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Seventeen new genera of microgastrine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from tropical areas of the world
expand article infoJose L Fernandez-Triana, Caroline Boudreault
‡ Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada
Open Access

Abstract

As part of comprehensive studies on the world fauna of microgastrine parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) 17 new genera and 29 new species are described from the Afrotropical, Australasian, Neotropical and Oriental regions. The number of extant genera of Microgastrinae is increased by 21% and currently stands at 81. It is anticipated that more genera will be described in the near future, when phylogenetic studies of the group are advanced. The new taxa showcase unusual morphological traits such as atypical head and mouth part modifications, presence of partial occipital and epicnemial carinae, propodeum carination patterns, hind wing venation, trochantellus shape, tarsal claws, sculpture and shape of the first two metasomal tergites, and ovipositor teeth; in some cases, they also represent some of the largest species known in the subfamily. For every new genus putative autapomorphies, morphological diagnostic features, and DNA barcodes (whenever available) are presented, as well as brief discussions of some informal groupings of genera in the subfamily. However, no attempt is made to reassess the phylogeny of the entire Microgastrinae, as that will require more comprehensive analyses beyond the scope of the present work. The following 17 gen. n., authored by Fernandez-Triana, are described: Agupta, Austinicotesia, Billmasonius, Carlmuesebeckius, Gilbertnixonius, Janhalacaste, Jenopappius, Jimwhitfieldius, Kotenkosius, Markshawius, Ohenri, Qrocodiledundee, Silvaspinosus, Tobleronius, Ungunicus, Ypsilonigaster and Zachterbergius. The following 29 sp. n., authored by Fernandez-Triana and Boudreault, are described: Agupta danyi, Agupta jeanphilippei, Agupta raymondi, Agupta solangeae, Austinicotesia indonesiensis, Austinicotesia papuanus, Billmasonius cienci, Carlmuesebeckius smithsonian, Gilbertnixonius biem, Janhalacaste danieli, Janhalacaste guanacastensis, Janhalacaste winnieae, Jenopappius magyarmuzeum, Jimwhitfieldius jamesi, Jimwhitfieldius sydneyae, Kotenkosius tricarinatus, Markshawius erucidoctus, Markshawius francescae, Markshawius thailandensis, Ohenri gouletorum, Qrocodiledundee outbackense, Silvaspinosus vespa, Tobleronius orientalis, Ungunicus vietnamensis, Ypsilonigaster naturalis, Ypsilonigaster sharkeyi, Ypsilonigaster tiger, Ypsilonigaster zuparkoi, and Zachterbergius tenuitergum. The following four comb. n. are proposed: Jenopappius niger (de Saeger, 1944), Jenopappius aethiopica (de Saeger, 1944), Ypsilonigaster bumbana (de Saeger, 1942), and Ypsilonigaster pteroloba (de Saeger, 1944).

Keywords

Microgastrinae, new genera, taxonomy, morphology, DNA barcoding, Afrotropical, Australasian, Neotropical, Oriental

Introduction

The braconid subfamily Microgastrinae is one of the most speciose groups of animals on Earth (Whitfield et al. 2018), with over 2,700 described species at present (Yu et al. 2016). The known diversity of microgastrine wasps has increased dramatically, with almost half of the species being described during the past 50 years (data extracted from Yu et al. 2016). However, the actual species richness of the subfamily has been estimated to be much higher – between 17,000 and 46,000 species (Rodriguez et al. 2013). This means that we likely know just 5–15% of the world’s species in this group of parasitoid wasps.

At the generic level the situation is similar, as the number has increased significantly for the past half century, from 20 genera in 1965, to 50 in 1981, and up to 63 genera recognized at present (Nixon 1965, Mason 1981, Whitfield et al. 2018). Still, much remains to be done. Some genera are apparently polyphyletic (e.g., Diolcogaster, Glyptapanteles, see Mason 1981, Austin and Dangerfield 1992), while others contain such a large number of species that it is almost impossible to work with them (e.g., Apanteles has 900–1,200+ described species, depending on the generic concept used, see Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014a, Yu et al. 2016). To complicate things more, many specimens in collections cannot be confidently assigned to any of the currently described genera, with most representing new lineages never dealt with taxonomically.

As a taxonomic category, the genus has special properties that distinguish it from both the less inclusive species group and the more inclusive higher taxonomic levels (Tattersall 2014). It is perhaps the easiest category to pinpoint without further investigation (Anderson 1940, Simpson 1943, Atran 1987, Garbino 2015) and it is considered as one of the most operationally useful taxonomic categories (Allmon 1992, Tattersall 2014, Garbino 2015). Despite its relevance both in taxonomic practice and in communication, the genus as a category is rarely discussed among zoologists in general (Dubois 1988).

This paper describes 17 new genera of Microgastrinae and discusses future steps towards a more resolved classification of the genera in this subfamily. It is a continuation of comprehensive studies on the world fauna of microgastrine parasitoid wasps, and includes species from all tropical regions (Afrotropical, Australasian, Neotropical and Oriental), thereby making the names and morphological concepts available for future phylogenetic studies.

Methods

The specimens studied for this paper are deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, United States (CAS), Canadian National Collection of Insects, Ottawa, Canada (CNC), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), Naturalis Biodiversity Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands (RMNH), and Queen Sirikit Botanic Gardens, Mae Rim District, Thailand (QSBG).

Morphological terms and measurements of structures follow those used by Mason (1981), Huber and Sharkey (1993), Whitfield (1997), Karlsson and Ronquist (2012), and Fernandez-Triana et al. (2014a). The abbreviations F2, F3, F14 and F15 refer to antennal flagellomeres 2, 3, 14 and 15; T1, T2, and T3 are used for metasomal mediotergites 1, 2, and 3; and L and W refer to length and width respectively. The fore wing second submarginal cell is mentioned throughout the text as “areolet” for the sake of brevity.

When referring to taxa that are related in a broader sense (e.g., “Choeras s.l.”) “s.l.” is used as an abbreviation of “sensu lato”. When referring to taxa that are related in a stricter sense (e.g., “Sathon s.str.”) “s.str.” is used as an abbreviation of “sensu stricto”.

The descriptions of the new species contain a general but brief account of color, sculpture, and details on morphological features and ratios commonly used in taxonomic studies of Microgastrinae. Raw measurements of morphological structures (in mm) are also provided, which would allow for additional ratios to be explored in the future. When presenting raw measurements, the holotype value is given first, followed by the range of other specimens between parentheses.

In the species descriptions, the holotype labels are detailed verbatim, with / separating the different lines of each label. For paratypes, specimen information was generated using the CNC database (http://www.cnc-ottawa.ca/taxonomy/TaxonMain.php).

For some specimens, DNA barcodes (the 5’ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (CO1) gene, Hebert et al. 2003) are available. DNA extracts were obtained from single legs using a glass fibre protocol (Ivanova et al. 2006). Total genomic DNA was re-suspended in 30 μl of dH2O, a 658 base pairs (bp) region near the 5’ terminus of the CO1 gene was amplified using standard primers (LepF1–LepR1) following established protocols (http://v4.boldsystems.org/index.php), and a composite sequence was generated for all successful amplifications. All information for the sequences associated with each individual specimen barcoded can be retrieved from the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) (Ratnasingham and Hebert 2007). We use the Barcode Index Number (BIN) System to discuss species limits, following the BIN concept detailed in Ratnasingham and Hebert (2013). Sequences from the specimens used in this paper were compared with 35,000+ sequences of Microgastrinae available in BOLD as of January 2018.

Photos were taken either with a Keyence VHX-1000 Digital Microscope or with a Leica camera on a Leica M165 C Microscope, using lens with a range of 10–130 ×. Multiple images were taken of a structure through the focal plane and then combined to produce a single in-focus image using the software associated with the Keyence System or, for the images taken with the Leica camera, the Zerene Stacker program (http://zerenesystems.com/cms/stacker). Images were corrected using Adobe Photoshop CS4, the plates were prepared using Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 and later saved as .tiff files.

Results

Systematics

A total of 17 new genera and 29 new species of Microgastrinae are described below. In this paper we do not provide a key to separate the different genera, as a following publication will provide a comprehensive key to all genera of Microgastrinae of the world. However, in the diagnostic description of each new genus we present characters to separate it from the closest (or most similar) taxa, which are sufficient for the time being –as the new genera are very distinct morphologically.

Genera are presented in alphabetical order. A key to species is provided if there are multiple species in the genus, followed by species descriptions, also in alphabetical order.

Agupta Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Agupta jeanphilippei Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head relatively elongate. Face, clypeus and labrum with coarse and dense punctures. Face projection between antennal base with median carina. Malar line relatively long. Mouth parts elongate, including bilobate glossa (as in Figs 1B, 2B, 3B, 8B). First few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed (so that at times three rows could be distinguished but other times rows are not clearly defined). Anteromesoscutum relatively long (longer than maximum width). Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with strong crenulae. Propodeum with strongly raised median carina which has strong lateral carinae radiating across its length (Figs 1E, 2E, 3E, 4F, 5E, 6D, 7E). Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b much longer than areolet width (Figs 1C, 3C, 4C, 6C, 7C, 8C). Metacoxa smooth and relatively long (reaching beyond posterior margin of T3). T1 relatively strongly narrowing from anterior margin to half of tergite, then parallel sided up to posterior margin (Figs 1E, 2E, 3D, E, 4E, F, 5E, 6E); T1 anterior half mostly smooth, strongly concave and with central sulcus; posterior half punctured and with a polished area on posterior margin. Hypopygium folded and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and about same length as metatibia. Specimens of the genus are among the largest within Microgastrinae (body length and fore wing length almost always 5 mm or more, reaching up to 6.6 mm in the largest specimens).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

From a morphological perspective, this genus seems to be related to Choeras (and several related groups considered to be part of Choeras; e.g., see comments on Austin and Dangerfield 1992 and also Discussion below). From those “Choeras s.l.” taxa, Agupta is unusual because a number of features. The antenna in males (and sometimes in females) has the first few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed in three rows, or no row can be clearly defined. The mouth parts are elongate, including a bilobated glossa. The propodeum has a strongly raised median carina that has small radiating carinae across its length. The shape of T1 is also distinctive (Figs 1C–E, 2E, 3C–E, 4E–F, 5C–E, 6C, E, 7E). The large size of most specimens in Agupta is second only to Larissimus, which is the largest known Microgastrinae genus (Nixon 1965).

Figure 1. 

Agupta danyi female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The known species are found in the Australasian and Oriental regions.

Molecular data

Three of the species described below have DNA barcodes available, corresponding to BINs BOLD:ADE1110 and BOLD:ADE1550. There are at least 25 additional BINs that cluster as a group and likely represent additional species of Agupta; however, they are not described in this paper. Overall, the Agupta BINs are clearly separated from dozens of other “Choeras s.l.” sequences in BOLD.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Indian braconid expert Ankita Gupta in recognition of her significant contributions to the knowledge of Microgastrinae and other parasitoid wasp groups of India. It has been a pleasure to collaborate with Ankita over the past few years and we hope she continues to shine as one of the best Indian taxonomists. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

We describe below four new species for the genus. However, as the molecular data suggests, there are probably dozens of additional species awaiting description. The four new species can be separate using the following key.

Key to species

1 Most wing veins golden-yellow, except for pterostigma and veins r, 2RS, 2M and 3RSa (Figs 6C, 7C, 8C) 2
All veins dark brown (Figs 1C, 3C, 4C, 5C) 3
2 Body mostly dark brown, except for white laterotergites 1–3 (Figs 7A, E, 8A) Agupta solangeae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Body lighter coloured, with mesosoma mostly yellow-orange (except for posterior 0.4 of mesopleuron and posterior half of metapleuron which are dark brown), and metasoma with extensive white areas (posterior 0.2–0.3 of T1, T2 and T3 laterally, and most laterotergites) (Figs 6A, C–E) Agupta raymondi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n
3 Body mostly dark brown to reddish-brown, including most of legs (Figs 45) Agupta jeanphilippei Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n
Body lighter coloured, with mesosoma yellow-orange and first two pairs of legs mostly yellow-white (Figs 13) Agupta danyi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n

Agupta danyi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 1, 2, 3

Holotype

Female, Malaysia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

MALAYSIA:SE SABAH/nr Danum Valley Field C./WON1, Mal. trap 5, c 150m/2–23.viii.1987, RMNH’87/C.v.Achterberg &D.Kennedy. Second label: CNC497189.

Holotype locality

MALAYSIA, South East Sabah, near Danum Valley, Field C, 150m.

