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Sawflies from northern Ecuador and a checklist for the country (Hymenoptera: Argidae, Orussidae, Pergidae, Tenthredinidae, Xiphydriidae)
expand article infoJean-Luc Boevé, Diego F. Domínguez§, David R. Smith|
‡ Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium
§ Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja, Ecuador
| U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, United States of America
¶ Smithsonian Institution, Washington, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

An illustrated list of species of sawflies collected in northern Ecuador, mainly during the end of 2016, is given. Manaos mulsus (Konow, 1906), Ptenos delta (Malaise, 1957), Scobina styx Malaise, 1949 (Argidae), Stromboceros suppar Konow, 1903 and Stromboceros sutilis Konow, 1903 (Tenthredinidae) are species new for the country. A checklist of species for the country is also provided. Approximately 120 species of Symphyta are known from Ecuador, 25 Argidae, 1 Orussidae, about 40 Pergidae, about 60 Tenthredinidae, and 3 Xiphydriidae.

Keywords

Species list, adult feeding behaviour, host plant, South America

Introduction

As a hotspot of biodiversity, Ecuador includes various environments harbouring many species still to be discovered, especially among the insects (e.g., Heckman 2006). Sawflies known from the country belong to the families Argidae, Orussidae, Pergidae, Tenthredinidae, and Xiphydriidae (see checklist and references below). A list of species collected more recently in the southern part of the country was published by Boevé et al. (2016).

Here, an illustrated list is given for sawfly adults from the northern part of Ecuador, which were collected in the frame of a Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) project. We also compiled data and list the sawfly species known for the country.

Methods

Sawflies were collected in the north-eastern (province Orellana) and north-western (Pichincha) sides of Ecuador, mainly during November 2016 (Fig. 1) plus a few during March 2015. Nearly all of them were collected as adults using a net and they are stored in ethanol. Field observations include the mention of plants, not necessarily host plants, on which adults were found.

Pictures were taken by J.-L. Boevé with the following cameras: Pentax Optio W10, Nikon Coolpix P300, and Canon EOS 5D Mark III. Since adult specimens are kept in ethanol, they were partly dried to take the pictures, which were mainly intended to illustrate the habitus. Specimens of each species collected in 2015 and 2016 were photographed (Figs 222). Screenshots (see Fig. 1e, f, g) were extracted from video sequences taken by Alain Pauly.

Figure 1. 

Pictures taken in the field, showing some biotopes and sawfly adults from northern Ecuador. Location a–g Yasuni National Park h Pacto i–m Hacienda San Vicente, Mindo. Leaves of b Anthurium sp. and c Heliconia sp., inspected by d Proselandria alvina and e–g probably Manaos mammeatus, respectively h Biotope where Waldheimia sp. A was common i Biotope of pasture (with orchard in the foreground) where, among others j Inea sp. (P4239.E) and k Waldheimia sp. A were collected l Biotope of forest path m with the precise spot where Stromboceros sutilis (P4239.G) was collected.

The sawfly specimens collected as part of the GTI project are stored in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium (RBINS; J.-L. Boevé collection, with specimen reference codes starting with ‘P’), with duplicates that will be located in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Brussels, Belgium (PUCE). Sawfly specimens from the RBINS, Senckenberg Deutsche Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany, and National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA were examined. Dates are given by dd.mm.year.

The adult sawflies were identified by D. R. Smith. Identifications of Argidae and Pergidae are based on Smith (1990, 1992). Identifications of Blennocampinae and Selandriinae (Tenthredinidae) are based on Smith (2007) and unpublished manuscripts by DRS.

Results

Family Argidae

Manaos mammeatus (Konow, 1906b)

Fig. 2

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, near río Tiputini, 00°40'S, 076°24'W, 220m, 02.03.2015, P4119.B (1 ♀), leg. T. Delsinne, 14–16.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp. (Heliconiaceae), P4217.A, P4220.A, P4220.B, P4222, P4223.C, P4223.D (6 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 2. 

Manaos mammeatus, female (P4223.D), body length 6.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Manaos mulsus (Konow, 1906b)

Fig. 3

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°40'S, 076°27'W, 235, 13.11.2016, on leaf of Anthurium sp. (Araceae), P4214.G (1 ♀), 00°33'S, 076°31'W, 260m, 14.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4216 (1 ♂), 00°40'S, 076°27'W, 250m, 15.11.2016, on leaf of Anthurium sp., P4221.D (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Note

This is a new record for Ecuador. The species was previously known from Brazil, Peru, and Surinam (Smith 1992).

