. powerae male genitalia, lateral. Scale bar for 61 = 100 μm; 62 = 50 μm; 63 = 200 μm; 64–66 = 20 μm.

Etymology

The name is masculine. The prefix Neo is Greek for new or recent, young, + Triadomerus, apparently the closest related genus.

Distribution

Neotriadomerus species occur only in Australia where seven are described (below) and as many as four others are illustrated (Figs 144152) but not named. No fossil species are known.

Hosts and habitat

Hosts are unknown. The estimated ovipositor length, when fully extended, is about 12 mm for the largest species of Neotriadomerus. This suggests that its host might be eggs of Orthoptera laid quite deeply inside plant tissue or in soil. Perhaps only Orthoptera, but possibly Coleoptera or Cicadidae, would have eggs long enough to host a developing female parasitoid (5.9 mm long) of this species. Specimens of Neotriadomerus have been collected in a variety of habitats in all Australian states except Victoria and Tasmania. Some specimens have been collected at light, suggesting they may be active at night. Noyes and Valentine (1989: 28, and figs 49, 50) discussed Australomymar Girault, illustrated two of the largest species, and suggested that eggs of Orthoptera or Cicadidae might be their hosts. Several specimens (NZAC, UCRC) of the species shown in Noyes and Valentine fig. 50, are ≈55 mm long excluding the posteriorly exserted section of the ovipositor and the longest one is 6.9 mm (NZAC) (S. Triapitsyn, D. Ward, personal communication). A much smaller, undescribed specimen (CNC) of Australomymar, was reared from an unidentified taxon of Tettigoniidae from Pinus radiata D. Don (Pinaceae) in Chile. I suggest here that Orthoptera might also be the hosts of Neotriadomerus.

Key to species of Neotriadomerus

Females.

1 Body 5000 long; ovipositor at least 5900 long, extending anteriorly under mesosoma to well beyond level of head (Fig. 126); mandible massive (Fig. 36) N. longissimus sp. n.
Body at most about 2600 long; ovipositor at most 2240 long, extending under mesosoma at most to level of head (Figs 114, 115); mandible much smaller (Figs 32, 33, 67) 2
2(1) Fore wing with cubital line of setae extending proximally to base of parastigma, i.e., clearly proximal to other microtrichia on wing surface (Figs 70, 79, 103, 132) 3
Fore wing with cubital line of setae extending proximally only to apex of parastigma, about level with other microtrichia on wing surface (Figs 86, 113) 9
3(2) Fl1 with 2 mps; fl2 with about 4 (5?) mps (Fig. 69) N. burwelli sp. n.
Fl1 with at least 4 mps; fl2 with at least 6 mps (Figs 78, 102, 131) 4
(3) Fl2 with 2 barely overlapping whorls of mps (Figs 144, 147) 5
Fl2 with 1 whorl of mps (Fig. 102) 6
5(4) Fl8 length/width 2.6 (Fig. 144) N. sp. 1
Fl8 length/width 2.2 (Fig. 147) N. sp. 3
6(4) Fl1 about 0.7× as long as fl2 (Fig. 102); remaining funicle segments longer and narrower, with fl2 and fl8, respectively, 2.5× and 2.0× as long as wide N. gloriosus sp. n.
Fl1 at least 0.9× as long as fl2 (Figs 78, 131); remaining funicle segments shorter and wider, with fl2 and fl8, respectively, at most 2.1× and 1.9× as long as wide 7
7(6) Fl2–fl7 each slightly more than 2.0 × as long as wide; clava about 3.2× as long as wide N. powerae sp. n.
Fl2–fl7 each at most 1.6× as long as wide; clava about 2.6× as long as wide (Fig. 78) 8
8(7) Fl2–fl3 each about 1.6× as long as wide N. crassus sp. n.
Fl2–fl3 each almost quadrate N. sp. 2
9(2) Ovipositor extending anteriorly under mesosoma to level of head (Figs 114, 115), at least about 3.6× as long as metatibia; funicle with at least 9 mps on each segment (Fig. 112) N. longiovipositor sp. n.
Ovipositor extending anteriorly under mesosoma to level of apex of procoxa (Fig. 92), at most about 2.8× as long as metatibia; funicle with 6 mps on each segment (Fig. 85) N. darlingi sp. n.

Key to species of Neotriadomerus

Males.

Males of darlingi, longiovipositor and powerae are known and almost certainly correctly associated with the corresponding females; males are unknown for N. burwelli, N. crassus, N. gloriosus and N. longissimus. Two unnamed males are also keyed; one (sp. 4) is not definitely associated with a female and the other (sp. 1) is definitely associated with a female.

1 Fore wing with cubital line of setae extending at least to base of parastigma, clearly proximal to other microtrichia on wing surface (Fig. 139) 2
Fore wing with cubital line of setae extending at most to apex of parastigma (level with distal macrochaeta), about level with other microtrichia on wing surface (Fig. 95) 4
2(1) Fl6 wider, its length/width about 1.8 (Fig. 150) Neotriadomerus sp. 4
Fl6 narrower, its length/width at least 2.0 (Fig. 138) 3
3(2) Fl6 about 2.0 N. powerae sp. n.
Fl6 about 3.5 N. sp. 1
4(1) Flagellomeres each with 2 barely overlapping whorls of shorter mps (Fig. 121) N. longiovipositor sp. n.
Flagellomeres each with 1 whorl of longer mps (Fig. 95) N. ? darlingi sp. n.

Neotriadomerus burwelli Huber, sp. n.

Figs 67–68, 69–71, 72, 73, 74–75

Type material

Holotype female (QMBA) on slide (Fig. 71) labelled: 1.“Mahogany forest, 1200m Mt Moffatt Nat. Pk, C. Qld 24°56'S, 148°04'E 24-26 Feb 1996 C.J. Burwell mv lamp”. 2. “Holotype Neotriadomerus burwelli Huber ♀”.

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus burwelli differs from the other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus, as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending proximally to base of parastigma (Fig. 70); fl1 with 2 mps, fl2 with 4 mps and almost 2× as long as fl1, and fl2–fl5 each at least 2.0× as long as wide and with at most 6 long mps in 1 whorl (Fig. 69); ovipositor 2.7× as long as metatibia and extending anteriorly under mesosoma as far as apex of procoxa (Fig. 74).

Figures 67, 68. 

Neotriadomerus burwelli, holotype. 67 head, anterior 68 head, posterior. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Figures 69–71. 

Neotriadomerus burwelli, holotype. 69a right antenna, medial 69b same antenna, lateral (as seen through antenna) 70 wings 71 holotype slide. Scale bar = 300 μm.

Figures 72, 73. 

Neotriadomerus burwelli, holotype. 72 mesosoma, dorsal 73 metasoma, dorsal. Scale bar = 300 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈ 1590 (holotype). Colour. Holotype body almost uniformly dark brown; legs brown, with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and entire protibia, base and apex of meso- and metatibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 paler, almost white; tarsomere 5 brown. Head. Head width 305 (Figs 67, 68). Antenna. Fl1 about 0.5 as long as fl2, with 2 mps; fl2 the longest funicle segment, with 4 mps; fl3–fl7 with 4–6 mps; fl8 with 7? mps. Clava with about 12 mps, 5 on first, 2 on second and 5 on third segment (Fig. 69). Antennal measurements (n=1), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape 119/20 (3.91), pedicel 50/31 (1.62), fl1 63/27 (2.32), fl2 82/29 (2.82/3.10 [left and right antenna different]), fl3 77/28 (2.80), fl4 73/30 (2.46), fl5 79/28 (2.79/2.36 [left and right antenna different]), fl6 70/30 (2.38), fl7 70/31 (2.27), fl8 69/34 (2.00); entire clava 118/41 (2.89), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin] 44, 21, and 54. Mesosoma. Width 250, length 514. Wings. Fore wing length 1074, width 386, length/width 2.78, longest marginal setae 60; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 70). Hind wing length 862, width 118, longest marginal setae ≈ 66. Legs. Protibia with 5 short pegs along its length and a transverse row of 4 abutting pegs apically (as in Fig. 53). Metasoma. Metasoma in dorsal view 300 at widest point, gradually widening from petiole to about 0.6 of gaster length towards apex, then more abruptly narrowing to cerci (Fig. 73). Gaster length 745, about 1.45× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt7 lengths about 220: 105: 100: 100; 130: 98 (Fig. 73); hypopygium (apex difficult to see) extending about 0.7× length of gaster. Ovipositor sheath length 1041, 2.64× metatibia length (394) and extending anteriorly to just anterior apex of procoxae (Fig. 74) and posteriorly slightly beyond apex of gaster (Figs 73, 75).

Male. Unknown.

Etymology

The species is named after Chris Burwell, curator of insects at the Queensland Museum, who collected the only known specimen of this species.

Neotriadomerus crassus Huber, sp. n.

Figs 76–77, 78–80

Type material

Holotype female (ANIC) on slide (Fig. 80) labelled: 1. “Black Mountain, ACT 28-29 Mar. 1968 light trap”. 2. “Neotriadomerus crassus ♀ lateral holotype”.

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus crassus differs from the other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending proximally to about base of parastigma (Fig. 79); fl1–fl8 relatively short, each at most 1.65× as long as wide and with at least 8 mps (Fig. 78).

Figures 74, 75. 

Neotriadomerus burwelli, holotype. 74 mesosoma, ventral 75 metasoma, ventral (seen through body). Scale bar = 300 μm.

Figures 76, 77. 

Neotriadomerus crassus, holotype. 76 head + anterior of mesosoma, dorsolateral 77 mesosoma + metasoma (ovipositor broken off near base of hypopygium), dorsolateral. Scale bar for 76 = 200 μm; 77 = 500 μm.

Figures 78–80. 