Paratypes

Malaysia. (1♀ CNC), Sabah, SE Sabah nr Danum Valley Field C., 150m, Malaise trap, 19.iv–22.v.1988, coll. C.v. Achterberg & T. Burghouts, Voucher code: CNC497186; (1♂ RMNH), SE Sabah nr Danum Valley Field C., 150m, Malaise trap, 20.vi–12.vii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher code: CNC497188; (1♂ 1♀ RMNH), near Danum Valley Field C, 150m, Malaise trap, 15.iv–15.v.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher codes: CNC924662, CNC924666; (2♀ RMNH), 20.ii–19.iii.1988, coll. C.v. Achterberg & T. Burghouts, Voucher codes: CNC924663, CNC924664; (1♂ RMNH), 22.xi–4.xii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher code: CNC924665; (1♀ RMNH), 23.viii-13.xi.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher code: CNC924661; (1♀ RMNH), near Danum Valley, Field C, 150m, Malaise trap, 26.x–22.xi.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC924660.

Diagnosis

The dark brown color of wing veins separates this species from A. solangeae and A. raymondi, both of which have most veins golden-yellow. The lighter color (yellow-orange or yellow-white) of mesosoma and first two pairs of legs will in turn differentiate A. danyi from A. jeanphilippei, which has body mostly dark brown to reddish-brown.

Description

Female. Head and most of metasoma dorsally dark brown; mesosoma yellow-orange; first two pairs of legs mostly yellow-white, third pair mostly dark brown (except for anterior 0.6 of metatibia yellow-white); scape and pedicel yellow, flagellomeres light to dark brown; wings with veins dark brown. Head relatively elongate. Face, clypeus and labrum with coarse and dense punctures. Face projection between antennal base with median carina. Malar line relatively long. Mouth parts elongate, including bilobate glossa. First few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed (so that at times three rows could be distinguished but other times rows are not clearly defined). Anteromesoscutum relatively long (longer than maximum width). Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 4–5 strong crenulae. Propodeum with strongly raised median carina which has strong lateral carinae radiating across its length. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b much longer than areolet width. Metacoxa smooth and relatively long (reaching beyond posterior margin of T3). T1 relatively strongly narrowing from anterior margin to half of tergite, then parallel sided up to posterior margin; anterior half mostly smooth, strongly concave and with central sulcus; posterior half punctured and a polished area on posterior margin. Hypopygium folded and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and about same length of metatibia. Female body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.45 (0.40–0.43); F3 L: 0.43 (0.38–0.41); F14 L: 0.25 (0.22–0.24); F15 L: 0.22 (0.20–0.23); Malar sulcus L: 0.12 (0.12–0.13); Mandible W: 0.23 (0.20–0.23); T1 L: 1.05 (0.95–1.06); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.37 (0.33–0.35); T1 Maximum W: 0.61 (0.54–0.65); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.86 (0.79–0.93); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.88 (0.83–0.93); T2 L: 0.37 (0.32–0.38); Metafemur L: 1.63 (1.68–1.76); Metafemur W: 0.60 (0.56–0.60); Metatibia L: 2.22 (2.12–2.28); Inner spur L: 0.84 (0.79–0.92); Outer spur L: 0.43 (0.38–0.43); First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.44 (1.34–1.40); Ovipositor sheaths L: 2.17 (2.11–2.52); Body L: 6.19 (5.15–6.00); Fore wing L: 6.19 (5.40–6.13). Ovipositor sheaths L is approximate for 5 specimens. Fore wing L is approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. As female, but propodeum and metapleuron slightly darker in color. Specimens are also slightly smaller (body and fore wing lengths around 0.7 mm smaller than in female specimens. Male body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.43; F3 L: 0.43; F14 L: 0.38; F15 L: 0.34; Malar sulcus L: 0.13; Mandible W: 0.23; T1 L: 1.00; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.30; T1 maximum W: 0.58; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.80; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.85; T2 L: 0.36; Metafemur L: 1.59; Metafemur W: 0.57; Metatibia L: 71.98; Inner spur L: 0.88; Outer spur L: 0.39; First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.33; Body L: 5.45; Fore wing L: 5.55.

Figure 2. 

Agupta danyi female paratype CNC497186. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Figure 3. 

Agupta danyi male paratype CNC497188. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Malaysia, Sabah.

Molecular data

The holotype (sequence AAHYM352-16 in BOLD) rendered a partial DNA barcode (369 bp) which represents a unique species (when compared with 35,000+ sequences of Microgastrinae available in BOLD).

Etymology

The second author dedicates this species to her husband Dany Girard, as an appreciation for his love, many years of shared magical moments and wonderful trips.

Agupta jeanphilippei Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 4, 5

Holotype

Female, Malaysia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

MALAYSIA:SE SABAH/nr Danum Valley Field C./WON1, Mal. trap 5, c 150m/20.ii-19.iii.1988, RMNH’89/C.v.Achterberg & T.Burghouts. Second label: CNC497192.

Holotype locality

MALAYSIA, South East Sabah, near Danum Valley Field C, 150m.

Paratypes

Malaysia. (1♂ CNC), Sabah, SE Sabah nr Danum Valley Field C., 150m, Malaise trap, 20–26.iii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher codes: CNC497191; (1♂1♀ RMNH), near Danum Valley Field C, 150m, Malaise trap, 13.ix-4.x.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher codes: CNC924648, CNC924654; (1♂ RMNH), 14–20.iii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC924655; (1♂ RMNH), 20.vi–12.vii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher code: CNC924647; (2♀ RMNH), 22.v–16.vi.1988, coll. C.v. Achterberg & T. Burghouts, Voucher codes: CNC924650, CNC924651; (1♂ RMNH), 24.ii–18.iii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC924653; (1♂ 1♀ RMNH), 140m, Malaise trap, 24.ii-24.iii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher codes: CNC924649, CNC924652; (4♂ RMNH), 150m, Malaise trap, 26.iii–19.iv.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher codes: CNC924646, CNC924656, CNC924658, CNC924659; (1♂ RMNH), 5–26.v.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg & D. Kennedy, Voucher code: CNC924657.

Diagnosis

The dark brown color of wing veins separates this species from A. solangeae and A. raymondi, both of which have most veins golden-yellow. The body mostly dark brown to reddish-brown will in turn differentiate A. jeanphilippei from A. danyi, which has a lighter color (yellow-orange or yellow-white) of mesosoma and first two pairs of legs.

Description

Female. Head and most of metasoma dorsally dark brown to black; mesosoma dark brown to black, except for anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc reddish-brown; first pair of legs mostly yellow-orange, second pair mostly brown but with anterior 0.6 of mesotibia white, third pair mostly dark brown to black (except for central yellow-white band on metatibia); scape yellow, pedicel and flagellomeres brown; wings with veins dark brown. Head relatively elongate. Face, clypeus and labrum with coarse and dense punctures. Face projection between antennal base with median carina. Malar line relatively long. Mouth parts elongate, including bilobate glossa. First few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed (so that at times three rows could be distinguished but other times rows are not clearly defined). Anteromesoscutum relatively long (longer than maximum width). Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 4–5 strong crenulae. Propodeum with strongly raised median carina which has strong lateral carinae radiating across its length. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b much longer than areolet width. Metacoxa smooth and relatively long (reaching beyond posterior margin of T3). T1 relatively strongly narrowing from anterior margin to half of tergite, then parallel sided up to posterior margin; anterior half mostly smooth, strongly concave and with central sulcus; posterior half punctured and a polished area on posterior margin. Hypopygium folded and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and about same length of metatibia. Female body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.42 (0.41–0.42); F3 L: 0.41 (0.38–0.40); F14 L: 0.25 (0.22–0.24); F15 L: 0.23 (0.21–0.22); Malar sulcus L: 0.12 (0.09–0.13); Mandible W: 0.23 (0.20–0.22); T1 L: 1.09 (0.99–1.07); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.33 (0.31–0.37); T1 maximum W: 0.61 (0.59–0.62); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.96 (0.89–1.00); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.95 (0.92–0.97); T2 L: 0.36 (0.33–0.37); Metafemur L: 1.79 (1.67–1.76); Metafemur W: 0.61 (0.58–0.59); Metatibia L: 2.30 (2.14–2.28); Inner spur L: 0.86 (0.81–0.88); Outer spur L: 0.38 (0.40–0.43); First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.45 (1.34–1.46); Ovipositor sheaths L: 2.41 (2.24–2.41); Body L: 5.40 (4.60–6.38); Fore wing L: 6.19 (5.70–6.25). Ovipositor sheaths L is approximate for 4 specimens. Maximum W of T1 is approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. As female, but general body color darker (including most mesosoma black, and smaller central band centrally in metatibia), and pedicel yellow. Male body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.45; F3 L: 0.43; F14 L: 0.36; F15 L: 0.34; Malar sulcus L: 0.13; Mandible W: 0.23; T1 L: 0.98; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.28; T1 maximum W: 0.59; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.86; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.80; T2 L: 0.40; Metafemur L: 1.63; Metafemur W: 0.54; Metatibia L: 1.98; Inner spur L: 0.83; Outer spur L: 0.33; First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.31; Body L: 6.25; Fore wing L: 5.70.

Figure 4. 

Agupta jeanphilippei female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Figure 5. 

Agupta jeanphilippei male paratype CNC497191. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Malaysia, Sabah.

Molecular data

One male paratype (CNC497191) rendered an almost complete DNA barcode (615 bp), which represents a unique BIN (BOLD:ADE1110), with 5.4% of bp difference compared to the next species in BOLD, which is another Agupta species.

Etymology

The second author dedicates this species to her brother Jean-Philippe Boudreault as an appreciation for his love, fun conversations, good laughs and shared memories. Jean-Philippe has been bugging me to have a species named in his honor for over two years now, so here it is!

Agupta raymondi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 6

Holotype

Female, Malaysia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

MALAYSIA-SW SABAH/nr Long Pa Sia (West)/c. 1010m, 1–4.IV.1987/Mal. trap 1, RMNH’87/C.v.Achterberg. Second label: CNC497187.

Holotype locality

MALAYSIA, South West Sabah, near Long Pa Sia (West), 1010m.

Diagnosis

The golden-yellow color of most veins separates this species from A. danyi and A. jeanphilippei (both of which have wing veins dark brown). The lighter colour of body, with mesosoma mostly yellow-orange and metasoma with extensive white areas, will in turn differentiate A. raymondi from A. solangeae (which has the body mostly dark brown).

Description

Female. Head and most of metasoma dorsally dark brown (except for white on posterior 0.2–0.3 of T1, T2 and T3 laterally, and most laterotergites); mesosoma mostly yellow-orange (except for dark brown on posterior 0.4 of mesopleuron and posterior half of metapleuron); first pair of legs mostly yellow-orange, second and third pairs mostly brown but with anterior 0.6 of mesotibia white; scape and pedicel bright yellow-white, flagellomeres light to dark brown; wings with most veins golden-yellow (except for pterostigma and veins r, 2RS, 2M and 3RSa). Head relatively elongate. Face, clypeus and labrum with coarse and dense punctures. Face projection between antennal base with median carina. Malar line relatively long. Mouth parts elongate, including bilobated glossa. First few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed (so that at times three rows could be distinguished but other times rows are not clearly defined). Anteromesoscutum relatively long (longer than maximum width). Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 6 strong crenulae. Propodeum with strongly raised median carina which has strong lateral carinae radiating across its length. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b much longer than areolet width. Metacoxa smooth and relatively long (reaching beyond posterior margin of T3). T1 relatively strongly narrowing from anterior margin to half of tergite, then parallel sided up to posterior margin; anterior half mostly smooth, strongly concave and with central sulcus; posterior half punctured and a polished area on posterior margin. Hypopygium folded and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and slightly longer than metatibia length. Female body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.40; F3 L: 0.38; F14 L: 0.22; F15 L: 0.21; Malar sulcus L: 0.13; Mandible W: 0.20; T1 L: 1.01; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.30; T1 maximum W: 0.58; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.75; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.80; T2 L: 0.38; Metafemur L: 1.65; Metafemur W: 0.54; Metatibia L: 2.10; Inner spur L: 0.80; Outer spur L: 0.38; First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.36; Ovipositor sheaths L: 2.37; Body L: 5.70; Fore wing L: 6.19.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 6. 

Agupta raymondi female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Mesosoma dorsal E Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal F Ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Malaysia, Sabah.

Molecular data

The holotype rendered an almost complete DNA barcode (596 bp), which represents a unique BIN (BOLD:ADE1550), with 5.3% of bp difference compared to the next species in BOLD, which is another Agupta species. However, the sequence is similar to that of the holotype of A. solangeae, in spite of clear morphological differences between the two species. It is possible that this situation is a lab contamination, but sequencing of more specimens from both species will be needed to determine whether this is the case or not.

Etymology

The second author dedicates this species to her father Raymond Boudreault, as an appreciation for his love, fun and fascinating conversations, good laughs and tremendous kindness.