Figure 3. 

Manaos mulsus. a Female (P4214.G), body length 4.5 mm b male (P4221.D), body length 4.5 mm a Lateral view b dorso-lateral view.

Ptenos delta (Malaise, 1957)

Fig. 4

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, near río Tiputini, 00°40'S, 076°24'W, 220m, 02.03.2015, P4119.C (1 ♀), leg. T. Delsinne.

Note

This is a new record for Ecuador. It was previously known only from Brazil and Peru (as Hemidineura delta Smith, 1992).

Figure 4. 

Ptenos delta, female (P4119.C), body length 6.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Scobina inculta (Konow, 1906a)

Fig. 5

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°36'S, 076°30'W, 240m, 14.11.2016, by sweeping, P4215.E (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 5. 

Scobina inculta, male (P4215.E), body length 6.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Scobina notaticollis (Konow, 1899a)

Fig. 6

Material

Pompeya, 00°27'S, 076°37'W, 240m, 11.11.2016, flying, P4213 (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 6. 

Scobina notaticollis, female (P4213), body length 7.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Scobina strophosa (Konow, 1906a)

Fig. 7

Material

Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1300m, 25.11.2016, P4238.A (1 ♀), P4238.F, P4238.H (2 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Mindo Lindo, 00°01'S, 078°46'W, 1680m, 27.11.2016, flying, P4241.B (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 7. 

Scobina strophosa. a, b Female (P4238.A), body length 7.5 mm c, d male (P4241.B), body length 7.5 mm. a, c Dorsal views b, d ventral views.

Scobina styx Malaise, 1949

Fig. 8

Material

Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1300m, 25.11.2016, P4238.D, P4238.E (2 ♀), P4238.L (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1445, 26.11.2016, flying along pasture, P4239.F (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 8. 

Scobina styx. a, b Female (P4239.F), body length 7.5 mm c, d male (P4238.L), body length 6.0 mm. a, c Dorsal views b, d ventral views.

Note

This is a new record for Ecuador. It was previously known only from northern Argentina (Smith 1992).

Scobina sp.

Fig. 9

Material

Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°02'S, 078°46'W, 1420m, 23.11.2016, by sweeping along pasture, P4232.C (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 9. 

Scobina sp., male (P4232.C), body length 6.0 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Family Pergidae

Acordulecera spp.

Fig. 10

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°33'S, 076°31'W, 260m, 15.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4219.A (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé; Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°07'N, 078°38'W, 1380m, 25.11.2016, on leaf of Melastomataceae, P4236 (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 10. 

Acordulecera spp. a Female (P4219.A), body length 4.5 mm b female (P4236), body length 3.5 mm. a, b Lateral views.

Decameria sp.

Fig. 11

Material

Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1300m, 25.11.2016, P4238.B (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 11. 

Decameria sp., male (P4238.B), body length 8.0 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Family Tenthredinidae

Subfamily Blennocampinae

Waldheimia pallens (Klug, 1816)

Fig. 12

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, near río Tiputini, 00°40'S, 076°24'W, 220m, 02.03.2015, P4119.A (1 ♂), leg. T. Delsinne; Estación científica Yasuní, 00°36'S, 076°30'W, 240m, 14.11.2016, by sweeping, P4215.H (1 ♀), P4215.J (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 12. 

Waldheimia pallens. a, b Female (P4215.H), body length 8.0 mm c, d male (P4215.J), body length unknown. a, c Dorsal views b, d ventral views.

Waldheimia pellucida Konow, 1904

Fig. 13

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°36'S, 076°30'W, 240m, 14.11.2016, flying above plants of Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae), P4215.A, P4215.B (2 ♂), by sweeping, P4215.D (1 ♂), on fern, P4215.F (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé, by sweeping, P4215.I (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé, 00°33'S, 076°31'W, 260m, 15.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4218 (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 13. 

Waldheimia pellucida, male (P4218), body length 6.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Waldheimia sp. A

Fig. 14

Material

Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°02'S, 078°46'W, 1420m, 23.11.2016, on leaf along pasture, P4227.A (1 ♂), 1470m, 23.11.2016, on fern along forest path, P4227.B (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé, 1480m, 23.11.2016, P4231.A (1 ♂), leg. D. F. Dominguez, J.-L. Boevé, 1420m, 23.11.2016, by sweeping along pasture, P4232.A (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Pacto, 00°09'N, 078°46'W, 1105, 24.11.2016, flying or on leaf, P4233.A, P4233.B, P4233.C, P4233.D, P4233.E, P4233.F (6 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé, P4233.G, P4233.H (2 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1260m, 25.11.2016, flying above low plants, P4235.A, P4237.B (2 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1375, 26.11.2016, flying above and on low plants along pasture, P4239.B, P4239.C (2 ♂), 1415m, 26.11.2016, flying along pasture, P4239.D (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 14. 