Neotriadomerus crassus, holotype. 78 antenna 79 wings 80 type slide. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈ 1685 (holotype). Colour. Body almost uniformly dark brown; legs brown, with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and entire protibia, base and apex of meso- and metatibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 of all legs and metatarsomere 1 paler, almost white; tarsomere 5 brown and metatarsomere 1 light brown. Head. Width not measurable (Fig. 76). Antenna. Fl1 slightly longer than fl2, apparently with 8 mps; fl2–fl8 with 8 mps (possibly 9 or 10 on fl7 and fl8); clava with about 22 mps, 8 on first, 6 on second and 8 on third segment (Fig. 78). Antennal measurements (n=1), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape 145/47 (3.10), pedicel 58/42 (1.37), fl1 86/56 (1.53), fl2 84/52 (1.60), fl3 82/50 (1.63), fl4 81/50 (1.63), fl5 86/53 (1.62), fl6 82/51 (1.59), fl7 78/50 (1.57), fl8 76/48 (1.58); entire clava 143/55 (2.59), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin], 46, 35, and 64. Mesosoma. Width not measurable, length 580. Wings. Fore wing length 1154, width 397, length/width 2.91, longest marginal setae 46; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 79). Hind wing length 942, width 130, longest marginal setae 66. Legs. Protibia with 6 short, thick pegs along its length and transverse row of 4 abutting pegs apically (as in Fig. 53). Metasoma. Metasoma (Fig. 77) in lateral view 224 at highest point, gradually widening from petiole to about 0.6 of gaster length towards apex, then more abruptly narrowing to cerci. Gaster length 765, about 1.63× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt6 lengths about ≈ 156, ≈ 94, 87, 112, 118, 152; hypopygium (Fig. 77, positioned at right angle to metasoma) extending about 0.7× length of gaster, extending to about halfway towards apex of tergum 5. Ovipositor broken and partly missing, with estimated length (from basal loop to posterior apex of sheath) ≈ 864, about 2.11× metatibia length (410), extending anteriorly to about level of apex of mesocoxae and extending posteriorly slightly beyond apex of gaster (Fig. 77).

Male. Unknown.

Etymology

The species name, crassus, is Latin for thick or stout, referring to the fairly short, thick funicle segments in females.

Neotriadomerus darlingi Huber, sp. n.

Figs 33, 40–43, 44, 47, 50, 52, 65, 81, 82, 83–86, 87–89, 90–92, 93–96, 97–99

Type material

Holotype female (ANIC) on slide (Fig. 84), labelled: 1. “Australia: Sth Aust. 32 km N. Renmark, 263m 33°53'S, 140°43'E, 15.ii-15.iv.2000, DC Darling”. 2. “Bookmark Biosphere Rsv. Malaise trps (4) Amalia Dam xeric mallee scrub ROM 2000040”. 3. “Neotriadomerus darlingi Huber Holotype ♀ dorsal”.

Paratypes. 3 females, 1 male. AUSTRALIA. South Australia: Same locality data as holotype (1 ♀ and 1♂, ROM, CNC); 35 km N Renmark, 263m, 33°52'48"S; 140°43'30"E, 11-14.ii.2000, D.C. Darling, Bookmark Biosphere Reserve, Malaise trap, Amalia Dam, mallee vegetation, ROM 2000030 (1♀, ANIC). Western Australia: 85 km E. Southern Cross, Boorabbin National Park, 28.xii.1986, J.S. Noyes (1♀, BMNH)

Two males with the following data questionably belong to this species so are not labelled as paratypes. They were collected from South Australia, Brookfield Conservation Park, 34.21°S, 139.29°E, 17 & 18.ii.1992, J. Cardale, A. Roach, light trap (2♂, ANIC) and one is illustrated (Figs 9399). Both sexes need to be collected together from Brookfield Conservation Area to be more certain of their conspecificity with the holotype.

Figure 81. 

Neotriadomerus darlingi, paratype female, habitus lateral (35 km N. Renmark, 263 m, 11–14.ii.2000). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Figure 82. 

Neotriadomerus darlingi, paratype male, habitus dorsal (35 km N. Renmark, 263 m, 15.ii–15.iv.2000). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus darlingi differs from the other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending proximally to about level of other microtrichia (Fig. 86); funicle segments with at most 6 mps (Fig. 85); ovipositor 2.57–2.74× as long as metatibia (Fig. 92).

Description

Female. Body length 1420–1560 (n=2, card-mounted paratypes). Colour. Body (Fig. 81) almost uniformly dark brown; fore leg yellow except procoxa brownish basally, ventral surface of profemur and tarsomere 5 brown; middle and hind legs lighter brown with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and entire protibia, base and apex of meso- and metatibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 paler, almost white; metafemur medially and tarsomere 5 brown; ovipositor sheath with lighter band subapically (Figs 81, 88, 89). Head. Width ≈ 320–346 (card-mounted) and 358 (slide mounted specimen from WA, Figs 90, 91). Antenna. Fl1 slightly shorter than to almost equal to fl2, with 5 mps (Fig. 85); fl2–fl8 with 6 mps. Clava with 10 or 11 mps, 5 or 6 on first, 2 on second and 4 on third segment. Antennal measurements (n=2, first number is for the holotype, a slightly smaller specimen), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape 124–126/37–40 (3.37–2.51), pedicel 50–56/39–41 (1.29–1.36), fl1 70–74/38–45 (1.85–1.65), fl2 80–75/34–40 (2.36–1.88), fl3 77–76/34–38 (2.26–1.97), fl4 78–75/35–38 (2.24–1.96), fl5 79–76/33–38 (2.39–2.01), fl6 76–74/33–37 (2.28–2.20), fl7 77–78/34–39 (2.23–2.13), fl8 76/34–40 (2.25–1.89); entire clava 141–142/39–42 (3.63–3.40), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin], 48–50, 25, and 67–68. Mesosoma. Width 225 (holotype), length 628–656, with 2 propodeal setae (Fig. 87). Wings. Fore wing length 1045–1118, width 383–412, length/width 2.71–2.73, longest marginal setae ≈ 51–61; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 86). Hind wing length ≈ 870–890, width 121–140, longest marginal setae ≈ 58–62. Legs. Protibia with 4 or 5 short, thick pegs along its length and a transverse row of 2 or 3 abutting pegs apically. Metasoma. Metasoma in lateral view 255–360 at highest point, gradually widening from petiole to about 0.4–0.7 of gaster length towards apex, then more abruptly narrowing to cerci (Fig. 89). Gaster length (holotype, second measurement) 776–858, 1.18–1.36× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt7 lengths about ≈ 162–170, ≈ 136–144, 98–126, 113–177, 132–186, 209–146, 53–58; hypopygium extending about 0.6× length of gaster, about to apex of tergum 4. Ovipositor sheath length ≈ 946–1050, about 2.57–2.74× metatibia length (368–383), extending anteriorly to apex of procoxa (or anterior margin of frenum) and extending posteriorly to a little beyond apex of gaster (Figs 88, 89, 92).

Male. Body length 1330 (point-mounted paratype) and 1230 (slide-mounted specimen, Brookfield Conservation Area). Colour as for female but with legs almost entirely brown (Fig. 82). Head. If correctly associated, as for female (Figs 93, 94). Antenna. Fl1 with about 13 mps and about 1.5× as wide as fl11 with about 7 mps (Fig. 95); total length of flagellum 475. Antennal measurements length/width (slide-mounted specimen): scape 120/41 (2.90), pedicel 47/43 (1.09), fl1 92/53 (1.75), fl2 105/48 (2.24), fl3 108/48 (2.24), fl4 104/44 (2.38), fl5 109/43 (2.54), fl6 100/42 (2.41), fl7 98/41 (2.39), fl8 97/43 (2.24), fl9, 96/41 (2.35), fl10 86/39 (2.22), fl11 92/35 (2.64); fl6 with about 11 mps. Mesosoma. Length 620, width 290 (Fig. 97). Wings. If correctly associated, as for female (Fig. 96). Metasoma. Pedicel length/width 30/75 (Fig. 98). Gaster length ≈ 785. Genitalia with capsule thick-walled, aedeagal apodeme thick and shorter than aedeagus; paramere thick and apically curved medially (Fig. 99).

Etymology

The species is named after Chris Darling, curator of Entomology at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, who collected the type series.

Figures 83–86. 

Neotriadomerus darlingi, holotype. 83 head, anterolateral 84 type slide 85 antenna 86 wings. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Figures 87–89. 

Neotriadomerus darlingi, holotype. 87 mesosoma, dorsal 88 metasoma, lateral, with ovipositor unsheathed 89 metasoma enlarged, lateral. Scale bar for 87 = 200 μm; 88, 89 = 500 μm. Note: 88 and 89 are flipped horizontally (gaster apex pointing left in holotype slide).

Figures 90–92. 

Neotriadomerus darlingi, paratype female (Boorabbin National Park). 90 head, anterior 91 head, posterior 92 mesosoma, legs and metasoma, lateral. Scale bar for 90, 91 = 200 μm; 92 = 500 μm.

Figures 93–96. 

Neotriadomerus ? darlingi, paratype male (Brookfield Conservation Area). 93 head, anterior 94 head, posterior 95 antenna 96 wings. Scale bar for 93–95 = 200 μm; 96 = 500 μm.

Figures 97–99. 

Neotriadomerus ? darlingi, paratype male (Brookfield Conservation Area). 97 mesosoma, dorsal 98 metasoma, dorsal (gt7 broken off) 99 genitalia, dorsal. Scale bar for 97, 98 = 300 μm; 99 = 100 μm.

Neotriadomerus gloriosus Huber, sp. n.

Figs 32, 34, 35, 100–103, 104–107

Type material

Holotype female (QMBA) on slide (Fig. 107), labelled: 1. “Mt. Glorious, S.E. Qld. Hiller March 1982 Malaise trap”. 2. “Neotriadomerus gloriosus Huber ♀ dorsal holotype”.