Agupta solangeae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 7, 8

Holotype

Female, Malaysia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

MALAYSIA-SW SABAH/nr Long Pa Sia (East)/c.1000m, 1–13.IV.1987/Mal. trap 5, RMNH’87/C.v.Achterberg. Second label: CNC497193.

Holotype locality

MALAYSIA, South West Sabah, near Long Pa Sia (East), 1000m.

Paratypes

Malaysia. (1♀ CNC), MALAYSIA: Sabah, SW Sabah nr Long Pa Sia, Payakalaba, 1010m, Malaise trap, 25.xi–1.xii.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC497190; (2♀ RMNH), near Long Pa Sia (East), 1000m, Malaise trap, 1–13.iv.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher codes: CNC924643, CNC924644.

Diagnosis

The golden-yellow color of most veins separates this species from A. danyi and A. jeanphilippei (both of which have wing veins dark brown). The darker body color, mostly dark brown, will in turn differentiate A. solangeae from A. raymondi (which has a lighter coloured body, with mesosoma mostly yellow-orange and metasoma with extensive white areas).

Description

Body mostly dark brown (except for white laterotergites 1–3); first pair of legs mostly yellow-orange or yellow-brown, second and third pairs mostly brown (except for anterior 0.3 of mesotibia and anterior 0.5 of metatibia white); scape and pedicel yellow-brown, flagellomeres brown; wings with most veins golden-yellow (except for pterostigma and veins r, 2RS, 2M and 3RSa). Head relatively elongate. Face, clypeus and labrum with coarse and dense punctures. Face projection between antennal base with median carina. Malar line relatively long. Mouth parts elongate, including bilobate glossa. First few flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed (so that at times three rows could be distinguished but other times rows are not clearly defined). Anteromesoscutum relatively long (longer than maximum width). Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 5–6 strong crenulae. Propodeum with strongly raised median carina which has strong lateral carinae radiating across its length. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Fore wing vein (RS+M)b much longer than areolet width. Metacoxa smooth and relatively long (reaching beyond posterior margin of T3). T1 relatively strongly narrowing from anterior margin to half of tergite, then parallel sided up to posterior margin; anterior half mostly smooth, strongly concave and with central sulcus; posterior half punctured and a polished area on posterior margin. Hypopygium folded and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and slightly longer than metatibia length. Female body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.43 (0.40–0.43); F3 L: 0.41 (0.37–0.41); F14 L: 0.23 (0.21–0.24); F15 L: 0.21 (0.20–0.22); Malar sulcus L: 0.13 (0.12–0.13); Mandible W: 0.23 (0.20–0.23); T1 L: 1.10 (1.00–1.05); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.33 (0.33–0.36); T1 maximum W: 0.62 (0.57–0.58); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.83 (0.83–0.89); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.84 (0.81–0.91); T2 L: 0.38 (0.33–0.38); Metafemur L: 1.76 (1.71–1.76); Metafemur W: 0.62 (0.55–0.58); Metatibia L: 2.36 (2.16–2.28); Inner spur L: 0.88 (0.80–0.84); Outer spur L: 0.41 (0.37–0.42); First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.44 (1.43–1.49); Ovipositor sheaths L: 2.62 (2.49–2.59); Body L: 6.63 (5.55–6.25); Fore wing L: 6.56 (5.95–6.06). Ovipositor sheaths L is approximate for 2 specimens. Maximum W of T1, T1 L, T1 W at apex, T2 L, T2 W at base and T2 W at apex are approximate for one specimen.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 7. 

Agupta solangeae female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Figure 8. 

Agupta solangeae female paratype CNC497190. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Propodeum E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Malaysia, Sabah.

Molecular data

The holotype rendered an almost complete DNA barcode (625 bp), which represents a unique BIN (BOLD:ADE1550), with 5.3% of bp difference compared to the next species in BOLD, which is another Agupta species. See comments under previous species about similarities of DNA sequences from both species.

Etymology

The second author dedicates this species to her mother Solange Nourry, as an appreciation for her love, nice conversations, great generosity and shared sweet moments.

Austinicotesia Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Austinicotesia indonesiensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head with mouth relatively narrow, resulting in a relatively very large (but rather transverse) malar line (Figs 9B, 10B). Distance between tentorial pits 0.4 × width of head at that same height. Palpi elongate, reaching beyond pronotum when extended (Fig. 9A). Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much longer than width of flagellomeres, and clearly longer than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera. Pronotum dorsally with a deep central notch and strong punctures on posterior margin (Figs 9H, 10E). Pronotum laterally with only ventral groove present. Anteromesoscutum with relatively deep punctures, each with one seta in the middle (Figs 9H, 10E). Propodeum with strongly defined and raised carinae, delimiting an areola (on posterior half) and a central carina (on anterior half), as well as transverse carinae that fork around spiracles (Figs 9F, 10D, E). Fore wing without areolet, with vein 2RS much longer than vein r. Pterostigma relatively very thin, its length at least 3.5 × its maximum width (Fig. 9D). Hind wing with vein 2r-m absent (Fig. 10C). Hind wing with vannal lobe fully setose. Metacoxa relatively short, not surpassing posterior margin of T2 (Fig. 9A). Metafemur relatively short and thick (Fig. 9A). Metatibia spurs very short, less than 0.3 × length of first segment of metatarsus (Fig. 9A). T1 widening towards posterior margin, and with a strong hump centrally followed by a deep, excavated area which is delimited by strong carinae (Figs 9G, F, 10D, E). Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length (Fig. 9G).

Figure 9. 

Austinicotesia indonesiensis female holotype. A Habitus B Head fronto-ventral C Head frontal D Fore wing E Ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths F Propodeum and tergite 1 G Metasoma dorsal H Head and mesosoma, dorsal.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

From a morphological perspective, this genus could only be confused with Austrocotesia (based on similar palpi length, anteromesoscutum sculpture, propodeum carination pattern, hind wing lacking vein 2r-m, and uniformly sclerotized hypopygium). But there are a number of features separating both genera. Austinicotesia has a central notch dorsally on pronotum which is almost unique within Microgastrinae (as far as we know it is only present in a couple of Miropotes species, see Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014c); fore wing without areolet (areolet present in Austrocotesia); fore wing with pterostigma relatively thin and long, 3.5 × as long as wide (pterostigma much less than 3.0 × as long as wide in Austrocotesia); fore wing vein 2RS much longer, around 1.5 ×, than vein r (fore wing vein 2RS much shorter, around 0.5 ×, than vein r in Austrocotesia); metafemur relatively thick and stout (of more normal proportions in Austrocotesia); T1 widening towards posterior margin and with strong hump followed by deeply excavated area and strong carinae (T1 more or less parallel-sided or narrowing towards posterior margin and without hump or excavate area in Austrocotesia); and T2 mostly smooth (usually mostly sculptured in Austrocotesia). Still, the two genera seem to be related and additional studies, especially molecular, might change in the future our current understanding of these two taxa.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The known species are found in the Australasian region (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea).

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Australian braconid expert Andrew Austin in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of Microgastrinae and other parasitoid wasp groups from Australasia and other regions. The second part of the genus name refers to its putative relationship with Austrocotesia. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

We describe below two new species for the genus. Three other specimens we saw in collections have some morphological differences, and might represent up to two additional species. However, as the material available to us for study is limited (and the morphological differences are rather subtle) we prefer to consider only two species for the time being. They can be separate using the following key.

Key to species

1 Labrum dark brown; palpi either brown (anterior 1–2 segments of maxillary palp and most segments of labial palp) or yellowish-brown (Fig. 10B); legs mostly dark brown to black (except for yellow-brown protarsus and ventral face of procoxa) (Fig. 10A); wings slightly infumated; anteromesoscutum punctures relatively sparser (separation between punctures 2.0–4.0 × puncture diameter) (Fig. 10E); joining of veins r and 2Rs not angulated (Fig. 10C) [Papua New Guinea, at altitudes of 700–1200 m] Austinicotesia papuanus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Labrum orange; palpi white (Figs 9B, C); all tarsi, mesocoxa, protibia and most of mesotibia yellow-brown (Figs 9A, E); wings hyaline; anteromesoscutum punctures relatively closer (separation between punctures 1.0–2.0 × puncture diameter) (Fig. 9H); joining of veins r and 2Rs strongly angulated (Fig. 9D) [Indonesia island of Halmahera, at 115–175 m] Austinicotesia indonesiensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Austinicotesia indonesiensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 9

Holotype

Female, Indonesia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

INDONESIA:S Halmahera/20 km S Payahe, Sagutora/Mal. trap 13, c 115 m/18.ii-18.iii.1995/C.v.Achterberg, R. de Vries &/Y.Yasir, RMNH’95. Second label: CNC878550.

Holotype locality

INDONESIA, South Halmahera, 20 km South of Payahe, Sagutora, 115 m.

Paratype

Indonesia. (1♀ CNC) South Halmahera, 20km S Payahe, Sagutora, 175m, Malaise trap, 18.ii-18.iii.1995, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Y. Yasir & R. de Vries, Voucher code: CNC878551.

Diagnosis

Austinicotesia indonesiensis body coloration is generally lighter than that of A. papuanus (labrum orange, palpi white, with all tarsi, procoxa and mesocoxa, protibia and most of mesotibia yellow-brown) and by having wings hyaline. It also has anteromesoscutum punctures relatively closer (separation between punctures 1.0–2.0 × puncture diameter), and the joining of veins r and 2Rs is strongly angulated.

Description

Female. Head, mesosoma, legs (see below for exceptions) and anterior half of T1 mostly black, rest of metasoma mostly dark or light brown; palpi and apical metatarsomeres white, labrum and anterior metatarsomere light yellow-brown; wings with veins and pterostigma mostly brown to light brown. Head with mouth relatively narrow, resulting in a relatively very large (but rather transverse) malar line. Face shiny but with sparse, uniformly distributed and shallow punctures. Distance between tentorial pits 0.4 × width of head at that same height. Labrum somewhat depressed. Mandibles relatively small. Glossa elongate. Palpi elongate, reaching beyond pronotum when extended. Antenna heavily setose, setae relatively long. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much longer than width of flagellomeres, and clearly longer than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera. Pronotum dorsally with a deep central notch and strong punctures on posterior margin. Pronotum laterally with only ventral groove present. Anteromesoscutum with deep punctures, each with one seta in the middle; separation between punctures 1.0–2.0 × puncture diameter. Propodeum with strongly defined and raised carinae, delimiting an areola (on posterior half) and a central carina (on anterior half), as well as transverse carinae that fork around spiracles. Fore wing without areolet, with vein 2RS much longer than vein r (joining of both veins strongly angulated). Pterostigma relatively very thin, its length at least 3.5 × its maximum width. Hind wing with vein 2r-m absent. Hind wing with vannal lobe fully setose. Metacoxa relatively short, not surpassing posterior margin of T2. Metafemur relatively short (less than 1.3 × as long as metacoxa) and thick (its length 2.7–3.0 × its width). Metatibia spurs very short, less than 0.3 × length of first segment of metatarsus. T1 widening towards posterior margin, and with a strong hump centrally followed by a deep, excavated area which is delimited by strong carinae. T2 mostly smooth, with lateral margins strongly defined. T3+ entirely smooth. Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.23 (0.19); F3 L: 0.23 (0.20); F14 L: 0.11; F15 L: 0.10; Malar sulcus L: 0.07 (0.06); Mandible W: 0.08 (0.06); T1 L: 0.39 (0.34); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.18 (0.16); T1 maximum W: 0.21 (0.19); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.21 (0.18); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.20 (0.20); T2 L: 0.12 (0.10); Metafemur L: 0.58 (0.52); Metafemur W: 0.19 (0.19); Metatibia L: 0.89 (0.67); Inner spur L: 0.14 (0.13); Outer spur L: 0.12 (0.12); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.41 (0.31); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.54 (0.39); Body L: 2.75 (2.28); Fore wing L: 2.50 (2.22).

Male. Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Indonesia.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the country of the type locality.

Austinicotesia papuanus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 10

Holotype

Female, Papua New Guinea, MNHN.

Holotype labels

Papua New Guinea./Mount Wilhelm, Plot 3/5.72090°S, 145.27150°E,/1200m, 25–26.X.2012,. Second label: MT, understorey, Philip,/MAL-MW1200C-01/16-/d01, CNC924668. Third label: CNC924668.

Holotype locality

PAPUA NEW GUINEA, Mount Wilhelm, Plot 3, 5.72090°S, 145.27150°E, 1200m, understorey.