Waldheimia sp. A, male (P4237.B), body length 5.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Waldheimia sp.

Fig. 15

Material

Bellavista Cloud Forest Reserve, 00°02'S, 078°45'W, 1825m, 22.11.2016, on leaf, P4226.C (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 15. 

Waldheimia sp., male (P4226.C), body length 8.0 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Subfamily Selandriinae

Adiaclema sp.

Fig. 16

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, near río Tiputini, 00°40'S, 076°24'W, 230m, 14.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4217.B (1 ♂), 16.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4223.A (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 16. 

Adiaclema sp., male (P4223.A), body length 7.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Bolivius sp.

Fig. 17

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°36'S, 076°30'W, 240m, 14.11.2016, on fern, P4215.C (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 17. 

Bolivius sp., male (P4215.C), body length 6.0 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Inea sp.

Fig. 18

Material

Reserva Otongachi, 00°19'S, 078°57'W, 925, 19.11.2016, on fern in forest, P4224 (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé; Bellavista Cloud Forest Reserve, 00°02'S, 078°44'W, 1945, 22.11.2016, on Anthurium sp., P4226.A (1 ♂), 00°02'S, 078°45'W, 1890m, 22.11.2016, on leaf, P4226.B (1 ♂), 00°02'S, 078°45'W, 1820m, 22.11.2016, flying quite frantically, P4226.D (1 ♂), 00°02'S, 078°45'W, 1820m, 22.11.2016, on leaf, P4226.E (1 ♂), 00°02'S, 078°45'W, 1775m, 22.11.2016, flying around a large fern, P4226.F (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°45'W, 1520m, 23.11.2016, flying around a fern along forest path, P4227.C, P4227.D, P4227.E, P4227.F (4 ♂), 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1470m, 23.11.2016, on leaf along forest path, P4229 (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1500m, 23.11.2016, by sweeping along forest path, P4230.A, P4230.B, P4230.C, P4230.D, P4230.E, P4230.F, P4230.G, P4230.H, P4230.I (9 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1480m, 23.11.2016, P4231.B, P4231.C (2 ♂), leg. D. F. Dominguez, J.-L. Boevé, 00°02'S, 078°46'W, 1420m, 23.11.2016, by sweeping along pasture, P4232.B (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Pacto, Río Toalí, 00°09'N, 078°45'W, 1000m, 24.11.2016, P4234 (1 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1260m, 25.11.2016, flying above low plants, P4235.B, P4237.A (2 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé, 1300m, 25.11.2016, P4238.G, P4238.I (2 ♀), P4238.J, P4238.K (2 ♂), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1375m, 26.11.2016, on leaf along pasture, P4239.A (1 ♂), 1415m, 26.11.2016, on leaf of Rubus (Rosaceae) along pasture, P4239.E (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé; Mindo, Mindo Lindo, 00°01'S, 078°46'W, 1680m, 27.11.2016, flying, P4241.A (1 ♀), P4240.A, P4240.B, P4240.C, P4240.D (4 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé, 00°01'S, 078°46'W, 1680m, 27.11.2016, P4241.D (1 ♀), P4241.C, P4241.E, P4241.F, P4241.G (4 ♂), 1635m, 27.11.2016, on leaf (forest clearing), P4241.H, P4241.I (2 ♂), leg. D. F. Dominguez, J.-L. Boevé, 1680m, 27.11.2016, flying just above the ground, P4242.A (1 ♂), 27.11.2016, by sweeping, P4242.B (1 ♂), 27.11.2016, flying, P4242.C, P4243 (2 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 18. 

Inea sp. a, b Female (P4241.A), body length 6.5 mm c, d male (P4230.B), body length 6.5 mm. a, c Dorsal views b, d ventral views.