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus gloriosus differs from the other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus, as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 103); fl2–fl5 each at least 2.0× as long as wide and with at most 6 long mps in 1 whorl (Fig. 102).

Figures 100–103. 

Neotriadomerus gloriosus, holotype. 100 head, anterior 101 head, posterior 102a right antenna 102b left antenna 103 wings. Scale bar for 100, 101 = 200 μm; 102, 103 = 500 μm.

Figures 104–107. 

Neotriadomerus gloriosus, holotype. 104 mesosoma, dorsal 105 metasoma, lateral 106 metasoma, median plane 107 type slide. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈ 1840 (holotype). Colour. Holotype body almost uniformly dark brown; legs brown, with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and entire protibia, and base and apex of meso- and metatibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 paler, almost white; tarsomere 5 brown. Head. Head width 374 (Figs 100, 101). Antenna. Fl1 about 0.7× as long as fl2, with 4 mps; fl2 slightly the longest funicle segment, with 8 mps; fl3–fl8 with 8 (9? on fl8) mps; clava with about 18 mps, 8 on first, 4 on second and 6 (8?) on third segment (Fig. 102). Antennal measurements (n=1), length/width (ratios of flagellar segments, different for each antenna so left antenna, except scape of right antenna, measured—the left antenna has narrower funicle segments): scape 152/49 (3.10), pedicel 57/43 (1.32), fl1 91/50 (1.84), fl2 118/48 (2.47), fl3 114/46 (2.48), fl4 111/46 (2.43), fl5 105/46 (2.29), fl6 99/45 (2.21), fl7 99/47 (2.09), fl8 92/46 (1.98); entire clava 148/52 (2.82), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin] 56, 28, and 64. Mesosoma. Width 324, length 711, with 2 propodeal setae (Fig. 104). Wings. Fore wing length 1367, width 486, length/width 2.81, longest marginal setae 77; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 103). Hind wing length 1109, width 157, longest marginal setae 78. Legs. Protibia with 6 or 7 short, thick pegs along its length and a transverse row of 4 abutting pegs apically (as in Fig. 53). Metasoma. Metasoma height in lateral view 225 (excluding lowered hypopygium) (Figs 105, 106). Gaster length 1002, about 1.41× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt7 lengths about 170: 166: 151: 118: 130: 209 [measurement of a tergum excludes the telescoped portion inside another (more anterior) tergum]; hypopygium extending posteriorly to about level of spiracle. Ovipositor sheath length 1274, ≈ 2.54× metatibia length (≈ 502), extending anteriorly to about level of apex of procoxa and extending posteriorly only slightly beyond apex of gaster (Fig. 105, 106) [apparently extending more than normal because ovipositor not at its normal resting position, i.e., filling entire length of basal sac of gaster, whose almost membranous apex is distinctly folded over (Fig. 105, arrow)].

Male. Unknown.

Etymology

The species is named after the type locality, Mt. Glorious National Park.

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor Huber, sp. n.

Figs 108–111, 112–115, 116–118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125

Type material

Holotype female (ANIC) on slide (Fig. 111) labelled: 1. “15.17S 145.10E 5Km WbyN Rounded Hill nr Hope Vale Mission Q 7 Oct. 1980 J.C. Cardale ex ethanol”. 2. “Neotriadomerus longiovipositor Huber Holotype ♀ dorsal”.

Paratypes. 4 females, 4 males, 1 deformed male (gynandromorph?). AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Batavia Downs, 12.40°S; 142.39°E, 22.vi–23.viii.1992, P. Zborowski & J. Cardale, flight interception trap (1♂, ANIC); NW of Chillagoe near historical mine site, 17°08'40"S; 144°30'16"E, 30.iii.1992, E.C. Dahms & G. Sarnes (1♂, QMBA); 18.5 km W. Gordonvale, 13.xi.1979, E.C. Dahms, J.B. Woolley & J. LaSalle, open forest (1♀, QDPC); Heathlands, 11.45°S; 142.35°E, 15–26.i.1992, I. Naumann, T. Weir, at light (1♀, ANIC); Millstream Falls National Park, 17.41°S; 145.26°E, 24–25.v.1980, I.D. Naumann, J.C. Cardale (1 deformed ♂, ANIC); 5 km W. by N. Rounded Hill near Hope Vale Mission, 15.17°S, 145.10°E; 7-10.v.1981, I.D. Naumann (1♀, ANIC); 15.16°S; 144.59°E 14 km W. by N. Hope Vale Mission. 8-18.x.1980, J.C. Cardale, collected at light (1♂, ANIC); Ross River resevoir, 10 km S. Townsville, 19° 27'S; 146° 44'E, 27.xi.1991, C.J. Burwell (1♂, QMBA); near Swamp Mitchell Plateau airfield, 14.47°S; 125.49°E, 18.v.1983, I.D. Naumann, J.C. Cardale (1♀, ANIC).

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor differs from the other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus, as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending proximally to about level of other microtrichia (Fig. 113); ovipositor extending anteriorly under mesosoma at least to level of head (Figs 114, 115); funicle segments with mps in two widely overlapping whorls (Fig. 112). Male flagellomeres with mps in two scarcely overlapping whorls (Fig. 121).

Figures 108–111. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, holotype. 108 head, anterior 109 mouthparts and tentorium 110 head, posterior 111 holotype slide. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Figures 112–115. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, holotype. 112 antenna 113 wings 114 mesosoma + metasoma, dorsal (inset shows fenestra of scutellum) 115 mesosoma + metasoma, ventral as seen dorsally through body. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Figures 116–118. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, female paratypes. 116 head + anterior of mesosoma, dorsal (near Swamp Mitchell Plateau Airfield) 116 metasoma, lateral (18.5 km W. Gordonvale) 117 metasoma, median plane 118 metasoma, lateral. Scale bar for 116 = 200 μm; 117, 118 = 1000 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈ 1700–2250 (n=6). Colour. Body (before slide mounting one specimen) uniformly shiny black except mouthparts brown; antenna dark brown but scape and pedicel ventrally slightly lighter; pro- and mesocoxa dark brown except extreme apices yellowish, metacoxa dorsally almost black; the rest of each leg yellowish except for femur ventrally of fore- and mid leg, entire femur except extremities of hind leg, and apical tarsomere of all legs brown. Head. Head width 344–412 (Figs 108, 110). Antenna. Fl1 slightly shorter than fl2, with 8 (9?) mps; fl2 slightly the longest funicle segment, with 9–12 mps; fl3–fl8 with 9–12 (13?) mps; clava with 22 mps, 8 on first, 6 on second and 8 on third segment (Fig. 112). Antennal measurements (n=4), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape 174–194/47–65 (2.99–3.78), pedicel 57–66/40–46 (1.30–1.67), fl1 85–104/44–57 (1.83–1.95), fl2 88–108/45–52 (1.88–2.19), fl3 80–109/43–52 (1.72–2.11), fl4 72–84/44–47 (1.65–1.97), fl5 70–102/42–47 (1.66–2.19), fl6 68–97/43–50 (1.56–1.94), fl7 65–96/41–44 (1.54–2.17), fl8 63–64/42–46 (1.41–1.49); entire clava 126–128/49/53 (2.43–2.59), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin] 40–46, 29–31, and 50–60 (the paratype from 18.5 km W. Gordonvale was the largest specimen but had fl8 and clava missing from both antennae so the maximum lengths in the ranges given above for those segments are smaller than they should be). Mesosoma. Mesosoma length 617–678, width 317–327 (n=3, slide mounts), height ≈ 280 (critical point dried paratype). Wings. Fore wing length (n=3) 1118–1208, width 407–432, length/width 2.71–2.80, longest marginal setae ≈ 54–62; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 113). Hind wing length ≈ 914–1052, width 120–136, longest marginal setae ≈ 50–67. Legs. Protibia with 5 or 6 (on specimen with only 2 on one leg) short, thick pegs along its length and a transverse row of 3 or 4 abutting pegs apically (as in Fig. 53). Metasoma. Metasoma height in lateral view ≈ 480 (including slightly lowered hypopygium, critical point dried paratype) or 320–400 (three slide mounted paratypes). Gaster length 918–1453, about 1.49–2.12× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt7 lengths about 204–244, 190–236, 136–266, 130–207, 114–209, 218–320, ≈ 24–59 [measurement of a tergum excludes the telescoped portion inside another (more anterior) tergum]; hypopygium extending posteriorly to about apex of gt3 to halfway between anterior and posterior margin of gt4. Ovipositor length 1445–2238, ≈ 3.58–4.82× metatibia length (≈ 380–472) and extending anteriorly to level of head or beyond (Figs 114, 115) and not extending posteriorly beyond apex of gaster (Figs 114, 115), except in one paratype (Figs 117, 118).

Male. Colour. As for female. Head. Head (Figs 119, 120) width 380–436 (n=4). Antenna. Measurements, length/width (n=3): scape 170–214/56–67, pedicel 57–68/46–52, flagellar segments: fl1 117–122/55–63, fl2 109–134/52–58, fl3 103–136/50–62, fl4 105–130/47–56, fl5 102–125/48–55, fl6 98–127/50, fl7 96–120/48–52, fl8 89–120/44–53, fl9 84–112/45–48, fl10 76–104/42–48, fl11 90–118/36–43; total flagellar length 1068–1349; fl6 length/width ratio 1.98–2.54, with about 17–19 mps in two slightly overlapping whorls (Fig. 121). Mesosoma. Mesosoma length 780–860, about 0.80–1.22× as long as metasoma length (680–1020); propodeum with 2 propodeal setae, rarely 3 on one side. Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 122) length (n=3) 1191–1320, width 446–495, length/width, 2.56–2.67, longest marginal setae 58–68; cubital line extending to about level of other microtrichia. Hind wing length 921–1024, width 132–158, longest marginal setae 52–65. Metasoma. Petiole length 35–36, width 70–76 (n=2). Gaster length 780–860; gt1–gt5 each with a row of about 5 lateral and dorsal setae on each side (apparently without dorsal setae on gt1), and gt6 with about 6 long dorsal setae on each side and about 20 short lateral setae (Fig. 123). Genitalia (Fig. 124, 125) with paramere in lateral view higher than wide and blunt apically, with 2 short apicoventral setae close together and 2 or 3 short subapical setae more widely spaced.