Paratypes

Papua New Guinea. (1♀ CNC), Madang, Mount Wilhelm, Plot 1, -5.720874, 145.269500, 1200m, understory, Malaise trap, 1–2.xi.2012, coll. Philip, Alois, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924672; (1♂ MNHN), Mount Wilhelm, Plot 3, -5.720903 145.271500, 1200m, understory, Malaise trap, 25–26.x.2012, coll. Philip, Alois, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924674; (1♂ MNHN), -5.732514, 145.256800, 700m, understory, Malaise trap, 28–29.x.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924676; (1♂ MNHN), 3–4.xi.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924669; (1♀ MNHN), 5–6.xi.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924670; (1♀ MNHN), -5.720903, 145.271500, 1200m, understory, Malaise trap, 8–9.xi.2012, coll. Philip, Alois, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924671; (1♂ MNHN), Mount Wilhelm, Plot 4, -5.731961, 145.252200, 700m, understory, Malaise trap, 25–26.x.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924677; (1♂ MNHN), 31.x–1.xi.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924673; (1♂ MNHN), Mount Wilhelm, plot 4, -5.731961 145.252200, 700m, understory, Malaise trap, 25–26.x.2012, coll. Keltim, Uma, Novotny & Leponce, Voucher code: CNC924675.

Diagnosis

Austinicotesia papuanus body coloration is generally darker than that of A. indonesiensis (labrum, palpi and legs mostly dark brown to black) and by having wings slightly infumated. It also has anteromesoscutum punctures relatively sparser (separation between punctures 2.0–4.0 × puncture diameter), and the joining of veins r and 2Rs is not angulated.

Description

Female. Body mostly dark brown to black (except for yellow-brown protarsus, ventral face of procoxa, and some apical segments of palpi); wings slightly infumated, with veins and pterostigma brown. Head with mouth relatively narrow, resulting in a relatively very large (but rather transverse) malar line. Face shiny but with sparse, uniformly distributed and shallow punctures. Distance between tentorial pits 0.4 × width of head at that same height. Labrum somewhat depressed. Mandibles relatively small. Glossa slightly elongate. Palpi elongate, reaching beyond pronotum when extended. Antenna heavily setose, setae relatively long. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much longer than width of flagellomeres, and clearly longer than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera. Pronotum dorsally with a deep central notch and strong punctures on posterior margin. Pronotum laterally with only ventral groove present. Anteromesoscutum with deep punctures, each with one seta in the middle; separation between punctures 2.0–4.0 × puncture diameter. Propodeum with strongly defined and raised carinae, delimiting an areola (on posterior half) and a central carina (on anterior half), as well as transverse carinae that fork around spiracles. Fore wing without areolet, with vein 2RS much longer than vein r (but joining of both veins not angulated). Pterostigma relatively very thin, its length at least 3.5 × its maximum width. Hind wing with vein 2r-m absent. Hind wing with vannal lobe fully setose. Metacoxa relatively short, not surpassing posterior margin of T2. Metafemur relatively short (less than 1.3 × as long as metacoxa) and thick (its length 2.6–2.8 × its width). Metatibia spurs very short, less than 0.3 × length of first segment of metatarsus. T1 more or less parallel-sided, and with a strong hump centrally followed by a deep, excavated area which is delimited by strong carinae. T2 mostly smooth, with lateral margins well defined. T3+ entirely smooth. Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.19 (0.20–0.22); F3 L: 0.18 (0.21); F14 L: 0.08 (0.09–0.10); F15 L: 0.08 (0.09); Malar sulcus L: 0.04 (0.05–0.07); Mandible W: 0.07 (0.08–0.11); T1 L: 0.30 (0.32–0.35); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.14 (0.15–0.18); T1 maximum W: 0.14 (0.15–0.18); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.14 (0.16–0.20); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.27 (0.24–0.29); T2 L: 0.11 (0.09–0.16); Metafemur L: 0.50 (0.49–0.63); Metafemur W: 0.18 (0.19–0.23); Metatibia L: 0.69 (0.68–0.81); Inner spur L: 0.13 (0.12–0.16); Outer spur L: 0.09 (0.08–0.13); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.32 (0.27–0.38); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.33 (0.38–0.43); Body L: 1.76 (2.08–2.26); Fore wing L: 2.24 (2.22–2.60). Maximum W of T1 is taken at posterior margin of T1 where it is the largest for 4 specimens. T1 L is approximate for 1 specimen. One specimen has no head.

Male. As female.

Figure 10. 

Austinicotesia papuanus female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal E Head and mesosoma , dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Papua New Guinea.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the country of the type locality.

Billmasonius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Billmasonius cienci Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head and mesosoma mostly smooth, at most with areas with sparse and shallow punctures. Posteromedian band of scutellum smooth. Propodeum entirely smooth but with partial median carina defined posteriorly (Fig. 11E). Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Unique T1 shape (better illustrated in Fig. 11D–F), with relatively wide anterior 0.6 and strongly narrowed posterior 0.4, so that widest part of tergite (near anterior margin) is around 4.0 × narrowest width (along posterior 0.4). Anterior 0.6 of T1 mostly desclerotized (only with lateral margins and narrow central strip sclerotized), a totally unique pattern within Microgastrinae. Area surrounding spiracles on laterotergite 2 partially sclerotized and same color than T2, giving the impression of T2 having “three peaks” (the largest and central one being the actual T2, the two smallest and lateral ones being the area surrounding spiracles on laterotergites (better illustrated in Fig. 11E–F). T4-7 with thin desclerotized area medially near posterior margin, giving the appearance of terga being pushed forward medially (Fig. 11E). Hypopygium medially desclerotized, with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths clearly shorter than metatibia length.

Figure 11. 

Billmasonius cienci female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head, mesosoma and tergite 1, dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum and Tergites 1 to 2.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The shape and degree of sclerotization of T1 and T2 are unusual among known species of Microgastrinae. A somewhat similar shape of T1 is also found in Tobleronius, another genus described below, but the latter genus is completely unrelated (based on characters of the scutellar complex, very different carination pattern of propodeum, shape of T4–T7, and wing venation). Billmasonius does not seem to have any close or clear relationship to any described genera in the subfamily.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only species known is found in the Oriental region (Thailand).

Molecular data

The DNA barcode of the holotype specimen (BIN BOLD:AAH1264) is very unique, 10.4% different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Canadian braconid expert William R. M. Mason, in recognition of his extraordinary contributions to the knowledge of Microgastrinae and other parasitoid wasps of the world. Although the first author never had the opportunity to meet him, Bill has been an inspiration for many years to continue working on this group. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Billmasonius cienci Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 11

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

THAILAND, Chiang Rai,/Doi Luang Nat. Park,/Namptok Champatong, Phayao,/19.217, 99.733, 620 m/CNCH2057. Second label: CNCH2057.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Doi Luang National Park, Namptok Champatong, Phayao, 19.217, 99.733, 620 m.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma dark brown to black; metasoma mostly light brown (but T1 with yellow and white areas, and T2 dark brown); scape and pedicel yellow, flagellomeres brown; legs yellow (except for darker metatarsomeres); wings with veins mostly brown. Head and mesosoma mostly smooth, at most with areas with sparse and shallow punctures. Eyes, on frontal view, slightly convergent ventrally. Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively deep and with seven strong costulae. Posteromedian band of scutellum smooth. Propodeum entirely smooth but with partial median carina defined posteriorly. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Unusual T1 shape (better illustrated in Figs 11D–E), with relatively wide anterior 0.6 and strongly narrowed posterior 0.4, so that the widest part of the tergite (near its anterior margin) is around 3.0 × its narrowest width (along its posterior 0.4). Anterior 0.6 of T1 mostly desclerotized (only with lateral margins and narrow central strip sclerotized), a totally unique pattern within Microgastrinae. T2 trapezoidal (subtriangular), its median length 0.3 × its width at posterior margin. Area surrounding spiracles on laterotergite 2 partially sclerotized and same color than T2, giving the impression of T2 having “three peaks” (the largest and central one being the actual T2, the two smallest and lateral ones being the area surrounding spiracles on laterotergites (better illustrated in Figs 11E–F). T4-7 with thin desclerotized area medially near posterior margin, giving the appearance of terga being pushed forward medially (Fig. 11E). Hypopygium medially desclerotized, with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths 0.7 × metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.20; F3 L: 0.18; F14 L: 0.09; F15 L: 0.08; Malar sulcus L: 0.04; Mandible W: 0.08; T1 L: 0.38; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.08; T1 maximum W: 0.21; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.05; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.34; T2 L: 0.11; Metafemur L: 0.63; Metafemur W: 0.35; Metatibia L: 0.78; Inner spur L: 0.19; Outer spur L: 0.15; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.34; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.58; Body L: 1.89; Fore wing L: 2.26.

Male. Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand.

Molecular data

The DNA barcode of the holotype specimen (BIN BOLD:AAH1264) is very unique, 10.4% different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the Canadian National Collection of insects in Ottawa, Canada, in recognition of the outstanding and important collection of 18+ million insect specimens that institution holds, including what is probably the largest and most complete Microgastrinae collection in the world. The acronym “CNC”, which is widely used to refer to that institution, is pronounced in English as “Cee-En-Cee”, approximately the same as the pronunciation in Latin of the species name “cienci” would be.

Carlmuesebeckius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Carlmuesebeckius smithsonian Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Flagellomeres with three rows of placodes. Pronotum dorsally of normal proportions, not enlarged, its median length (in dorsal view) thinner than width of flagellomeres. Mesosoma, except for propodeum, mostly smooth. Propodeum with areola strongly defined by sharp and raised carinae, transverse carinae forking around big spiracles (partially visible in Fig. 12D, as the bright yellow color of the specimen difficulties the depiction of the carinae in the picture). T1 with longitudinal striae on posterior 0.6, and with a strong and raised median carina for most of its length (Fig. 12E). T2+ smooth. Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe more or less straight and entirely setose. Tarsal claws pectinate, with two teeth near base. Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized (Fig. 12A). Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length. Ovipositor bulging near apex and with two subapical serrate teeth on lower (first) valvulae.

Figure 12. 

Carlmuesebeckius smithsonian female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Mesosoma dorsal E Metasoma, ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths, dorsal.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Apical part of ovipositor with a node and two ventral teeth in the lower valvae (probably unique within microgastrines, at most similar to ovipositor of Ohenri), and T1 with strong and raised median carina on most of its length (also probably unique within the subfamily). Other morphological features are not commonly found within Microgastrinae, and their combination in Carlmuesebeckius is highly unusual: flagellomeres with placodes irregularly distributed in three rows (restricted to a few genera, not necessarily related to each other), tarsal claws pectinate (uncommon in the subfamily, although present in a few species from several genera), vannal lobe fully setose, mesosoma mostly smooth, and propodeum fully areolated and with strong carinae forking around spiracles. The relationships of Carlmuesebeckius with other genera of Microgastrinae are not clear at present, although some morphological features are related to Sathon s.str. and two new genera, Ohenri and Qrocodiledundee, described below in this paper. Carlmuesebeckius is most similar to Ohenri, based on antennal placodes distributed in three rows per flagellomere, pectinate tarsal claws, uniformly sclerotized hypopygium and ovipositor with subapical teeth; the carination pattern in the propodeum is also similar in both genera, although in Carlmuesebeckius the areola is more complete and better defined, with carinae that are strongly raised. The main differences between these two genera are that Carlmuesebeckius does not have an enlarged pronotum dorsally, the vannal lobe is setose, the mesosoma is mostly smooth, and T1 has a median, strongly raised carina (enlarged pronotum dorsally, setoseless vannal lobe, mostly sculptured mesosoma, and T1 without carinae in Ohenri).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Afrotropical region (Madagascar).

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the American braconid expert Carl F.W. Muesebeck in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of parasitoid wasps of the world. Muesebeck papers on Nearctic Microgastrinae are still a valid source of knowledge, even though some of those papers are almost one hundred years old. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Carlmuesebeckius smithsonian Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 12

Holotype

Female, Madagascar, CAS.

Holotype labels

nrRogezMadag./Mar.’47 900M/C. Lamberton. Second label: New Genus/Det. Ti. Ridge/W.R.M. Mason’81. Third label: CNC924667.