Proselandria alvina (Konow, 1899b)

Fig. 19

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°40'S, 076°27'W, 235m, 13.11.2016, on leaf of Anthurium sp., P4214.A, P4214.D (2 ♀), P4214.B, P4214.C, P4214.E, P4214.F (4 ♂), 00°36'S, 076°30'W, 240m, 14.11.2016, on fern, P4215.G (1 ♂), 00°40'S, 076°27'W, 250m, 15.11.2016, on leaf of Anthurium sp., P4221.A, P4221.C (2 ♀), on leaf of Melastomataceae, P4221.B (1 ♀), near río Tiputini, 00°40'S, 076°24'W, 230m, 16.11.2016, on leaf of Heliconia sp., P4223.B (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 19. 

Proselandria alvina. a, b Female (P4221.A), body length 5.0 mm c, d male (P4214.C), body length 6.0 mm. a, c Dorsal views b, d ventral views.

Proselandria sp.

Material

Estación científica Yasuní, 00°33'S, 076°31'W, 260m, 15.11.2016, on leaf of Melastomataceae, P4219.B (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Stromboceridea albilabris (Konow, 1885)

Fig. 20

Material

Reserva Integral Otonga, 00°25'S, 079°00'W, 1950m, 20.11.2016, on leaf (forest), P4225 (1 ♂), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Figure 20. 

Stromboceridea albilabris, male (P4225), body length 7.0 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Stromboceros suppar Konow, 1903b

Fig. 21

Material

Nanegal, Reserva Biológica Maquipucana, 00°08'N, 078°38'W, 1300m, 25.11.2016, P4238.C (1 ♀), leg. A. Pauly, J.-L. Boevé.

Note

This is a new record for Ecuador. It was described from Peru.

Figure 21. 

Stromboceros suppar, female (P4238.C), body length 7.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Stromboceros sutilis Konow, 1903b

Fig. 22

Material

Mindo, Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°46'W, 1465m, 26.11.2016, on fern along forest path, P4239.G (1 ♀), leg. J.-L. Boevé.

Note

This is a new record for Ecuador. It was described from Peru.

Figure 22. 

Stromboceros sutilis, female (P4239.G), body length 6.5 mm. a Dorsal view b ventral view.

Checklist of Ecuador Symphyta

The following checklist (Table 1) reflects the current status of the known Symphyta from Ecuador. The source of the first Ecuador record is given as well as known host plants. The list includes 66 identified species and it mentions the occurrence of about 50 unidentified ones. The numbers will undoubtedly increase when certain groups especially such as Acordulecera are revised or taxonomic problems resolved. However, many species described from other Andean countries should eventually be found in Ecuador, but these potential species are not listed. “Described” indicates that the species was originally described from Ecuador.

The following species are unplaced Tenthredinidae that have been described from Ecuador, but the correct combination has not yet been published or they are unpublished synonyms of species listed above (Smith, unpublished). Placement and synonymies will be made in papers in preparation.

Checklist of Ecuador Symphyta.