Etymology

The name is a noun in apposition, referring to the long ovipositor (the second longest in the genus) that extends anteriorly to the head.

Figures 119, 120. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, male paratype (14 km W. by N. Hope Vale Mission). 119 head, anterior (inset shows ocular apophysis or apodeme) 120 head, posterior. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Figures 121, 122. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor. 121 male antenna, paratype (14 km W. by N. Hope Vale Mission) 122 wings. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Figures 123, 124. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, male paratype (14 km W. by N. Hope Vale Mission). 123 mesosoma, legs + metasoma, lateral 124 genitalia, lateral. Scale bar for 123 = 1000 μm; 124 = 200 μm.

Figure 125. 

Neotriadomerus longiovipositor, male paratype (near historical mine site, NW of Chillagoe). Gaster, median plane showing genitalia. Scale bar = 300 μm.

Neotriadomerus longissimus Huber, sp. n.

Figs 36–37, 38, 48, 51, 53, 63, 126, 127

Type material

Holotype female (ANIC) on point labelled: 1. “Blundells ACT 27 Feb 1951 H M Cage”. 2. “Holotype Neotriadomerus longissimus Huber ♀”.

Paratype. 1 female. AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Brisbane Forest Park, 27°25'04"S; 152°49'48"E, 23–29.x.1998, N. Power, dry sclerophyll, MT (1♀, CNC).

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus longissimus differs from other species of Neotriadomerus as follows: body 5000—almost twice the length of any other species (Fig. 126); head cuboidal, with vertex horizontal, almost at right angle to the face (Fig. 126); mid ocellus almost in contact with the transverse trabecula; mandible massive (Fig. 36); gaster with basal sac extending anteriorly well anterior to head (Figs 38, 63, 126, 127).

Figures 126, 127. 

Neotriadomerus longissimus, paratype, lateral (Brisbane Forest Park). 126 habitus, lateral 127 anterior body, enlarged. Scale bar for 126 = 2000 μm; 127 = 1000 μm.

Description

Female. Body length 5000–5450 (n=2, card and point-mounted holotype and paratype), excluding basal sac of gaster (5900–6300 if this included). Colour. Holotype body black except for brown mandibles, scutellum, and most of middle segments of metasoma; legs and apex of anterior extension of ovipositor brownish yellow; paratype body (Figs 126, 127) uniformly brown, except for almost black head and scape brown, legs mostly yellow except for partly or almost entirely brown coxae and metafemur, anterior extension of ovipositor from level of head almost white (Figs 126, 127). Head. Head width 640–690. Vertex horizontal, forming almost right angle with face, with ocelli in anterior half and mid ocellus in contact with transverse trabecula. Eye almost circular, slightly narrower ventrally than dorsally. Gena at dorsal and ventral margins of eye almost equally wide. Mandible massive, extending ventral to head by at least half face height. Antenna. Each funicle segment in lateral view at least twice its width as in dorsal view, with about 25–30 short mps in 3 more or less overlapping whorls (Fig. 38). Clava with about 10 mps on each segment. Antennal measurements (n=2), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape 297-317/109–119 (2.58–2.91), pedicel 54–69/59–69 (1.08–1.07), fl1 228/109–119 (1.92–2.09), fl2 262–267/89–109 (2.45–2.94), fl3 248–257/89–99 (2.60–2.78), fl4 238–248/79 (3.00–3.13), fl5 228/69–74 (3.07–3.29), fl6 198–218/69 (2.86–3.14), fl7 178–198/69 (2.57–2.86), fl8 168–178/69 (2.23–2.57), entire clava 267/64–69 (3.86–4.05), with segments 1–3, respectively, 109, 69 and 89–99 long. Mesosoma. Mesosoma length 110–120. Wings. Fore wing length (n=2) 2460–2790, width 670–845, length/width 3.30–3.72, longest marginal setae 100; cubital line of setae extending halfway between apex and base of parastigma (about midway between level of proximal and distal macrochaetae). Hind wing length 1970–1790, width 205–230, longest marginal setae 100–130. Metasoma. Metasoma (paratype only) in dorsal view thin, 260 at its widest (near apex) and 80 at its narrowest, its length (near middle) 345 and 390 (holotype and paratype), 3.18–3.25× as long as mesosoma; in lateral view 435 high (near apex) and 205 (near middle); gt1–gt7 lengths (paratype only) 715: 690: 155: 715: 740: 435: 80; hypopygium extending about 0.3× length of gaster. Ovipositor sheath length (n=2) 5900–6300, 6.23–7.9× metatibia length (795–950) and extending anteriorly to well in front of head but barely extending posterior to apex of gaster (Fig. 126).

Male. Unknown.

Etymology

The species name, longissimus, is Latin for longest, referring the extremely long gaster.

Neotriadomerus powerae Huber, sp. n.

Figs 128, 129, 130–132, 133–135, 136–139, 140–143

Type material

Holotype female (ANIC) on slide (Fig. 130) labelled: 1. “Australia: Qld. Brisbane Forest Park, 27°25'04"S 152°49'48"E 29.xi-5.xii.1997, dry sclerophyll, N. Power, Mt”. 2. “Neotriadomerus powerae Huber ♀ dorsal holotype”.

Paratypes. 1 female, 3 males. AUSTRALIA. Queensland: Same data as holotype but 14–20.iii.1998 (1♀ and 1♂, CNC), 28.xi.1998 (1♂, ANIC), 26.ix-2.x.1999 (1♂, ANIC). The collector stated that the specimens were collected in a Malaise trap set across a creek bed running through the base of an occasionally flooded gully between two sections of dry sclerophyll.

Diagnosis

Neotriadomerus powerae differs from other small (body length less than 2600) species of Neotriadomerus as follows: fore wing with cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 132); fl2–fl7 each just over twice as long as wide, with at least 8 mps and clava with 6 mps on each segment (Fig. 131).

Figure 128. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, paratype female habitus, dorsal (Brisbane Forest Park). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Figure 129. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, paratype male habitus, lateral (Brisbane Forest Park). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Description

Female. Body length ≈ 1560 (holotype). Colour. Body (Fig. 128) almost uniformly dark brown; legs brown, with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and entire protibia, and base and apex of meso- and metatibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 paler, almost white; tarsomere 5 brown. Head. Head width 363 (holotype). Antenna. Fl1 almost as long as fl2, with 8 mps; fl2 about equal to fl3 or following funicle segments except fl7 or fl8, with 8 mps; fl3–fl6 with 8 mps, fl7 and fl8 apparently with 9 or 10 mps. Clava with 18 mps, 6 on first, 6 on second and 6 on third segment (Fig. 131). Antennal measurements (n=1), length/width (ratio of flagellar segments): scape ≈ 138/44 (≈ 3.15), pedicel 54/43 (1.27), fl1 84/48 (1.77), fl2 88/43 (2.07), fl3 90/44 (2.06), fl4 88/42 (2.10), fl5 88/40 (2.19), fl6 89/40 (2.23), fl7 86/42 (2.05), fl8 82/43 (1.91); entire clava 151/47 (3.23), with segments 1–3 length [measured along dorsal margin] 50, 37, and 64. Mesosoma. Width 284, length 578, with 3 propodeal setae (Fig. 133). Wings. Fore wing length 1173, width 417, length/width 2.81, longest marginal setae 52. Hind wing length 940, width 130, longest marginal setae 62. Legs. Protibia with 5 short, thick pegs along its length and a transverse row of 4 abutting pegs apically (as in Fig. 53). Metasoma. Metasoma height in lateral view 270. Gaster length 865, about 1.5× as long as mesosoma; gt1–gt7 lengths about 169: 106: 99: 113: 162: 170 (Figs 134, 135) [measurement of a tergum excludes the telescoped portion inside another (more anterior) tergum]; hypopygium (difficult to see) extending posteriorly to level of apex of tergum 5. Ovipositor sheath length 1113, ≈ 2.73× metatibia length (≈ 51), extending anteriorly to about level of apex of procoxa and extending posteriorly slightly beyond apex of gaster (Figs 134, 135).

Male. Colour. As for female (Fig. 129). Head. Head (Figs 136, 137) width 346 (n=1). Antenna. Measurements, length/width: scape 124/45, pedicel 49/43, flagellar segments: fl1 97/62, fl2 108/54, fl3 104/56, fl4 102/50, fl5 108/50, fl6 102/50, fl7 98/53, fl8 99/51, fl9 94/50, fl10 86/47, fl11 90/45; total flagellar length 1089; fl6 length/width 2.04, with 12 mps (Fig. 138). Mesosoma. Mesosoma length 610, about 1.24× as long as metasoma length (494); propodeum with 3 propodeal setae (Fig. 140). Wings. Fore wing length (n=1) 1043, width 386, length/width 2.70, longest marginal setae 76; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 129). Hind wing length 834, width 132, longest marginal setae 62. Metasoma. Petiole length 13, width 29. Gaster length 468; gt1–gt5 with 1 long dorsal setae and 4 long lateral setae on each side and gt6 with about 5 long dorsal setae, 3 long lateral setae, and about 20 short lateral setae on each side (Fig. 142). Genitalia as in Fig. 143.

Etymology

The species is named after Narelle Power, who ran a Malaise trap for many months in Brisbane Forest Park.

Figures 130–132. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, holotype. 130 type slide 131 head + antenna, anterior 132 wings. Scale bar = 500 μm.

Figures 133–135. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, holotype. 133 mesosoma, dorsal 134 mesosoma, lateral 135 mesosoma, median plane. Scale bar for 133 = 200 μm; 134, 135 = 500 μm.