Holotype locality

MADAGASCAR, near Rogez, 900m.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Body color mostly honey-yellow, except for head mostly brown (but with yellow mandibles, labrum, clypeus and face centrally), antenna with scape and pedicel yellow and flagellomeres brown. Wings slightly infumated, with most veins golden-yellow, except for brown pterostigma and fore wing veins R1, r and 2RS. Flagellomeres with three rows of placodes. Head relatively wide, with eyes slightly convergent ventrally and malar line relatively long. Pronotum dorsally of normal proportions, not enlarged, its median length (on a dorsal view) thinner than width of flagellomeres. Mesosoma, except for propodeum, mostly smooth. Propodeum with areola strongly defined by sharp and raised carinae, transverse carinae forking around big spiracles. Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe more or less straight and entirely setose. Tarsal claws pectinate, with two teeth near base. T1 with longitudinal striae on posterior 0.6, and with a strong and raised median carina for most of its length. T2+ smooth. Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length. Ovipositor bulging near apex and with two subapical serrate teeth on lower (first) valvulae. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.46; F3 L: 0.44; Malar sulcus L: 0.09; Mandible W: 0.16; T1 L: 0.75; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.49; T1 maximum W: 0.61; T2 L: 0.23; Metafemur L: 1.56; Metafemur W: 0.44; Metatibia L: 1.90; Inner spur L: 0.65; Outer spur L: 0.33; First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.05; Ovipositor sheaths L: 1.44; Body L: 4.60; Fore wing L: 5.30. T1 L is approximate.

Male. Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Madagascar.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the National Museum of Natural History, part of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, United States, in recognition of the outstanding and important collection of 35+ million insect specimens that institution holds, including one of the largest and most complete Microgastrinae collections in the world.

Gilbertnixonius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Gilbertnixonius biem Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head with relatively large tentorial pits, and very large palps (which reach well into the mesopleuron) (Fig. 13C, D). Occipital carina partially defined. Epicnemial carina partially defined. Mesopleuron and metapleuron strongly sculptured, mostly by transverse striation (Fig. 13D). Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc mostly sculptured with strong punctures (Fig. 13E). Scutellar disc with sharp carina around margins and slightly protruding posteriorly (Fig. 13D, E). Scutellar disc with rugose band of sculptured postero-medially. Propodeum with median longitudinal and transverse carinae strongly defined (Fig. 13F, G). Fore wing with relatively small, quadrangular areolet (Fig. 13A). Pterostigma mostly white-yellow, except for posterior 0.3 which is light brown. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metacoxa relatively short, not surpassing posterior margin of T2. Metatibia spines relatively short (around 0.3 × length of first segment of metatarsus). T1 with median sulcus on anterior half, posterior half relatively strongly sculptured (Fig. 13G). T2 sub-quadrate, with longitudinal striae (Fig. 13G). Hypopygium relatively short, not extending beyond last tergites. Ovipositor very short, ovipositor sheaths with very few and sparse setae near apex (Fig. 13D).

Figure 13. 

Gilbertnixonius biem female holotype. A Fore wing B Habitus C Head frontal D Mesosoma and metasoma, lateral E Head dorsal F Mesosoma dorsal G Propodeum and metasoma, dorsal.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Gilbertnixonius belongs to the Microplitini group of genera (sensu Mason 1981). It is the only genus within that group with both longitudinal and transverse carina on propodeum, but without having an areola (Alloplitis and the new genus Tobleronius described below have those carinae, although sometimes incomplete, but they also have a complete areola). The presence of an epicnemial carina is very unique, as it is only present in Microgastrinae in the unrelated genus Fornicia and in some species of Snellenius (e.g., Mason 1981, Whitfield et al. 2002, Fernandez-Triana et al. 2015); but Snellenius does not have the propodeum carination pattern of Gilbertnixonius. The presence of an incomplete occipital carina is a highly unusual feature in Microgastrinae, only shared with at some, or perhaps all, species of Alloplitis, Philoplits and Tobleronius (see a discussion of that character under the description of Tobleronius below, for more details on lineages within Microplitini having a complete or partial occipital carina).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only species known is found in the Oriental region (Thailand).

Molecular data

The DNA barcode of the holotype specimen (BIN BOLD:AAZ9883) is very unique, 13.2% different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the British braconid expert Gilbert E. J. Nixon in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of parasitoid wasps of the world. Nixon papers on Microgastrinae were of capital importance in the second half of the past century, and paved the way for further studies, including the present one. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Gilbertnixonius biem Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 13

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

THAILAND: Suphanburi/Pu Toei Nat. Park/Huai-Tapern, by waterfall/14°58.934'N, 99°19.31'E/Malaise trap, 14–21.2009/P. Wangkum, #3834. Second label: Philoplitis/sp. jft 1. Third label: DNA Voucher/CNCHYM/01950.

Holotype locality

THAILAND: Suphanburi, Pu Toei National Park, Huai-Tapern, by waterfall, 4°58.934'N, 99°19.31'E.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Body mostly dark brown; palpi, scape, pedicel, most of first two pairs of legs, metacoxa, metafemur, first few laterotergites and sternites white or yellow-white; antenna with a subtle banded pattern, with first 10 flagellomeres yellow to light brown, and apical flagellomeres brown; wings hyaline, with most veins light brown, pterostigma mostly white-yellow (except for posterior 0.3 which is light brown). Head with relatively large tentorial pits (which reach well into mesopleuron). Occipital carina defined laterally (not clear in specimen if also defined dorsally). Epicnemial carina partially defined. Meso- and metapleura strongly sculptured, mostly by transverse striation. Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc mostly sculptured with strong punctures. Scutellar disc with sharp carina around margins and slightly protruding posteriorly. Scutellar disc with rugose band of sculptured postero-medially. Propodeum with median longitudinal and transverse carinae strongly defined. Fore wing with relatively small, quadrangular areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metacoxa relatively short, not surpassing posterior margin of T2. Metatibia spines relatively short (around 0.3 × length of first segment of metatarsus). T1 with median sulcus on anterior half, posterior half relatively strongly sculptured. T2 sub-quadrate, with longitudinal striae. Hypopygium relatively short, not extending beyond last tergites. Ovipositor very short, ovipositor sheaths with very few and sparse setae near apex.

Body measurements (mm)

F2 L: 0.20; F3 L: 0.19; F14 L: 0.10; F15 L: 0.10; Malar sulcus L: 0.09; Mandible W: 0.08; T1 L: 0.32; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.12; T1 maximum W: 0.16; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.13; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.17; T2 L: 0.12; Metafemur L: 0.59; Metafemur W: 0.18; Metatibia L: 0.79; Inner spur L: 0.11; Outer spur L: 0.09; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.32; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.14; Body L: 2.13; Fore wing L: 2.14.

Male. Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand.

Molecular data

The DNA barcode of the holotype specimen (BIN BOLD:AAZ9883) is very unique, 13.2% different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the Natural History Museum in London (United Kingdom) in recognition of the outstanding and important collection of 34+ million insect specimens that institution holds, including one of the largest and most complete Microgastrinae collection in the world. The old acronym of the Natural History Museum (British Museum until 1992) was commonly referred to as “BM” at the time, which is pronounced in English as “Bee-Em”, approximately the same as the pronunciation in Latin of the species name “biem” would be.

Janhalacaste Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Janhalacaste winnieae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Glossa elongate (Fig. 16B). Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc with relatively deep and close punctures. Posteromedian band of scutellum rugose (Figs 15D, 16D, 17C). Propodeum with complete transverse and longitudinal carinae, and with additional small carinae or striae on most of propodeum surface (Figs 14G, 15G, 16D, F, 17E). Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet (as in Fig. 17D). Metacoxa large, surpassing posterior margin of T3 (Figs 14E, 17E). T1 with longitudinal sulcus on anterior 0.6–0.7, posterior 0.3 with two sublateral carinae sharply defined and delimiting a slightly raised area (Figs 14E–G, 17E, F). T2 transverse, with smoother central area, slightly elevated from coarser lateral areas (Figs 14E, F, 16E, G, 17E, F). Hypopygium folded medially and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths about same length or slightly shorter than metatibia length.

Figure 14. 

Janhalacaste danieli male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Mesosoma dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Tergites 1 to 2 G Propodeum.

Figure 15. 

Janhalacaste guanacastensis female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Tergites 1 to 2 G Propodeum.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

An unusual T1 within Microgastrinae, which has a longitudinal sulcus on the anterior 0.6–0.7 of its length and the posterior 0.3 has two short carinae centrally delimiting a slightly raised area. The propodeum has complete transverse and longitudinal carinae, which is rarely found in Microgastrinae (that trait has also been found in the Old World genera Beyarslania and Neoclarkinella, and in the Neotropical genus Prasmodon, all of which appear distantly related; and also in the more related Neotropical genera Mariapanteles and Pseudapanteles). Band of rugosity posteromedially on scutellum. Fore wing with very small, slit-shaped areolet. This genus is morphologically similar to Mariapanteles but differs in the posteromedian band of the scutellum being rugose, T1 with two carinae on posterior third, and fore wing with an areolet. Pseudapanteles, which is morphologically related to Mariapanteles, can be separated from Janhalacaste by all those features and also by lacking a transverse carina on propodeum.

Biology

Hosts include several species of Depressaridae.

Distribution

The known species are found in the Neotropical region (Costa Rica).

Molecular data

The three species described below have DNA barcodes available, corresponding to the BINs BOLD:AAK9733, BOLD:AAK0117 and BOLD:ACB2460. Overall, the Janhalacaste BINs are clearly separate from the rest of Microgastrinae (more than 10% base pairs difference from the closest sequence available in BOLD).

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the ecologists Daniel Janzen and Winnie Hallwachs, as well as Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica, for the great contributions that both have made to our understanding of Microgastrinae diversity. It is impossible to separate Dan and Winnie from ACG; thus, we are happy and honored to name a new genus of microgastrine wasps after them all. Accordingly, the first part of the genus name is a combination of the first three letters of each researcher’s last name (“Jan” from Janzen, “Hal” from Hallwachs), while the second part of the genus name includes the last six letters of the word “Guanacaste”. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

We describe below three new species for the genus. They can be separated using the following key.

Key to species

1 Metasoma dorsally mostly light yellow (except for posterior 0.2–0.3 of T1 and entire T2, which are dark brown to black; and small, brown spot centrally on T4+) (Fig. 17E, F) Janhalacaste winnieae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Metasoma dorsally mostly dark brown to black, at most with anterior 0.6–0.7 of T1 yellow (Figs 14E, 15E, F, 16E) 2
2 Metacoxa mostly brown, with only dorsal, yellow spot on posterior 0.2 (Fig. 14E); posterior 0.3 of T1 with two sublateral carinae sharply defined (Figs 14E–G) Janhalacaste danieli Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Metacoxa entirely yellow (Fig. 16A); posterior 0.3 of T1 with two sublateral carinae poorly defined (Figs 15E–G, 16E–G) Janhalacaste guanacastensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Janhalacaste danieli Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 14

Holotype

Male, Costa Rica, CNC.

Holotype labels

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste,/ACG, Sector Pitilla,/Medrano, 380m,/11.01602, -85.38053,/02/06/2012/DHJPAR0049240.

Holotype locality

COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Medrano, 380m, 11.01602, -85.38053.

Diagnosis

This is the only species in the genus with dark (brown) metacoxa.

Description

Male. Head and mesosoma black; metasoma mostly black to dark brown dorsally (except for T1 light yellow on anterior 0.6); metasoma mostly yellow laterally and ventrally; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellomeres mostly dark brown to black; palpi white; legs mostly yellow (except for metacoxa mostly brown); wings with veins mostly brown. Head, including eyes, mostly covered by relatively long and dense setae (except for smooth, setoseless area, centrally on occiput behind ocelli, Fig. 14D). Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc with relatively deep and close punctures, and with long, white setae. Posteromedian band of scutellum rugose. Propodeum with complete transverse and longitudinal carinae, and with additional small striae. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Metacoxa large, surpassing posterior margin of T3. T1 with longitudinal sulcus on anterior 0.6, posterior 0.3 with two sublateral carinae sharply defined. T2 transverse, with smoother central area, slightly elevated from coarser lateral areas. T2+ with relatively long, sparse, white setae, which are mostly locate laterally on terga.

Female. Unknown.

Biology

Reared from an undetermined species of Depressariidae with the interim name of “elachJanzen01 Janzen131”.

Distribution

Costa Rica.

Molecular data

The holotype sequence belongs to BIN BOLD:ACB2460, which has 5.3% of bp differences compared to the next species in BOLD, which is Janhalacaste winnieae.

Etymology

Named after Daniel Janzen, in recognition of his extraordinary contributions to the fields of conservation biology, tropical ecology, citizen science and public outreach, and even for helping taxonomists to be better appreciated for what they do. The first author has also been honored to work with Dan on the Microgastrinae fauna of ACG for the past six years and counting.

Janhalacaste guanacastensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 15, 16

Holotype

Female, Costa Rica, CNC.

Holotype labels

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste,/ACG, Sector Pitilla,/Medrano, 380m, 09/04/2013,/11.01602, -85.38053,/DHJPAR0054852.

Holotype locality

COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Medrano, 380m, 11.01602, -85.38053.

Paratype. Costa Rica. (1♂ CNC) Brasilia, Piedrona, 11.016200, -85.359000, 340m, 17.iv.2013, Voucher code: DHJPAR0052309.