Taxon Occurrence Host
Family Argidae
Acrogymnidea udata D.R. Smith, 1992 Described
Atomacera lobula D.R. Smith, 1992 Described
Atomacera pubicornis (Fabricius, 1804) Recorded by Smith (1992) Ipomoea sp. (Convolvulaceae) (Mc Callan 1953, Smith 1992)
Dielocerus fasciatus (Enderlein, 1919) Described Sclerolobium paniculatum (Fabaceae) (Smith and Adis 1984)
Manaos mammeatus (Konow, 1906b) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Manaos mulsus (Konow, 1906b) New record in this paper
Manaos toula D.R. Smith, 1992 Described
Neoptilia liturata (Konow, 1903a) Described Sida rhombifolia (Malvaceae) (Smith 1992)
Ptenos delta (Malaise, 1957) New record in this paper
Ptenos leucopoda (Cameron, 1883) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina bolivari (Konow, 1899a) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina inculta (Konow, 1906a) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina lurida (Klug, 1834) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina nigripennis (Enderlein, 1919) Described
Scobina notaticollis (Konow, 1899a) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina strophosa (Konow, 1906a) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Scobina styx Malaise, 1949 New record in this paper
Scobina terminalis (Klug, 1814) Recorded by Smith (1992)
Sericoceros dimidiatus Konow, 1908 Recorded by Smith (1992)
Sericoceros ecuadoriensis (Enderlein, 1919) Described
Sericoceros gibbus (Klug, 1834) Recorded by Smith (1992) Coccoloba spp. (Polygonaceae) (Smith 1992, Smith and Janzen 2003)
Themos laqueatus (Enderlein, 1919) Described
Themos ochreus D.R. Smith, 1992 Described
Themos semiadusta (Enderlein, 1919) Described
Themos surinamensis (Klug, 1814) Recorded by Smith 1992 Ceiba pentandra (Malvaceae), Thespesia populnea (Malvaceae) (Smith 1992)
Family Orussidae
Ophrynopus nigricans (Cameron, 1883) Recorded by Vilhelmsen and Smith (2002)
Family Pergidae
Acordulecera spp. This is a large genus in the Neotropics. At least 25 or more species probably occur in Ecuador (Smith, unpublished; estimate from material in USNM)
Aulacomerus ecuadoriensis (Enderlein, 1919) Described
Camptoprium sp. Unidentified species recorded by Schmidt and Smith (2006)
Decameria carbo (Malaise, 1937) Described
Decameria noxua D.R. Smith, 1990 Described
Decameria varipes Cameron, 1883 Recorded by Smith (1990)
Haplostegus subclavatus Malaise, 1942 Described
Lagideus kolonus D.R. Smith, 1990 Described
Lagideus podocarpus D.R. Smith, 2016 (in Boevé et al. 2016) Described Fuchsia vulcanica (Onagraceae) (Boevé et al. 2016)
Lagideus romius D.R. Smith, 1990 Described
Perreyia fumipennis (Westwood, 1874) Recorded by Smith (1990)
Perreyia nigriceps (Westwood, 1874) Recorded by Enderlein (1919; as Perreyia melanopyga Konow)
Perreyia picea (Westwood, 1874) Recorded by Smith (1990)
Perreyia tropica (Norton, 1869) Recorded by Rohwer (1921; as Lophyorides modesta) Larvae travel in groups on the ground and feed on dead leaves and probably fungi (Flores et al. 2000)
Perreyiella sp. Unidentified species recorded by Smith (1990)
Family Tenthredinidae
Subfamily Allantinae
Probleta columbianus (Enderlein, 1920) Recorded by Smith (2003)
Subfamily Blennocampinae
Metapedias torva (Konow, 1899a) Described
Metapedias spp. At least two undescribed species are known (Smith, unpublished)
Synaptoneura vopida D.R. Smith, 1973 Described
Waldheimia atripennis (Fabricius, 1804) Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Waldheimia erebus (W.F. Kirby, 1882) Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Waldheimia galerita Konow, 1904 Described
Waldheimia ochra (Norton, 1867) Recorded by Enderlein (1920)
Waldheimia pallens (Klug, 1816) Not before recorded (Smith, unpublished)
Waldheimia pellucida Konow, 1904 Recorded by Enderlein (1920; as Waldheimia ochreiventris)
Waldheimia sulphurea (Fabricius, 1804) Not before recorded (Smith, unpublished)
Waldheimia spp. At least seven or more undescribed species are known (Smith, unpublished)
Subfamily Nematinae
Pristiphora fernandezi D.R. Smith, 2003 Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Subfamily Selandriinae
Adiaclema blandulum (Enderlein, 1920) Described
Adiaclema calvescens Enderlein, 1920 Not before recorded (Smith, unpublished)
Adiaclema maculipennis (Cameron, 1883) Not before recorded (Smith, unpublished)
Adiaclema tetricum (Konow, 1908) Recorded by Enderlein (1920; as Stromboceros longicornis)
Adiaclema spp. Several undescribed species occur (Smith, unpublished)
Andeana farcta (Konow, 1900) Described
Aneugmenus merida D.R. Smith, 2005 Described Pteridium aqulinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) (Smith 2005, Avila-Nunez et al. 2007)
Aneugmenus sp. An unidentified species was recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Belea nigripennis (Konow, 1908) Described
Bolivius notabilis (Konow, 1899b) Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Dochmioglene spp. Possibly several undescribed species from Ecuador (Smith, unpublished)
Inea spp. Probably two or more undescribed species are known (Smith, unpublished)
Neoanapeptamena nitida (Strand, 1911) Described
Neoanapeptamena sp. Probably an undescribed species (Smith, unpublished)
Plaumanniana biclinia (Konow, 1899b) Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Plaumanniana spp. Three or four other species occur in Ecuador (Smith, unpublished)
Proselandria alvina (Konow, 1899b) Recorded by Boevé et al. (2016)
Proselandria carminea (Jörgensen, 1913) Recorded by Enderlein (1920; as Strongylogaster ecuadoriensis)
Stromboceridea albilabris (Konow, 1885) Recorded by Enderlein (1920)
Stromboceridea spp. Possibly two or three undescribed species (Smith, unpublished)
Tioloma nigrita Strand, 1911 Described
Family Xiphydriidae
Derecyrta andrei Konow, 1897 Described
Derecyrta flavescens D.R. Smith, 2004 Described
Derecyrta striatifrons Malaise, 1942 Described

Waldheimia ochreiventris Enderlein, 1920 (Blennocampinae).