Figures 136–139. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, male paratype (Brisbane Forest Park). 136 head, anterior 137 head, posterior 138 antenna 139 wings. Scale bar for 136, 137 = 200 μm; 138, 139 = 500 μm.

Figures 140–143. 

Neotriadomerus powerae, male paratype (Brisbane Forest Park). 140 mesosoma, dorsal 141 mesosoma, ventral 142 metasoma, dorsal 143 genitalia, dorsal seen through gaster. Scale bar = 200 μm.

Neotriadomerus sp. 1.

Figs 144, 145

Material examined

AUSTRALIA. Australian Capital Territory: 3 km E. Piccadilly Circus, Blundells Creek, 35.22°S, 148.50°E, 850m, xii.1984, Weir, Lawrence, Johnson (1♀ and 1♂, ANIC).

Comment

The female (Fig. 144) and male (Fig. 45) almost certainly are conspecific, with body lengths 2460 and 2480, respectively. Female antenna with 2 widely overlapping whorls of mps (each segment with about 10? mps); male antenna with 2 narrowly overlapping whorls of mps (each segment with about 20? mps). This species most resembles N. longiovipositor but differs in that the cubital line of setae extends proximal to base of parastigma, unlike in N. longiovipositor.

Figures 144, 145. 

Neotriadomerus sp. 1 (Australia, ACT, 3 km E. Piccadilly Circus, Blundells Creek, 35.22°S, 148.50°E, 850m, xii.1984. 144 female habitus, dorsolateral 145 male habitus, dorsal. Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Neotriadomerus sp. 2

Fig. 146

Material examined

AUSTRALIA. Western Australia: 29 km SE by E of Coolgardie, 31.07°S, 121.24°E, 5.v.1983, E.S. Nielsen, E.D. Edwards (1♀, ANIC).

Comment

Body length 1380. Female antenna with 1whorl of mps on each segment and the shortest and widest funicle segments (Fig. 146) of any Neotriadomerus species; fore wing with cubital line of setae extending to base of parastigma.

Figure 146. 

Neotriadomerus sp. 2, female habitus, lateral (Australia, WA, 29 km SE by E of Coolgardie, 31.07°S, 121.24°E, 5.v.1983). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Neotriadomerus sp. 3

Fig. 147

Material examined

AUSTRALIA. New South Wales: Kosciusko National Park, Leather Barrel Creek, 0.8 km SW. Picnic Area, 36°32'S, 148°11'E, 1080m, 7–21.ii.1993, A. Newton, M. Thayer, open Eucalyptus forest (gum + delegatensis) with shrubby understory, window trap (1♀, ANIC).

Comment

Body length 1920; fore wing with cubital line of setae extending to base of parastigma. This specimen is similar to the female from Blundells Creek but fl1 is even shorter than fl2 so it is provisionally treated as distinct.

Figure 147. 

Neotriadomerus sp. 3, female habitus, lateral (Australia, NSW, Kosciusko National Park, Leather Barrel Creek, 0.8 km SW. Picnic Area, 36°32'S, 148°11'E, 1080m, 7–21.ii.1993). Scale bar = 1000 μm.

Neotriadomerus sp. 4

Figs 148–150, 151–152

Material examined

AUSTRALIA. Northern Territory: 12 km WNW Ross River, Tourist Camp, 23.32°S, 134.23°E, 13.v.1978, J.C. Cardale (1♂, ANIC).

Description

Male. Body length ≈ 1330. Colour. Body almost uniformly dark brown; legs brown, with trochantelli, base and apex of femora and tibiae, and tarsi except tarsomere 5 paler; tarsomere 5 brown. Antenna. Measurements, length/width: scape 139/46, pedicel length/width 52/46, flagellar segment length: fl1 100/68, fl2 94/67, fl3 97/61, fl4 100/56, fl5 100/56, fl6 98/54, fl7 96/54, fl8 96/53, fl9 92/50, fl10 87/46, fl11 94/37; total flagellar length 1053; fl6 length/width 1.81, with 11 (12?) mps (Fig. 150). Mesosoma. Mesosoma (Figs 148, 149) length 640, 1.16× as long as metasoma length; propodeum with 3 propodeal setae (Fig. 149). Wings. Fore wing length 1077, width 398, length/width 2.71, longest marginal setae 60; cubital line extending to just proximal to base of parastigma (Fig. 151). Hind wing length 900, width 138, longest marginal setae 64. Metasoma. Gaster length 517, with setae present on sterna but fewer than on terga (Fig. 152). Genitalia length 220 (Fig. 152).

Comment

The flagellar segments are wider than those of N. darlingi (Figs 82, 95?), N. longiovipositor (Fig. 121), and N. powerae (Figs 129, 138) and N. sp. 1; the number and distribution of mps are most similar to N. darlingi or N. powerae and the propodeum has 3 setae as in N. powerae. The condensed description given above may help associate the male with a conspecific female when they are collected, preferably together with more males.

Figures 148–150. 

Neotriadomerus sp. 4, male (Australia, NT, 12 km WNW Ross River, Tourist Camp). 148 head and anterior mesosoma, lateral 149 mesosoma, lateral 150 antenna. Scale bar for 148, 149 = 200 μm; 150 = 400 μm.

Figures 151–152. 

Neotriadomerus sp. 4, male (same data as 148–150). 151 wings 152 metasoma, lateral. Scale bar = 300 μm.

Proarescon Huber, gen. n.

Figs 153–158, 159–164, 165–167, 168, 169, 170–172, 173, 174, 175–176

Type species

Borneomymar primitivum Huber, by present designation.

Diagnosis

Female. Antenna with funicle 8-segmented (in Arescon 5-segmented) and clava 1-segmented, gradually narrowing apically to a point (Figs 156, 166). Both sexes. Fore wing with microtrichia more densely spaced except for oval area along posterior margin (in Arescon with microtrichia usualy more sparsely spaced, as shown in Triapitsyn [2016]).

Description

Female. Body 635–720 in length (critical point dried). Colour. Body generally light brown with some areas yellow to creamy white; darker brown are mouth margin, trabeculae, ocellar triangle, clava except apex, dorsellum, meso- and metapleuron, propodeum, and gt4–gt5 (Figs 165, 168, 170). Wings hyaline except for light brown behind venation (Fig. 169 and Huber 2002, fig. 5). Head. Head about 1.50–1.59× as wide as long, about 1.29–1.35× as wide as high, and 1.17–1.18× as high as long; in lateral view with anterior surface slightly convex, flat at level of toruli, then evenly curved to mouth margin; posterior surfaces convex and evenly curved from vertex to mouth margin. Face about 0.9× as wide as high; subantennal groove absent; preorbital groove ventral to level of torulus straight then more ventrally curving slightly medially to lateral margin of mouth opening (Figs 153, 171–male). Torulus in slight triangular depression about 1.7× as high as torulus width and separated by about 2.0× its width from transverse trabecula (Fig. 171–male). Vertex in lateral view horizontal, forming a right angle with face, posteriorly almost at right angle with occiput and separated from it by medially divided tranverse vertexal suture extending behind posterior ocelli almost from eye to eye; occiput separated from gena by a short, oblique posterior extension of supraorbital suture extending from lateral apex of vertexal suture and curving ventrally to dorsolateral corner of occipital foramen. Ocellar triangle small, slightly raised, with mid ocellus almost vertical and lateral ocelli oblique and facing posteriorly; ocelli with POL about 1.0× LOL and about 0.67× LOL; ocelli on stemmaticum (Fig. 154)—seen as white lines in cleared slide mounts (Fig. 165)—these are, respectively, a short, transverse groove in front of mid ocellus, continuing anterolaterally as the frontal suture to midpoint of supraorbital trabecula (apparently divided medially by an unscletotized area), a groove between the lateral margins of mid and lateral ocelli—the frontofacial suture, and a medially divided transverse groove behind the lateral ocelli, the vertexal suture, extending almost from eye to eye. Transverse trabecula darkly sclerotized medially and at each apex apparently not separated from supraorbital trabecula; preorbital trabecula extending ventrally about halfway between dorsal and ventral margins of torulus to where torulus nearest to eye; supraorbital trabecula in 2 almost equal sections, the anterior sections diverging posteriorly, the posterior sections parallel (Fig. 165). Eye large with numerous small facets, in lateral view about as high as wide and clearly separated dorsally from back of head (temple about 0.3× eye width). Ocular apodeme long and straight, needle-like. Malar sulcus present. Gena at level of ventral margin of eye slightly wider than malar space. Occiput separated from temple by occipital groove (Fig. 165) but otherwise not separated from gena/postgena. Mouthparts. Labrum with 1? seta; mandible with 4 uneven teeth (Fig. 153). Antenna. Scape 3.4–4.7× as long as wide, with radicle distinct from rest of scape and about 0.36–0.37× total scape length; pedicel about 2.0× as long as wide, almost as wide as and 0.26–0.27× as long as entire scape; funicle 8-segmented; clava 1-segmented, 0.98–1.10× as wide as apical funicle segment and 0.41–0.63× as long as entire funicle (Figs 156, 166, and Huber 2002, fig. 6). Mesosoma. About 1.7× as long as wide, 1.8× as long as high and 1.2× as wide as high. Pronotum entire (Fig. 157), in dorsal view clearly visible, medially about 0.5× as long as mesoscutum, with collar bell-shaped in lateral view pronotum sloping down towards junction with head and neck almost absent (not separable), and lateral panel somewhat rectangular and overlapping anterior margin of mesoscutum, with lateral surface merging smoothly into dorsal surface, with a shallow, oblique groove for femur. Spiracle (Fig. 157) flat with surface of pronotum, facing posterodorsally, and apparently slightly closer to anterior apex of notaulus than to posterolateral angle of pronotum. Propleura near anterior apex not quite abutting, then gap widening slightly more anteriorly. Prosternum rhomboidal and completely divided medially by faint longitudinal groove. Mesoscutum about 1.8× as long as scutellum, in dorsal view with shallow, thin, slightly diverging notauli a little wider and shallower posteriorly (Figs 157, 158, 168), in lateral view almost flat. Scutellum slightly wider than long, the anterior scutellum about 0.9× as long as frenum and separated from it by a shallow, medially straight frenal depression (Fig. 157); campaniform sensilla about as far from each other as to lateral margin of anterior scutellum; fenestra small, almost circular, and posterior to campaniform sensilla (Fig. 168, inset). Axilla distinctly advanced, the transscutal articulation laterally forming a distinct angle with median section (Fig. 168); axillula short, separated from anterior scutellum by concave axillular groove; mesophragma fairly narrowly convex posteriorly, extending to posterior apex of propodeum. Prepectus apparently narrowly triangular; mesopleuron somewhat rectangular, with shallow depression separating mesepisternum from mesepimeron. Metanotum with distinct triangular (Fig. 159) or lens-shaped (Fig. 168, in cleared slide mounts) dorsellum and lateral panel length toward hind wing articulation about one third length of dorsellum. Metapleuron triangular, the margin at junction with mesopleuron almost straight and posterior margin straight and vertical. Propodeum without carinae, with 1 propodeal seta (Fig. 159). Wings. Fore wing wide, with microtrichia on most of membrane beyond and partly behind venation to level of second macrochaeta except for a bare area medially along posterior margin (Fig. 169). Venation complete; submarginal vein with 1 proximal macrochaeta but no distal seta; parastigma 0.73× submarginal vein length; marginal vein present, its length about 1.42× parastigma length, with a second macrochaeta about midway between first distal macrochaeta and stigmal vein; stigmal vein distinct, about 0.28× length of marginal vein, with anterior margin of stigma parallel or converging with wing margin and with 4? apical campaniform sensilla in a line; postmarginal vein present, apparently about 1.1× as long and almost as thick as marginal vein; hypochaeta fairly close (about 0.3× length of parastigma) to proximal macrochaeta; proximal campaniform sensillum near posterior margin of parastigma just next to first distal macrochata. Hind wing normal (Fig. 169). Legs. Profemur slightly wider than meso-and metafemora; metafemur about 1.2× mesofemur width. Tarsi 5-segmented. Calcar (moveable protibial spur) with about 2 setae along outer margin, and with inner tine about 0.45× outer tine length. Middle and hind legs with tarsomere 1 as long as tarsomere 2. Metasoma. 1.95× as long as wide, 2.18× as long as high and 1.12× as wide as high; its length, excluding exserted part of ovipositor, about 1.37× that of mesosoma. Petiole ring-like, about 0.36× as long as wide. Gastral terga about equal in length except gt6 slightly longer (Figs 162, 170). Cercus flat, with 4 setae, the second-most dorsal one longest (Figs 162, 170). Hypopygium short, extending about one-third ovipositor length (Fig. 170). Ovipositor sheath exserted beyond gastral apex by about 0.2× total sheath length, with 1 subapical seta.