Diagnosis

This species can be separate from J. winnieae because of its almost entirely dark brown metasoma dorsally (almost entirely yellow metasoma dorsally in J. winnieae). Its yellow metacoxa in turn separates it from J. danieli (which has dark brown metacoxa). J. guanacastensis is also the species with the least defined sublateral carinae on posterior 0.3 of T1.

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma black; metasoma mostly black to dark brown dorsally (T1 mostly yellow, except for brown, central spot on posterior margin; sometimes T3-T6 with small yellow spots laterally); metasoma mostly yellow laterally and ventrally; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellomeres mostly brown; palpi white; legs yellow; wings with veins mostly brown. Head, including eyes, mostly covered by relatively long and dense setae (except for smooth, setoseless area, centrally on occiput behind ocelli, Fig. 15D). Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc with relatively deep and close punctures, and with long, white setae. Posteromedian band of scutellum rugose. Propodeum with complete transverse and longitudinal carinae, and with additional small striae. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Metacoxa large, surpassing posterior margin of T3. T1 with longitudinal sulcus on anterior 0.6–0.7, posterior 0.3 with two sublateral carinae which are barely visible (the latter might be an artifact due to specimen condition). T2 transverse, with smoother central area, slightly elevated from coarser lateral areas. T2+ with relatively long, sparse, white setae, which are mostly locate laterally on terga. Hypopygium folded medially and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths shorter than metatibia length. Female body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.23; F3 L: 0.23; F14 L: 0.12; F15 L: 0.11; Malar sulcus L: 0.08; Mandible W: 0.11; T1 L: 0.49; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.18; T1 maximum W: 0.33; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.28; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.37; T2 L: 0.11; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.82; Body L: 2.70; Fore wing L: 2.85. Malar sulcus L and mandible W are approximate.

Male. As female, but lighter in coloration and less setose. However, those differences might be due to the available specimen being teneral. Male body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.28; F3 L: 0.27; F14 L: 0.16; F15 L: 0.15; Malar sulcus L: 0.08; Mandible W: 0.08; T1 L: 0.52; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.21; T1 maximum W: 0.38; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.27; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.42; T2 L: 0.13; Metafemur L: 0.90; Metafemur W: 0.28; Metatibia L: 1.14; Inner spur L: 0.33; Outer spur L: 0.20; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.54; Body L: 3.22; Fore wing L: 3.38.

Figure 16. 

Janhalacaste guanacastensis male paratype DHJPAR0052309. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum G Tergites 1 and 2.

Biology

Reared from five species of Depressariidae: Antaeotricha sp. (with specific interim name “Janzen146”), Filinota sp. (with specific interim name “Janzen154”), Stenoma sp. (with specific interim name “Janzen13”), and two other undetermined species with the interim names of “elachJanzen01 Janzen131” and “elachJanzen01 Janzen861”.

Distribution

Costa Rica.

Molecular data

The holotype and paratype sequences belong to BIN BOLD:AAK9733, which has 11.6% of bp differences compared to the next species in BOLD, which is Janhalacaste danieli.

Etymology

Named after Area de Conservación Guanacaste, a world icon and example of conservation of tropical ecosystems.

Janhalacaste winnieae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 17

Holotype

Female, Costa Rica, CNC.

Holotype labels

COSTA RICA: Guanacaste,/ACG, Sector Santa Rosa,/Area Administrativa, 295m,/10.83764, -85.61871,/12/25/2008/DHJPAR0031806.

Holotype locality

COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 295m, 10.83764, -85.61871.

Paratypes

Costa Rica. (1♀ CNC) Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 10.837600, -85.618700, 295m, 25.xii.2008, Voucher code: DHJPAR0031795; (1♂ CNC), Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque San Emilio, 10.843900, -85.613800, 300m, 10.iv.2000, Voucher code: DHJPAR0013312.

Diagnosis

This is the only species in the genus with metasoma mostly yellow dorsally (the two other known species have the metasoma mostly dark brown to black dorsally).

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma black; metasoma mostly light yellow dorsally (except for posterior 0.2–0.3 of T1 and entire T2, which are dark brown to black; and small, brown spot centrally on T4+); metasoma yellow laterally and ventrally; scape and pedicel yellow, flagellomeres mostly dark brown; palpi white; legs mostly yellow (except for posterior 0.4 of metatibia and metatarsus which are dark brown to black); wings with veins mostly brown. Head, including eyes, mostly covered by relatively long and dense setae (except for smooth, setoseless area, centrally on occiput behind ocelli, Fig. 17C). Anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc with relatively deep and close punctures, and with long, white setae. Posteromedian band of scutellum rugose. Propodeum with complete transverse and longitudinal carinae, and with additional small striae. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Metacoxa large, surpassing posterior margin of T3. T1 with longitudinal sulcus on anterior 0.6, posterior 0.3 with two sublateral carinae sharply defined. T2 transverse, with smoother central area, slightly elevated from coarser lateral areas. T2+ with relatively long, sparse, white setae, which are mostly locate laterally on terga. Hypopygium folded medially and with several pleats. Ovipositor sheaths shorter than metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.25 (0.24); F3 L: 0.25 (0.23); F14 L: 0.12 (0.11); F15 L: 0.11 (0.10); Malar sulcus L: 0.05 (0.07); Mandible W: 0.09 (0.07); T1 L: 0.50 (0.50); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.17 (0.18); T1 maximum W: 0.36 (0.35); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.28 (0.27); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.38 (0.40); T2 L: 0.12 (0.10); Metafemur L: 0.89; Metafemur W: 0.26; Metatibia L: 1.13; Inner spur L: 0.33; Outer spur L: 0.17; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.56; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.67 (0.90); Body L: 2.83 (2.93); Fore wing L: 3.19 (2.95).

Male. As female.

Figure 17. 

Janhalacaste winnieae female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Mesosoma dorsal D Fore wing E Propodeum F Metasoma dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Costa Rica.

Molecular data

The sequences of the holotype and two paratypes all belong to BIN BOLD:AAK0117, which has 5.2% of bp differences compared to the next species in BOLD, which is Janhalacaste danieli.

Etymology

Named after Winnie Hallwachs, in recognition of her extraordinary contributions to the fields of conservation biology, tropical ecology, citizen science and public outreach, and even for helping taxonomists to be better appreciated for what they do. The first author has also been honored to work with Winnie on the Microgastrinae fauna of ACG for the past six years and counting.

Jenopappius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Jenopappius magyarmuzeum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Clypeus relatively small and bulging (Figs 18B, 20B). Tentorial pits relatively large. Notauli marked by coarser sculpture than rest of anteromesoscutum (partially visible in Figs 20F, 21C). Scutoscutellar sulcus deep and with strong crenulae (Figs 18E, 20F, 21C). Propodeum without areola, but with median longitudinal carina obscured by surrounding sculpture (Figs 20F, 21E). Fore wing with four-sided areolet (second submarginal cell). Metacoxa relatively short (not surpassing posterior margin of T2). Metatibial spurs relatively short (less than half length of first segment of metatarsus) (Figs 20A, 21A). T1 longer than wide, mostly sculptured with strong longitudinal striae, but with anteromedian depression (Figs 18F, 20E, 21B, E). T2 rectangular, as long as or longer than T3, with strong longitudinal striation and a central, smooth area (median field) which is slightly more elevated than rest of tergite and it is narrowing towards posterior margin (Figs 18F, 19A, B, 20E, 21B, E). Hypopygium inflexible and not pleated. Ovipositor sheaths very short (Figs 18A, 20A).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Jenopappius clearly belongs to the Microplitini (sensu Mason 1981). It resembles Microplitis but with a strongly sculptured and rectangular T2 and a rather unique pattern of T1. Also, some Alloplitis may have somewhat similar sculpture of either T1 or T2 (but the shape of those tergites in that latter genus is very different, and the propodeum is fully areolated with strongly raised carinae). The combination of sculptured propodeum without areola, anteromedian depression of T1, and strong sculpture of T1–T2 are very unusual and will separate Jenopappius from any other known genera of Microplitini and indeed Microgastrinae.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

All known species are found in the Afrotropical region (Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Republic of Congo, Rwanda).

Molecular data

A total of 11 DNA barcodes are available, from Jenopappius magyarmuzeum. All sequences cluster together in BIN BOLD:AAH1374, and are different by 14.2 % of the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD (based on a Neighbor Joining tree built with 35,000+ Microgastrinae sequences available in BOLD as of January 2018).

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Hungarian braconid expert Jeno Papp, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of Braconidae of the world, and his work on Palearctic Microgastrinae. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

We recognize three different species, two previously described by de Saeger (1944) and a new one described below. They can be separate using the following key.

Key to species

1 T1 narrowing towards posterior margin (T1 width at anterior margin around 1.3 × its width at posterior margin); T2 with raised median area width at its anterior margin as wide as width of T1 at posterior margin, so that lateral margins of raised area of T2 look like a continuation of lateral margins of T1 (Fig. 19A) [Democratic Republic of Congo] Jenopappius niger (de Saeger, 1944)
T1 more or less parallel-side on anterior 0.3–0.4 (at which point there is a small constriction centrally on tergite), then widening towards posterior margin (T1 width at anterior margin around 0.8 × its width at posterior margin); T2 with raised median area width at its anterior margin clearly narrower than width of T1 at posterior margin, so that lateral margins of raised area of T2 do not look like a continuation of lateral margins of T1 (Figs 18F, 19B, 20E, 21B, E) 2
2 Median raised area on T2 very thin and parallel-sided (Figs 20E, 21B, E); tegula, maxillary and labial palpi brown; all femora dark and most of tibiae brown to black; T2 and T3 yellow-white (Figs 20E, 21B, E) [Republic of Congo] Jenopappius magyarmuzeum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Median raised area on T2 anteriorly much broader than posteriorly (Figs 18F, 19B); tegula, maxillary and labial palpi yellow; all femora and tibiae mostly yellow (mesofemur and metafemur with narrow brown band dorsally); T2 and T3 brown to black (Fig. 18F) [Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda] Jenopappius aethiopica (de Saeger, 1944)

Jenopappius aethiopica (de Saeger, 1944), comb. n.

Figs 18, 19B

Microplitis aethiopica de Saeger, 1944. Original description (de Saeger 1944: 48).

Microplitis aethiopicus de Saeger, 1944. Gender of species name changed (Yu et al. 2016).

Holotype

Female, Democratic Republic of the Congo, RMCA (Musee Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium). Not examined, but original description checked.

Diagnosis

J. aethiopica can be separated from J. niger because of shape of T1, and by having raised median area of T2 narrower than width of T1 at posterior margin. It can be distinguished from J. magyarmuzeum because it has lightered coloured legs and darker T2 and T3 (darker legs and yellow-white T2 and T3 in J. magyarmuzeum).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Comments

The species records from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda come from the original description of the species (de Saeger 1944). The record from Kenya (two female specimens) is based on specimens found in the CNC. No molecular data. The Kenyan specimens we examined have the first 2–3 sternites and laterotergites, and the first two pairs of legs mostly yellow (except for tibia and tarsi which are brown). That is slightly lighter coloured compared to the original description of J. aethiopica (where the color of those body parts is described as mostly reddish-yellow or reddish-brown), but we consider those as minor differences and thus keep all examined specimens as part of J. aethiopica.

Figure 18. 

Jenopappius aethiopica female non-type specimen CNC878534. A Habitus B Head frontal C Head dorsal D Fore wing E Mesosoma dorsal F Metasoma dorsal.

Figure 19. 

Comparison of tergites 1 and 2 in Jenopappius niger (A) and Jenopappius aethiopica (B) based on modified drawings from the original descriptions of the species (de Saeger 1944). Blue arrow shows tergite 1 narrowing (A) or widening (B) towards posterior margin. Red arrow shows end of lateral margin of tergite 1 and beginning of lateral margin of median area of tergite 2 to be almost continuous (A) or end of lateral margin of tergite 1 and beginning of lateral margin of median area of tergite 2 to be clearly separate (B).

Jenopappius magyarmuzeum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 20, 21

Holotype

Female, Democratic Republic of the Congo, CNC.

Holotype labels

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF/THE CONGO. Iboubikro,/Lesio-Loun Pk,; Pool,/3.27°S, 15.471°E, 340m,. Second label: 25.XI.2088, Braet &/Sharkey, BIN#BOLD:/AAH1374, CNCH2795. Third label: CNCH2795.

Holotype locality

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, Iboubikro, Lesio-Louna Park, Pool, 3.27°S, 15.471°E, 340m.