Blennocampa albofemoralis Cameron, 1883; Hylotoma analis Fabricius, 1804; Stromboceros cruralis Konow, 1899b; Stromboceros liscivus Konow, 1908; Stromboceros suppar Konow, 1903b; Stromboceros sutilis Konow, 1903b; Stromboceros torquatus Konow, 1903b; Stromboceros ustipennis Konow, 1899b; Strongylogaster ecuadoriensis Enderlein, 1920; Strongylogaster giganteus Enderlein, 1920; Strongylogaster longicornis Enderlein, 1920; Strongylogaster murcivena Enderlein, 1920; Strongylogaster obliquevenosa Enderlein 1920; Tioloma rosigenu Enderlein, 1920 (Selandriinae).

Discussion

Sawfly adults were mainly found in shadowed places. Plants such as Anthurium and Heliconia have large leaves (Fig. 1), and sawfly adults were often observed running on the leaf surface. Fig. 1e–g illustrate by screenshots of a video sequence that an adult, probably of Manaos mammeatus, walked dozens of cm within a relatively short time (ca 20 sec), finally stopping in order to feed (Fig. 1g). Other sawfly species were observed showing the same behaviour of moving rapidly on the surface of leaves, such as Manaos mulsus, Adiaclema sp., Waldheimia pellucida, and Proselandria alvina. Since sawfly adults are known to feed on plant (floral and leaf) tissues, sugar sources (nectar and honeydew) as well as insect tissues and faeces (Jervis and Vilhelmsen 2000, Wäckers et al. 2005), it is likely that our observations relate to the uptake of food fragments of plant and/or animal origin. Large plant leaves accumulate such organic particles dropped from the canopy, which may facilitate their uptake by the sawflies.

During the three-week field trip in north-western and north-eastern Ecuador, only a single larva was collected, in Mindo (Hacienda San Vicente, 00°03'S, 078°45'W, 1530m, 23.11.2016, P4228, leg. J.-L. Boevé; Fig. 23). It was found along a forest path (Fig. 1l) and it probably belongs to the pergid genus Acordulecera. Their larvae are characterized by lateral sucker-like protuberances on abdominal segments 2–4 or 2–5 and 8 (Smith and Middlekauff 1987), and the collected larva possesses such protuberances (see Fig. 23c). It was feeding at the underside of a leaf of an unidentified plant (height 70 cm; Fig. 23a, b), probably a young tree. On 25.11.2016, the small prepupa (body length 3.5 mm) built a fragile cocoon of white silk appearance (Fig. 23d). The larvae of this genus feed gregariously, which was most probably the case for the larva collected, because it seems not plausible that this single larva consumed such an important leaf part (see Fig. 23a), and because it pupated a couple of days after having been collected (while its rearing was unsuccessful). Thus, it was presumably the last individual of a group.

Figure 23. 

Pictures related to the single larva (P4228) found during a 3-week field trip. a Host plant with feeding damage on one of the leaves b, c Underside of that leaf occupied with the larva (arrow) d Cocoon partly damaged, showing the prepupa.

Acknowledgments

We thank Thibaut Delsinne (Société d’Histoire Naturelle Alcide-d’Orbigny, Aubière, France) and Alain Pauly (RBINS, Brussels) for providing sawfly specimens, as well as Rowan Schley (Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew; Imperial College London, England), Frieda Billiet and Olivier Lachenaud (Botanic Garden Meise, Belgium) for the identification of plants. We also thank the subject editor, Marko Prous, as well as the reviewers Stephan M. Blank, Spencer Monckton and Meicai Wei for comments on the manuscript. The GTI project was managed in collaboration with Cliff Keil, Emilia Moreno (PUCE) and David Donoso (Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito). It was funded by the Belgian Directorate-General for Development Cooperation. Support was also received from the King Léopold III Fund for Nature Exploration and Conservation. Permits were obtained from the Ministerio del Ambiente de Orellana and Ministerio del Ambiente de Pichincha, Ecuador.

Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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