Male. Body length ≈ 585 (slide mounted paratype). Colour. Similar to female but with slightly more extensive brown on mesosoma (Fig. 173), and metasoma with brown apically instead of medially (Fig. 175). Head. As for female, mandible with 4 teeth (Fig. 171). Antenna. Scape (n=1) about 3.00× as long as wide, with radicle about 0.35× scape; pedicel 1.28× as long as wide; flagellum 11-segemented, with fl1 shorter and wider than other segments, fl2–fl11 subequal, each flagellomere with 4 mps (Fig. 172). Mesosoma. As for female (Figs 159, 160, 173). Wings. Fore wing (Fig. 174) with proximal campaniform sensillum near posterior margin of marginal vein about midway between first and second distal macrochata. Metasoma. Petiole length/width 0.38; gaster about 0.82× as long as mesosoma (Fig. 162). Genitalia with long parameres and apparently no digiti (Figs 163, 164, 176).

Etymology

The genus is masculine. The prefix, pro- is Latin for in front of, earlier or first, + Arescon, apparently the most closely related genus.

Key to species of Proarescon

Females.

1 Clava 4.7× times as long as wide, with ventral margin distinctly concave (Figs 156, 166); fore wing with cubital line extending proximally to about level of second distal macrochaeta (Fig. 169), not much further towards wing base than remaining microtrichia on wing surface P. similis Huber, sp. n.
Clava less than 3.5× as long as wide, with ventral margin almost straight (Huber 2002, fig. 6); fore wing with cubital line extending proximally almost to level of proximal macrochaeta, distinctly further towards wing base than remaining microtrichia on wing surface (Huber 2002, fig. 5) P. primitivus (Huber)

Proarescon primitivus (Huber), comb. n.

Figs 153–158, 159–164, 165–167, 168, 169, 170–172, 173, 174, 175–176

Borneomymar primitivum Huber, 2002: 49 (description, figs 5, 6).

Comment

In Huber (2002) the female and male symbols in the material examined sections were inadvertently either deleted or were replaced by a question mark. All the specimens of the three species mentioned in that chapter were females except for 2 males on points and 2 males on slides of Borneomymar discus Huber from Malaysia, Sarawak, Gunung Buda. The brief description below complements the original description, which did not include antennal segment widths or hind wing measurements.

Description

Female. Body length 634 (paratype). Antenna. Length/width measurements (holotype): scape 184/35, pedicel 50/26, fl1 16/13, fl2 16/12, fl3 23/16, fl4 26/16, fl5 29/18, fl6 62/25, fl7 59/26, fl8 63/31, clava 120/35.Wings. Fore wing length 583, width 154, length/width 3.78, longest marginal setae 122. Hind wing length 560, width 23, longest marginal setae 90.

Material examined

THAILAND: Chanthaburi, Khao Kitchakut Nat. Park, Khao Prabaht Peak, 12°50.45'N 102°9.81'E, 875m, 27.ii-6.ii.2009, MT, Suthida and Charoenchai, #4046 (1♀, CNC).

Proarescon similis Huber, sp. n.

Figs 153–158, 159–164, 165–167, 168, 169, 170–172, 173, 174, 175–176

Type material

Holotype female (QSBG) on slide (Fig. 167) labelled: 1. “Proarescon similis Huber ♀ dorsal Holotype”. 2. “Thailand: Surat Thani, Khao Sok Nat. Park, Klong Morg Unit, 87 m, 8°53.725'N 99°38.025'E, MT 10-17.ii.2009, Phongphan, #3937”.

Paratypes. 1 female and male. THAILAND. Nakhon Si Thammarat. Namtok Yong Nat. Park, TV aerial, 966m 8°14.262'N; 99°48.289'E, 15-22.ix.2008, Malaise trap, Paiboon, #3540 (1♂ on slide, QSBG); Namtok Yong Nat. Park, Klong Jang waterfall, 8°16.283'N; 99°38.702'E, 154m, Malaise trap, 23.ii-2.iii.2009, S. Samnaokan, #4665 (1♂, CNC). Surat Thani. Khao Sok Nat. Park, 122m, 8°54.555'N; 98°30.522'E, Malaise trap, 13-20.i.2009, Pongphan, #3914 (1♀, CNC).

Diagnosis

Female. Clava 4.7× times as long as wide, with ventral margin distinctly concave (in P. primitivus, clava about 3.4× as long as wide, with ventral margin almost straight); fore wing with cubital line not extending proximally beyond first apical macrochaeta, barely proximal to remainder of microtrichia (in P. primitivus, cubital line extending proximally almost to level of proximal macrochaeta, distinctly proximal to other microtrichia).

Description

Female. Body length 740 (holotype), 634 (paratype on card). Head. Head width 182 (holotype). Face with weak elongate reticulate sculpture, vertical laterally becoming horizontal medially, with thin setae distributed on each side as follows: 2 medial to torulus and 7 ventral to torulus, the 2 setae submedially above mouth margin longer and thicker than the others (Fig. 153). Vertex with transverse elongate reticulate sculpture, with 1 or 2 setae on orbit of eye lateral to transverse trabecula and 2 setae between eye and posterior section of supraorbital trabecula and 1 seta lateral to posterior apex of vertexal suture; ocellar triangle (inside stemmaticum) with 1 seta between mid and lateral ocelli and 1 setae lateral to mid ocellus but outside triangle (Fig. 165). Malar space with 2 setae. Occiput with engraved transverse reticulate sculpture, with 1 short setae submedially and 1 sublaterally above occipital foramen. Gena with longitudinally reticulate sculpture laterally, becoming isodiametric around foramen, and with about 5 setae sublaterally and laterally. Antenna. Fl1–fl5 without mps, Fl6–fl8 each with 2 mps; clava with 6 mps. Length/width measurements: scape 166/-, pedicel 39/-, fl1 11/12, fl2 13/12, fl3 12/13, fl4 15/14, fl5 18/16, fl6 50/16, fl7 51/21, fl8 54/31, clava 143/30. Mesosoma. Width 156 and length 287. Pronotum with raised transverse to isodiametric reticulate sculpture, with 3 long setae near posterior margin and 2 short setae towards anterior margin. Propleuron faintly, longitudinally reticulate, with 1 seta medially and 1 seta laterally about midway between anterior and posterior apices. Prosternum apparently smooth, with 1 seta submedially almost at anterior margin. Mesoscutum with sculpture isodiametric anteriorly and on lateral lobes to longitudinally reticulate posteriorly on midlobe, with 1 setae along inner margin midway between anterior and posterior apices of notaulus, and 1 setae at lateral angle of lateral lobe. Anterior scutellum smooth, with 1 setae laterally at dorsal margin of axillula, and with campaniform sensilla about 2× their diameter from transscutal articulation and about 7× their diameter from each other; fenestra small, transversely oval and posterior to campaniform sensilla; frenum with faint, longitudinal wrinkles. Axilla with isodiametric reticulations and with 1 seta dorsally on apparently smooth lateral panel; axillula smooth. Metanotum smooth with 1 short seta on anterior margin closer to lateral apex of lateral panel than to dorsellum and 2 minute seta on anterior margin at apex of lateral panel. Propodeum apparently smooth medially, with faint engraved longitudinal reticulations laterally, with 1 propodeal setae midway between spiracle and posterior margin. Wings. Fore wing length (n=1) 563, width 146, length/width 3.86, longest marginal setae 107; cubital line of setae extending halfway towards base of parastigma, about midway between level of proximal and distal macrochaetae. Hind wing length 542, width 26, longest marginal setae 104. Legs. Femora and tibiae of all legs at most with faint longitudinal reticulation. Protibia with about 14 short, thick pegs along its length. Metasoma. Petiole width 26, length 11. Gaster (Fig. 170) height 155, length 352, apparently without sculpture (Figs 162, 163) and with 2 short setae on gt1 and 3–6 longer lateral and dorsal setae on remaining terga. Cercus with 4 setae, the first seta about 2× as long as the remaining setae. Hypopygium about 0.35× gaster length. Ovipositor 380 long, its exserted part (56) about 0.2× entire sheath length, with 1 subapical seta.