Paratypes

Democratic Republic of the Congo. (2♂ CNC), Iboubikro, Lesio-Loun Pk.; Pool, -3.269931, 15.471100, 340m, 13.x.2008, coll. Braet & Sharkey, Voucher codes: CNCH3029, CNCH3037; (7♂1♀ CNC), -3.270000 15.471000, 340m, 25.xi.2008, coll. Braet & Sharkey, Voucher codes: CNCH2806, CNCH2760, CNCH2768, CNCH2775, CNCH2782, CNCH2787, CNCH2789, CNCH2807; (1♂ CNC), Iboubikro, Lesio-Loun Pk; Pool, -3.162000, 15.283000, 330m, 1.ix.2008, coll. Sharkey & Braet, Voucher code: JMIC0532.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus with yellow-white T2 and T3. Additionally the shape of T1 would separate it from J. niger (Fig. 19A), and the shape of the median raised area on T2 (very thin and parallel-sided) would distinguish it from J. aethiopica (which has the raised area on T2 much broader anteriorly than posteriorly).

Description

Female. Head, mesosoma and T1 black, T2–T3 yellow-white, T4+ dark brown; antenna dark brown to black; palpi brown to yellow-brown; most legs dark brown to black (except for profemur and protibia partially yellow-orange); metatibial spurs yellow-white; wings hyaline, most veins brown. Head with relatively large tentorial pits. Clypeus relatively small and bulging. Glossa relatively elongate. Most of head and mesosoma with coarse punctures. Notauli marked by deeper and coarser sculpture. Scutoscutellar sulcus deep and wide, with 4 or more strong crenulae. Scutellar disc with posteromedian band of rugosity. Propodeum strongly sculptured, with irregular pattern of carinae, but a median longitudinal carina clearly defined. Fore wing with four-sided areolet (second submarginal cell). Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metacoxa relatively short (not surpassing posterior margin of T2). Metatibial spurs relatively short (less than half length of first segment of metatarsus). T1 mostly coarsely sculptured, with strong longitudinal striae and anteromedian depression. T2 rectangular, as long as or longer than T3, with strong longitudinal striation and a central, smooth area slightly more elevated than rest of tergite (which narrows towards posterior margin). Hypopygium inflexible and not pleated. Ovipositor sheaths very short. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.23 (0.24); F3 L: 0.21 (0.23); F14 L: (0.16); Malar sulcus L: 0.10 (0.10); Mandible W: 0.08 (0.11); T1 L: 0.40 (0.38); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.30 (0.33); T1 maximum W: 0.33 (0.33); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.33 (0.34); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.41 (0.43); T2 L: 0.24 (0.24); Metafemur L: 0.72 (0.71); Metafemur W: 0.16 (0.17); Metatibia L: 1.07 (1.04); Inner spur L: 0.13 (0.12); Outer spur L: 0.13 (0.13); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.40 (0.39); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.13 (0.13); Body L: 2.73 (2.93); Fore wing L: 2.55 (2.53). Maximum W of T1 and T1 W at anterior margin are approximate for one specimen.

Male. As female.

Figure 20. 

Jenopappius magyarmuzeum female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Ovipositor and hind leg E Metasoma dorsal F Mesosoma dorsal.

Figure 21. 

Jenopappius magyarmuzeum male paratype CNCH2789. A Habitus B Tergites 1 to 3 C Mesosoma dorsal D Mesosoma lateral E Propodeum and tergites 1 to 2.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Molecular data

The holotype and 10 paratype sequences all belong to BIN BOLD:AAH1374, which is 14.2 % different from the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the Hungarian Natural History Museum, in recognition of the outstanding and important collection of 8+ million insect specimens that institution holds, including one of the largest and most complete Microgastrinae collections in the world. The species name refers to the first and last words of the Hungarian name of the museum (Magyar Természet-Tudományi Múzeum). Of further significance is that the genus of the new species is itself named after Jeno Papp, who worked in the Hungarian Natural History Museum for many years.

Jenopappius niger (de Saeger, 1944)

Fig. 19A

Microplitis niger de Saeger, 1944. Original description (de Saeger 1944: 46).

Holotype

Female, Democratic Republic of the Congo, RMCA (Musee Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium). Not examined, but original description checked.

Diagnosis

J. niger can be separate from the other known species of the genus because of shape of T1, and by having raised median area of T2 as wide as width of T1 at posterior margin (Fig. 19).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Comments

The information about this species was extracted from the original description (de Saeger 1944).

Jimwhitfieldius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Flagellomere with placodes arranged in three rows (females and males) (Figs 23F, 25G). Head posteriorly with a deep depression, behind occiput (Fig. 26E). Pale spot at base of mandible. Hypostomal carina with a projecting flange. Mesosoma mostly smooth (Figs 22E, 25E, 26E). Propodeum entirely smooth, without any carina (Figs 22D, E). Metatrochantellus with highly unusual shape (better illustrated in Fig. 23I), anteriorly with rounded projections. Relatively very large and thick inner spur in hind leg (0.8 × as long as first segment of metatarsus) (Figs 22A, 23G, J, 24A, D, 25H, 26A). Fore wing with large areolet (Figs 22C, 24A, C, 26C). Hind wing with vannal lone fully setose. Metasoma mostly smooth. Ovipositor extremely short, almost invisible externally (Figs 23H, I, 24A, 26C).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The strong depression of the head behind the occiput, the shape of the metatrochantellus, and the length and shape of the inner spur of metatibia are all highly unusual within Microgastrinae. The extremely short ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths are probably the shortest observed in the entire subfamily. The flagellomeres with three rows of placodes are rarely found among some species of a few unrelated Microgastrinae genera. The hypostomal flange is similar to some species of Prasmodon (see Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014d), although the two genera are not related at all.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The known species are found in the Oriental region (Thailand, Vietnam).

Molecular data

A total of 19 sequences representing five BINs, BOLD:AAH1239, BOLD:AAV2073, BOLD:AAV2080, BOLD:AAV2083, and BOLD:ACE5642. Three of those BINs are only know from either one or two male specimens, whereas BOLD:AAH1239 (10 specimens) and BOLD:AAV2073 (5 specimens) are better represented.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the American braconid expert James B. Whitfield, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of parasitoid wasps of the world, especially Microgastrinae and their associated polydnaviruses. For the past 18 years, Jim has been a mentor for the first author, and his friendship and advice have always been very much appreciated. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

All examined specimens are morphologically very similar, with minute differences in coloration (tergites 5+ with or without brown spots) and shape of T2 (more or less broadening towards posterior margin). Based on DNA barcoding, there could be up to 5 different species. However, three of those barcode-species are only represented by one or two male specimens each, and thus are not considered here (they will only be described if more material becomes available in the future). The two species described below differ slightly in morphology, their DNA barcodes have 14–18 bp different (2.1–2.8 %), and are found at different altitudinal ranges. They can be separate using the following key.

Key to species

1 Larger species, body L 3.5–3.8 mm and fore wing L 3.6–4.0 mm; T2 comparatively less strongly broadening towards posterior margin (width at posterior margin 1.8–2.3 × width at anterior margin) and comparatively thinner (length medially 0.9–1.0 × width at posterior margin) [All known specimens collected between 75 and 100 m in southern Thailand and Vietnam] Jimwhitfieldius jamesi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Smaller species, body L 2.9–3.0 mm and fore wing L 3.5 mm; T2 comparatively more strongly broadening towards posterior margin (width at posterior margin 3.0 × width at anterior margin), and comparatively less thin (length medially 0.8 × width at posterior margin) [All known specimens collected between 273 and 1,306 m in central Thailand] Jimwhitfieldius sydneyae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 22, 23, 24, 25

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

Thailand. Trang prov./Khao Chong, Forest/Research Station.,/7.551°N, 99.79°E, 75m. Second label: 1.VIII.2005, D. Lohman,/BIN#BOLD:AAH1239,/CNCH2640. Third label: CNCH2640.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Trang Province, Khao Chong, Forest Research Station, 7.551°N, 99.79°E, 75m.

Paratypes

Thailand. (1♀ QSBG), Trang, Khao Chong Forest Research Station, 7.550556, 99.789722, 75m, xi.2005, coll. D. Lohman, Voucher code: CNC878555; (3♂ QSBG), Khaochong, 7.561000, 99.886000, 75m, Voucher codes: CNCH2136, CNCH2138, CNCH2139; (1♂ QSBG), Khoa Chong, Forest Research St., 7.551000, 99.790000, 75m, coll. D. Lohman, Voucher code: CNCH2270; (2♂ QSBG), Khoa Chong, 7.551000, 99.790000, 75m, coll. D. Lohman, Voucher codes: CNCH2041, CNCH1994; (3♀ QSBG), Trang, Nayon Khao Chong, 7.561000, 99.886000, 75m, Voucher codes: CNCH2232, CNCH2236, CNCH2239. Vietnam. (1♀ CNC), Cat Thien National Park, Dong Nal, 100m, Bird trail, Malaise trap, 15–20.v.2007, coll. C.v. Achterberg&R.de Vries, Voucher code: CNC924047; (4♂ RMNH), Cat Tien National Park, Dong Nai, 100m, Bird trail;Dong Trail, Malaise trap, 1–9.x.2005, coll. C.v. Achterberg&R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924051, CNC924052, CNC924053, CNC924054; (5♂ 2♀ RMNH), Botanical Garden;Eco-trail, Malaise trap, 13–20.v.2007, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924028, CNC924033, CNC924050, CNC924034, CNC924035, CNC924036, CNC924037; (3♂ RMNH), Lagerstroemia trail, Malaise trap, 14–20.v.2007, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924055, CNC924056, CNC924057; (7♂ RMNH), Bird trail, Malaise trap, 15–20.v.2007, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924038, CNC924039, CNC924040, CNC924041, CNC924042, CNC924043, CNC924044; (4♂ RMNH), Dong Trail, Malaise trap, 19–25.iv.2007, coll. Mai Phu Quy & Nguyen Thanh Manh, Voucher codes: CNC924029, CNC924030, CNC924031, CNC924032; (2♂ RMNH), 9–30.iv.2007, coll. M.P. Quiu & N.T. Manh , Voucher codes: CNC924058, CNC924059; (1♂ RMNH), 9.iv-13.v.2007, coll. Mai Phu Quy & Nguyen Thanh Manh, Voucher code: CNC924049; (1♂ RMNH), Dong Trail, Malaise trap, 9.iv-19.v.2007, coll. M.P. Quiu, N.T. Manh & C.V. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC924048; (2♀ RMNH), Nature reserve, Phong Dien, Thua Thien Hue, 150m, Nature reserve base camp, 15km West Phong My., Malaise trap, 23.iii-6.iv.2001, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924026, CNC924027; (2♂ RMNH), Nul Chua National Park, Ninh Thuan, 150m, Northwest part, Malaise trap, 24–30.v.2007, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R.de Vries, Voucher codes: CNC924045, CNC924046.

Diagnosis

The two known species of the genus are very similar morphologically. J. jamesi is a larger species (usually its body length is at least 0.5 mm larger than J. sydneyae) and T2 is comparatively less broad apically (T2 width at posterior margin 1.8–2.3 × width at anterior margin, whereas J. sydneyae has T2 width at posterior margin 3.0 × width at anterior margin). The known geographical distribution of the two species is also different, with J. jamesi found at lower altitudes in southern Thailand and Vietnam (75–100 m), whereas all known specimens of J. sydneyae have been collected at higher altitudes (273–924 m). DNA barcodes of the two species also have more than 2% of base pair differences.

Description

Female. Body mostly yellow to yellow-white, with only antennae brown (light brown ventrally, dark brown dorsally), posterior 0.2 of metatibia and metatarsus dark brown to black; base of mandible slightly discolored (with paler spot); wings hyaline, veins dark brown. Body mostly smooth, with very shallow and sparse punctures in some areas. Flagellomeres with placodes arranged in three rows. Head posteriorly with a deep depression, behind occiput. Hypostomal carina with projecting flange. Mesosoma mostly smooth. Scutoscutellar sulcus with some 6 strong crenulae. Propodeum entirely smooth, without any carina. Metatrochantellus with unique shape (better illustrated in Fig. 23I), anteriorly with rounded projections. Relatively very large (0.8 × as long as first segment of metatarsus) and thick inner spur in hind leg. Fore wing with large areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe fully setose. Metasoma mostly smooth. Ovipositor extremely short, almost invisible externally. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.33 (0.29–0.33); F3 L: 0.33 (0.29–0.33); F14 L: 0.29 (0.25–0.29); F15 L: 0.27 (0.23–0.27); Malar sulcus L: 0.10 (0.09–0.10); Mandible W: 0.13 (0.11–0.13); T1 L: 0.53 (0.52–0.54); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.18 (0.13–0.15); T1 maximum W: 0.27 (0.22–0.26); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.15 (0.15–0.18); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.33 (0.30–0.37); T2 L: 0.33 (0.29–0.38); Metafemur L: 1.44 (1.29–1.45); Metafemur W: 0.42 (0.38–0.42); Metatibia L: 1.57 (1.44–1.63); Inner spur L: 0.75 (0.68–0.78); Outer spur L: 0.39 (0.34–0.40); First segment of Metatarsus L: 1.00 (0.91–1.00); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.08 (0.05–0.07); Body L: 3.84 (3.66–3.92); Fore wing L: 4.08 (3.64–4.08). Maximum W of T1 is taken at anterior margin of T1 for all specimens. T1 L is approximate for 3 specimens and impossible to measure for 2 specimens. Fore wing L is approximate for 2 specimens.