Male. Colour. As in generic description. Head. Head width 192 (n=1). Wings. Fore wing length (n=1) 563, width 146, length/width, 3.88, longest marginal setae 107. Hind wing length 542, width 26, longest marginal setae 114. Antenna. Measurements (n=1): scape length/width 74/22, pedicel length/width 30/37, flagellar segment length: fl1 44, fl2 59, fl3 62, fl4 61, fl5 60, fl6 60, fl7 64, fl8 61, fl9 61, fl10 62, fl11 58; total flagellar length 652; fl6 length/width 2.73, with 4 mps (Fig. 172). Metasoma. Gaster (Fig. 175) apparently without sculpture, with setae dorsolaterally and laterally and a few minute spicules medially on gt4 and gt5. Genitalia (Figs 163, 164, 176) with curved aedeagal apodeme about 0.6× as long as aedeagus; paramere thin, with 3 subapical and apical setae.

Etymology

The species name, similis, is Latin for similar, referring to the similarity of this species to the only other described species in Proarescon.

Figures 153–158. 

Proarescon similis. 153 male head, ventroanterior 154 female head and pronotum, posterodorsal 155 male lower face and prosternum 156 female antennae 157 female mesosoma, dorsal 158 male mesosoma, dorsolateral. Scale bar for 153, 154, 157, 158 = 50 μm; 155= 20 μm; 156 = 100 μm.

Figures 159–164. 

Proarescon similis, male. 159 mesosoma, dorsal 160 base of wings + axilla, dorsal 161 fore wing, dorsal 162 mesosoma, laterodorsal 163 apex of gaster + genitalia, dorsolateral 164 apex of gaster + genitalia, ventral. Scale bar for 159 = 50 μm; 160, 163, 164 = 20 μm; 161 = 200 μm; 162 = 100 μm.

Figures 165–167. 

Proarescon similis, holotype. 165 head, dorsal 166a antenna without scape, lateral 166b antenna, dorsal 167 type slide. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Figures 168, 169. 

Proarescon similis, holotype. 168 metasoma, dorsal (inset: enlargment of central area of scutellum showing fenestra) 169 wings. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Figures 170–172. 

Proarescon similis. 170 holotype metasoma, lateral 171 male paratype head, anterior 172 male paratype antenna. Scale bar for 170, 172 =200 μm; 171 =100 μm.

Figures 173, 174. 

Proarescon similis, male paratype. 173 mesosoma, dorsal 174 wings. Scale bar = 100 μm.

Figures 175, 176. 

Proarescon similis, male paratype. 175 metasoma, dorsal 176 genitalia, dorsal (seen through body). Scale bar for 175 = 100 μm; 176 = 50 μm.

Borneomymar Huber

Figs 176, 177–180, 181–183, 184–187

Type species

Borneomymar discus Huber 2002: 45, by original designation.

Diagnosis

Female. Head without stemmaticum (Fig. 178); occipital groove almost transverse (Fig. 178). Antenna with funicle 8-segemented, only fl4–fl8 with mps, and clava 1-segmented (Fig. 179); mandible with 3 teeth; fore wing length 1006, width 235, length/width 4.28, longest marginal setae 203 (Fig. 180); venation ≈ 0.75× wing length (apex of postmarginal vein difficult to determine); submarginal vein 2.03 × as long as parastigma, parastigma with hypochaeta much closer to proximal than to distal macrochaeta; marginal vein 1.94× as long as parastigma; postmarginal vein ≈ 0.95× as long as marginal vein; hind wing length 648, width 32, longest marginal setae 122; ovipositor extremely long, projecting posterior to apex of hypopygium by ≈ 2.2–2.4× body length (Fig. 181). Male. Similar to female except for gaster (Fig. 186) and antenna. Head (Fig. 184). Fore wing length 1134, width 303, length/width 3.74, longest marginal setae 220; hind wing length 797, width 32, longest marginal setae 32. Antenna with flagellum 11-segmented, all segments with several mps (Fig. 185); genitalia (Fig. 187), encapsulated, with long aedeagal apodeme and digitus with 3 teeth.

Figures 177–180. 

Borneomymar madagascar, female. 177 head, anterior (vertex detached anteriorly, with trabeculae unrolled) 178 head, posterior 179 antenna 180 wings. Scale bar for 177, 178 = 100 μm; 179, 180 = 500 μm.

Figures 181–183. 

Borneomymar madagascar, female. 181 body (without head), habitus, dorsal 182 mesosoma, dorsal 183 metasoma, dorsal (slightly twisted). Scale bar for 181 = 1000 μm; 182, 183 = 100 μm.

Figures 184–187. 

Borneomymar madagascar, male. 184 head, dorsal 185 antenna, dorsal, twisted laterally after fl4186 metasoma (gt7 missing) 187 genitalia, dorsal. Scale bar for 184, 187 = 100 μm; 185, 186 = 200 μm.

Borneomymar madagascar Huber

Figs 176, 177–180, 181–183, 184–187

Borneomymar madagascar: Huber, 2002: 48 (original description); Engel et al. 2013: 2 (comparison with a fossil species).

Diagnosis

This species differs from, B. discus Huber, the only other extant species now included in the genus, as follows: radicle about as long as wide, scape 2.84× as long as wide (in B. discus radicle much longer than wide, scape 5.86× as long as wide); fore wing uniformly hyaline (Fig. 180) (in B. discus fore wing with distinct brown areas); gaster in lateral view about as 0.5× as high as long (almost circular in B. discus).

Description

Female. Body length 922–998 (n = 4, critical point dried specimens, measured to apex of hypopygium), ovipositor length ≈ 2022–2330 (not completely straight so probably slightly longer). Head (Fig. 184) width 266. Antenna measurements (n = 1), length/width (ratio): scape 101/36 (2.84), pedicel 56/35 (1.59), fl1 68/20 (3.35), fl2 81/30 (2.73), fl3 82/29 (2.81), fl4 86/30 (2.85), fl5 79/32 (2.43), fl6 76/34 (2.25), fl7 72/32 (2.27), fl8 74/34 (2.20), clava 176/52 (3.40); fl2–fl8 each apparently with 3 mps, clava with 12 mps (Fig. 179; hypopygium extending distinctly beyond posterior apex of gaster. Male. Body length ≈ 1315 (excluding gt7, removed to extract genitalia). Head (Fig. 184) width 262. Antenna measurements (n= 1, slide mounted), length/width [scape–fl4 are vertical so width cannot be measured]: scape 104/ - , pedicel 56/ -, fl1 106/ -, fl2108/ -, fl3 106/ -, fl4 108/ - , fl5 111/≈ 35, fl6 101/38, fl7 92/42, fl8 96/41, fl9 94/41, fl10 91/39, fl11 88/35; total flagellar length 1102; fl6 length/width 2.66, with 9? mps.

Material examined

MADAGASCAR. Antananarivo. Botanic garden near entrance to Andasibe National Park, 1025 m, 18°55.58'S; 48°24.47'E, 1-5.xi.2001, R. Harin’Hala, tropical forest, Malaise trap, lot # 007164 (1♀ on slide, CAS). Diego-Suarez. Montagne d’Ambre National Park, 975 m, 12°31'S; 49°11'E, 4–19.iii.2001, M. Irwin, E. Schlinger, R. Harin’Hala, Malaise trap, lot # 007149 (1♂ on slide, CAS). Fianarantsoa. Massif de Andringitra, 975m, 21°57'50"S; 46°55'59"E, 7–19.xii.1999, M.E. Irwin et al., Malaise trap (4♀ on cards, CNC, UCRC).

Triadomerini stat. n.

Notes

Yoshimoto (1975) treated the Cretaceous amber fossils from Canada and classified Triadomerus Yoshimoto in his new subfamily Triadomerinae, Carpenteriana Yoshimoto and Macalpinia Yoshimoto in Mymarinae, and Enneagmus Yoshimoto in Trichogrammatidae. He defined his Triadomerinae as “having the submarginal and marginal veins distinctly separated at the junction of the fore wing and antennae 13-segmented in the female”. Poinar and Huber (2011) keyed the Cretaceous genera of Mymaridae, adding only Myanmymar Huber from Burmese amber to bring the number of genera to five, including Enneagmus, which Huber (2005) had reclassified in Mymaridae.

I treat Yoshimoto's Triadomerinae as a tribe, defined as follows, based mainly on extant genera and species: mandible with 3 (Borneomymar, Eustochomorpha) or 4 teeth; pronotum entire; fore wing wide, with marginal setae much shorter than wing width; venation more than 85% of wing length, with marginal vein present and longer than submarginal vein, and with postmarginal vein present and longer than marginal vein; hypochaeta, when present, closer to proximal than to distal macrochata; hind wing wide with marginal setae shorter than wing width; tarsi 5-segmented, with tarsomere 1 distinctly longer than any of the others; petiole clearly shorter than wide, ring like. Female. Antenna with flagellum at most 11 segmented (funicle 8-segmented and clava 1–3-segmented); ovipositor usually greatly exserted beyond either posterior (Borneomymar, Eustochomorpha) or anterior (Neotriadomerus) apex of body but in the extinct genera not projecting either anteriorly or posteriorly. Male. Antenna 11-segmented, the flagellomeres each with several mps; genitalia encapsulated, with short, thick parameres, apparently without digiti (in Neotriadomerus) but thinner walled and with digiti (in Borneomymar)

Triadomerini is treated here as the sister clade to the remainder of Mymaridae. The only apomorphy that defines the tribe is reduction in number of flagellar segments (at most 11) relative to Rotoitidae, whose species have a 12-segmented flagellum in females of both included extant genera. An additional diagnostic feature of the extant species of Triadomerini is the exserted cerci on a distinct prominence, similar to that of Torymidae. The occurrence of elevated cerci, number of teeth in mandibles, and several other features cannot definitely be determined from the fossil specimens studied. The lack of a hypochaeta apparently occurs in Triadomerus and Eustochomorpha and apparently also in at least one of the Neotriadomerus species.

Triadomerus is known only from Cretaceous amber from present day western Canada (Yoshimoto 1975). Eustochomorpha and Neotriadomerus species are confined to Australia, and extant Borneomymar species occur in the islands of Borneo and Madagascar whereas the one extinct Borneomymar species is from Eocene amber from the Baltic region (Engel et al. 2013). Macalpinia and especially Carpenteriana doubtfully belong in Triadomerini but perhaps are better classified here than elsewhere. Even though Carpenteriana has 7-segmented funicle and an entire clava its fore wing venation appears to be similar to Macalpinia. Macalpinia has an 8-segmented funicle and 3-segmented clava, as in Triadomerus and Neotriadomerus, so on the basis of this feature is classified fairly well in the tribe even though it appears to have no postmarginal vein and apparently only 4-segmented tarsi (tarsi are difficult to see; they may, in fact, be 5-segmented). Thus, I classify six genera in Triadomerini: four genera definitely—Borneomymar, Eustochomorpha, Neotriadomerus, Triadomerus, and two genera tentatively—Carpenteriana and Macalpinia.

Aresconini

Notes

Viggiani (1988) proposed Aresconini for Arescon Walker and defined the tribe on the characteristic male genitalia, i.e., encapsulated, with relatively long, narrow parameres but apparently no digiti. Based on mainly extant genera and species, Aresconini is defined by the following features: mandible with 4 teeth; pronotum entire; venation long but postmarginal vein usually short; funicle in females 4-, 5- or 8-segmented; clava entire or 2-segmented; male genitalia usually with long parallel-sided parameres. I classify members of the extant genera Kikiki Huber and Beardsley (Huber and Beardsley 2000), Tinkerbella Huber & Noyes (Huber & Noyes 2013), Proarescon (this paper), and the extinct genus Myanmymar (Poinar and Huber 2011) in the tribe based on similarities in head features, fore wing shape or venation, and male genitalia where known.

Arescon is almost worldwide (Triapitsyn 2016) whereas Proarescon is only in southeastern Asia. Lin et al. (2007) and Huber (2009) had first classified Kikiki in the Alaptus group of genera then, with Tinkerbella described as a separate genus (Huber and Noyes 2013), in the Anagrus group of genera. In both cases, similarities in various features were used to justify their placement. Now, however, I believe these two genera are best classified in Aresconini. The male genitalia of Kikiki have fairly long and thick parameres (Huber and Noyes 2013, fig. 35), the vertex has a distinct stemmaticum (Huber and Noyes 2013, figs 12, 41), the fore wing has a long venation, and the mandible has 4 teeth, all features that occur also in Arescon and Proarescon. Kikiki may be almost worldwide (Australia, India, northern South America, Hawaiian Islands) and Tinkerbella is so far known only from Costa Rica (Huber and Noyes 2013). Enneagmus may fit in Aresconini better than in Triadomerini because of its apparently short venation, and 4-segmented funicle and 3-segmented tarsi as in Kikiki. The 3-segmented clava may simply be an ancestral feature, reduced to two segments in Kikiki and Tinkerbella. However, the short venation, apparently much less than half the wing length is unlike the other genera in Aresconini. Thus, six genera are here classified in Aresconini: Arescon, Enneagmus, Kikiki, Myanmymar, Proarescon, and Tinkerbella. If Minutoma Kaddumi (Kaddumi 2005) is indeed a mymarid, it may also belong here; its small body length is comparable to that of Tinkerbella.

Key to extant genera of Aresconini and Triadomerini. Females

See Poinar and Huber (2011) for key to the extinct Cretaceous genera.

1 Clava 2 or 3-segmented; propodeum with 2 or 3 setae 2
Clava 1-segmented (i.e., entire); propodeum with 1 seta 5
2(1) Clava 2-segmented 3
Clava 3-segmented [ovipositor extending anteriorly well under mesosoma but not exserted posteriorly much beyond gastral apex (Figs 105, 126)] Neotriadomerus Huber, gen. n.
3(2) Ovipositor extending posteriorly well beyond posterior apex of gaster (Figs 2, 4); tarsi 5-segmented; funicle 8-segmented Eustochomorpha haeckeli Girault
Ovipositor not or barely exserted beyond posterior apex of gaster; tarsi 3- or 4-segmented; funicle 4- or 5-segmented 4
4(3) Tarsi 4-segmented; funicle 5-segmented Tinkerbella Huber & Noyes
Tarsi 3-segmented; funicle 4-segmented Kikiki Huber & Beardsley
5(1) Funicle 5-segmented Arescon Walker
Funicle 8-segmented 6
6(5) Fl1–fl5 each much shorter than fl6–fl8 (Fig. 166) Proarescon Huber, gen. n.
Fl1–fl5 as long as fl6–fl8 (Huber 2002, figs 2, 4) Borneomymar Huber

Discussion

Huber (2002) treated Triadomerus (extinct) and Eustochomorpha (extant) as sister genera to the remaining extant genera of Mymaridae based, in females (males are unknown), on an 8-segmented funicle and 3- or 2-segmented clava, respectively, i.e., 11 or 10 flagellar segments in total. In Neotriadomerus, males are known and have the same number of flagellar segments as in females, i.e., 11, and this is considered to be as the most plesiomorphic feature possible in Mymaridae. Macalpinia and Triadomerus also have an 8-segmented funicle and 3-segmented clava. Species in all other genera (all extant only, except for one fossil Borneomymar species) whose males are known have a different number of segments between females and males, with at least one less segment in females compared to males. But because males of the species of most extant genera have an 11-segmented flagellum, it is probably safe to assume that males in the extinct genera also have an 11-segmented flagellum, as in females. On this basis, Triadomerus, Macalpinia and Neotriadomerus are treated as the sister clade to other genera within Triadomerini and to all remaining genera of Mymaridae, both extinct and extant. At present the relationships among these three genera cannot be determined but, among extant genera only, Neotriadomerus is clearly the sister genus to the all remaining genera, including Eustochomorpha. Loss of one claval segment in Eustochomorpha, to give a 10-segmented flagellum in its females, makes this the sister genus to the remaining genera of extant Mymaridae other than Neotriadomerus.

Conclusions

The distribution of the extinct and extant genera that can definitely be placed in Mymaridae encompasses a time span of almost 100 my. Kaddumi (2005) classified Minutoma, found in 120–135 my Cretaceous amber from the Zarqa River basin, in Mymaridae but Huber in Heraty et al. (2013: 2) suggested it might be better placed in Tetracampidae; its clava appears to be 4-segmented. But if it is a member of Mymaridae then the family extends back into the early Cretaceous, well after the beginning of the breakup of Pangea into Laurasia in the north and Gondwana in the south, beginning 200 million years ago. The present centre of diversity of Mymaridae is in the Australasian region, particularly Australia and New Zealand, but the fossil evidence shows that the family was already quite diverse in the Cretaceous and that the origin of Mymaridae is not necessarily there. In Triadomerini, all the Cretaceous genera (known only from Laurasia) eventually became extinct whereas Eustochomorpha and Neotriadomerus are extant in Australia (part of Gondwana). Borneomymar, in contrast, is represented by two extant species in the islands of Borneo and Madagascar (both part of Gondwana) and one extinct species from Baltic amber, i.e., from Laurasia (Engel et al. 2013). In Aresconini, the only extinct genus is Myanmymar (Laurasia?); all the rest are extant and, except for Proarescon and Tinkerbella, widespread.

The widespread distribution of Mymaridae already existed at least 80 my ago (described taxa from Canadian and Burmese Cretaceous amber) and the family is currently worldwide, except for Antarctica. Two scenarios may explain this: 1) The family may have evolved before the breakup of Pangaea, 200–180 million years ago, and was already widespread throughout the supercontinent wherever suitable hosts occurred, which would suggest a Jurassic origin; 2) The family is more recent, having originated in only part of Pangea, probably Gondwana, and some species then spread to Laurasia after the two parts became well separated from each other. This is quite possible because Mymaridae are small and easily carried long distances on wind and some would have survived the trip. Mymaridae as a recognizable taxon may therefore be a lot older than the present evidence shows, going back well into the early Cretaceous.

Acknowledgements

The following curators and collectors are thanked for sending specimens for study: J. Cardale (ANIC), C. Burwell and G. Daniels (QMBA), C. Darling (ROM), J.F. Donaldson (QDPC), and S. Triapitsyn (UCRC). I thank particularly J. Read (CNC, now retired) for proof reading, taking the scanning electron micrographs and digital images, and arranging them into plates.

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