Male. As female.

Figure 22. 

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal.

Figure 23. 

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi female holotype. F Antennal flagellomeres 1 to 4 G Hind leg H Hypopygium and ovipositor, lateral I Hypopygium and ovipositor, ventral J Inner and outer spines of metatibia.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand, Vietnam.

Molecular data

The holotype and 9 paratype sequences all belong to BIN BOLD:AAH1239, which is 1.5 % different from the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD (specimens of an undescribed species of Jimwhitfieldius).

Etymology

Named after James B. Whitfield in appreciation of the many things the first author has learned from him.

Figure 24. 

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi female paratype CNC878555. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Inner and outer spines of metatibia.

Figure 25. 

Jimwhitfieldius jamesi female paratype CNC878555. E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Metasoma dorsal G Antennal flagellomeres 1 to 5 H Inner spine of metatibia.

Jimwhitfieldius sydneyae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 26

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

THAILAND: Loei, Phu/Kradueng NP, mixed/deciduous/Elerd, 273m/16.566, 101.49, 19.iii.2008/Thonghuay Phatai/JMIC 0138. Second label: JMIC 0138.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Loei Province, Phu, Kradueng National Park, mixed deciduous, 273m, 16.566, 101.49.

Paratypes

Thailand. (1♂ CNC), Lampang, Chae Son NP, youth camp/meeting hall, 18.499000, 99.282000, 476m, 16.iii.2008, coll. B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng, Voucher code: JMIC0284; (1♂ QSBG), Kamphaeng Phet, Mae Wong National Park, Chong Yen, 16.521000, 99.658000, 1306m, 2.iv.2008, coll. C. Piluek, Voucher code: WAM0039; (1♂ QSBG), Thung Salaeng Luang NP, staff house, Gang Sopa waterfall; Phitsanulok, 16.527000, 100.493000, 486m, 7.v.2007, coll. Pongpitak & Sathit, Voucher code: JMIC0165. (1♂ CNC), Mae Wong NP, Chong Yen; Kamphaeng Phet, 16.521000, 99.658000, 1306m, 2.iv.2008, coll. C. Piluek, Voucher code: JMIC0026; (1♂ CNC), Phetchabun, Nam Nao NP, Check Point, 16.437000, 101.638000, 924m, 26.v.2007, coll. Noopean Hongyothi, Voucher code: JMIC0258.

Diagnosis

See previous species for comments on how to separate both.

Description

Female. Body mostly yellow to yellow-white, with only antennae brown (light brown ventrally, dark brown dorsally), posterior 0.2 of metatibia and metatarsus dark brown to black; base of mandible slightly discolored (with paler spot); wings hyaline, veins dark brown. Body mostly smooth, with very shallow and sparse punctures in some areas. Flagellomeres with placodes arranged in three rows. Head posteriorly with a deep depression, behind occiput (Fig. 26E). Hypostomal carina with projecting flange. Mesosoma mostly smooth. Scutoscutellar sulcus with some 6 strong crenulae. Propodeum entirely smooth, without any carina. Metatrochantellus with unique shape (see Fig. 23I), anteriorly with rounded projections. Relatively very large (0.8 × as long as first segment of metatarsus) and thick inner spur in hind leg. Fore wing with large areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe fully setose. Metasoma mostly smooth. Ovipositor extremely short, almost invisible externally. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.28; F3 L: 0.28; F14 L: 0.24; F15 L: 0.23; Malar sulcus L: 0.09; Mandible W: 0.10; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.18; T1 maximum W: 0.34; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.18; Metafemur L: 1.19; Metafemur W: 0.36; Metatibia L: 1.31; Inner spur L: 0.67; Outer spur L: 0.36; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.81; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.04; Body L: 2.75; Fore wing L: 3.59. Maximum W of T1 is approximate.

Male. As female.

Figure 26. 

Jimwhitfieldius sydneyae female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Hypopygium and ovipositor, lateral.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand.

Molecular data

The holotype and 5 paratype sequences all belong to BIN BOLD:AAV2073, which is 2.3 % different from the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD (specimens of an undescribed species of Jimwhitfieldius).

Etymology

Named after Sydney Cameron as appreciation of the very nice moments shared during several visits the first author made to her and Jim in Illinois.

Kotenkosius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Kotenkosius tricarinatus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Face with slightly coarse punctures. Mesosoma mostly smooth, at most with areas with sparse and shallow punctures. Polished area of lateral face of scutellum (lunules) relatively very small, less than 0.2 height of lateral face (Fig. 27D). Propodeum carination pattern that includes three complete longitudinal carinae (one medially, the other two sublaterally) and a complete transverse carina (subapically), with additional small striae radiating from the median and sublateral carinae (Figs 27D, F); most carinae are strongly defined and raised. Fore wing with relatively large and quadrate areolet (Fig. 27C). Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metasomal terga smooth. T1 rectangular, T2 trapezoidal (Figs 27E, F). Hypopygium inflexible, without pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and less than half the length of the metatibia (Fig. 27A).

Figure 27. 

Kotenkosius tricarinatus female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Mesosoma dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The carination pattern of propodeum is unique among Microgastrinae. Kotenkosius is likely related to Choeras s.l. (see Discussion below) but it has a very different propodeum carination and an inflexible, unpleated hypopygium.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only species known is found in the Oriental region.

Molecular data

Among the specimens we have been able to study, three have sequences available in BOLD, all corresponding to BIN BOLD:AAV2185. Another three sequences (from specimens we have not seen) are part of that same BIN, suggesting they all belong to the same species. That BIN is far apart from other Microgastrinae with available DNA barcodes (with the exception of BIN BOLD:ADB2437, which seems related to K. tricarinatus and could represent a second species of Kotenkosius, see more comments on the section “Species” below).

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Ukrainian braconid expert Anatoly G. Kotenko, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of Braconidae, specially his work on East Palearctic Microgastrinae. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Although there are slight differences between specimens from several countries (with some specimens being lighter coloured) we consider them all to be conspecific. Thus, we recognize here only one species, which seems to be rather widespread in the Oriental region (Bangladesh, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam). However, in BOLD there is another BIN (BOLD:ADB2437), which contains five sequences of specimens from Indonesia, which seems closely related to K. tricarinatus and thus could represent a second species in this genus. However, we have not seen those specimens nor have access to those sequences and thus cannot conclude on that nor describe that putative second species.

Kotenkosius tricarinatus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 27

Holotype

Female, Vietnam, RMNH.

Holotype labels

Mic./760. Second label: VN: Yên Bái, Luc/Yên, Phúc Lợi./Rứng TS 07-X-2003/KH. Ɖ. LONG. Third label: CNC878543. There is a fourth, red label associated with the holotype specimen. Apparently it was attached as the specimen was considered to be a potential paratype of a Choeras species never described. We are not detailing that name here as it is not valid, and the specimen does not belong to Choeras, but we are just noting the existence of that fourth label –which we did not remove because the specimen belongs to a different institution than ours.

Holotype locality

VIETNAM, Yên Bái, LucYên, Phúc Lợi. Rứng.

Paratypes

Malaysia (2♀ RMNH) Sabah, near Long Pa Sia, Payakalaba, 1010m, Malaise trap, 12–13.iv.1987, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher codes: CNC878547, CNC878548. Taiwan. (1♂ CNC) Wushe, 1150m, v.1983, coll. H. Townes, Voucher code: CNC878549. Thailand. (1♂ QSBG) Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao WS Nature Trail, 19.404633, 98.921850, 491m, pan trap, 1–2.x.2007, coll. Songkran & Apichart, Voucher code: CNC878546; (1♀ QSBG) Kaeng Krachan NP, km 16/road/stream 2; Phet Buri, 12.481000, 99.267000, 320m, 22.vi.2009, coll. Sirichai, Voucher code: JMIC0181; (1♀ QSBG) Kaeng Krachan NP, km 33/helipad; Phet Buri, 12.502000, 99.207000, 735m, 4.v.2009, coll. Sirichai, Voucher code: JMIC0038; (1♀ QSBG) 8.vi.2009, coll. Sirichai, Voucher code: JMIC0193. Vietnam. (1♂ RMNH) Hã Giang, Vi Xuyên Dao Duc. Rung TS, 20.x.2006, coll. KH. D. Long, Voucher code: CNC878544; (1♂ RMNH) Viet Try, Thuong Cuu, near Thanh Son, 20.983333, 105.133333, 300 to 400m, 12–16.x.1999, coll. R. de Vries, Voucher code: CNC878545.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Body color mostly yellow, except for dark brown to black head and T5-7 sometimes with brown marks centrally. Antenna yellow to light brown-yellow. Legs yellow except for dark brown spot on anterior 0.1 of metatibia, and brown metatarsus. Wings veins mostly brown, except for yellow-white vein R1 on fore wing and pterostigma with yellow-white spot on anterior 0.3. Face with slightly coarse punctures. Mesosoma mostly smooth, at most with areas with sparse and shallow punctures. Polished area of lateral face of scutellum (lunules) relatively very small, less than 0.2 height of lateral face. Propodeum carination pattern that includes three complete longitudinal carinae (one medially, the other two sublaterally) and a complete transverse carina (subapically), with additional small striae radiating from the median and sublateral carinae (Fig. 27D, F); most carinae are strongly defined and raised. Fore wing with relatively large and quadrate areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metatibia with relatively strong spines (peg-like) on dorsal surface, which are darker than metatibia color. Metasomal terga smooth. T1 rectangular, T2 trapezoidal. Hypopygium inflexible, without pleats. Ovipositor sheaths setose and less than half the length of the metatibia. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.24 (0.25–0.26); F3 L: 0.23 (0.25–0.26); F14 L: 0.13 (0.14–0.17); F15 L: 0.12 (0.11–0.13); Malar sulcus L: 0.06 (0.07); Mandible W: 0.10 (0.09); T1 L: 0.44 (0.43–0.48); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.19 (0.21); T1 maximum W: 0.27 (0.27); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.20 (0.18–0.20); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.38 (0.35–0.36); T2 L: 0.16 (0.14–0.16); Metafemur L: 0.76 (0.80–0.83); Metafemur W: 0.25 (0.26–0.28); Metatibia L: 1.03 (1.03–1.07); Inner spur L: 0.23 (0.26–0.28); Outer spur L: 0.14 (0.18); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.45 (0.48–0.50); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.46 (0.50–0.53); Body L: 3.06 (2.45–3.03); Fore wing L: 3.06 (3.19–3.28). T2 W at posterior margin is approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. As female.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Bangladesh, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam.

Molecular data

Three paratypes with available sequences belong to BIN BOLD:AAV2185, which is 6.7 % different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD (another putative, undescribed species of Kotenkosius, but we have not been able to see specimens from that BIN).

Etymology

From Latin “trēs” (meaning “three”) and “carina” (meaning “keel”), referring to the three longitudinal carinae found on the propodeum.

Comments

The record of this species from Bangladesh is based on a sequence recorded in BOLD which matches the sequences of the paratypes; however, we have not seen that specimen and thus cannot confirm unequivocally its identity. A second species of Kotenkosius seems to be revealed in BOLD (BIN BOLD:ADB2437), based on how similar the sequences are; however, we have not seen specimens from that BIN and thus cannot conclude on that.

Markshawius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Markshawius erucidoctus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Female head elongate and strongly concave posteriorly, modified to be tightly appressed to and follow the contour of anterior margin of pronotum (pronotum also concave). Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a triangular flange (Figs 28B, 29B, 30B, 31B). Face looking almost depressed, and with very strong sculpture including transverse striae and punctures (Figs 28B, 29B, 30B, 31B). Frons very elongate, with ocelli clearly much higher than normally found in Microgastrinae. Frons with strong excavation at antennal base –better appreciated on a lateral view of the head (Figs 29C, 31E). Antenna very short (much shorter than body length, usually shorter than the combined length of head and mesosoma), with all flagellomeres but first with a single row of placodes (Figs 28A, E, 29A, 30A, 31A). Pronotum only with lower sulcus (which is sometimes barely visible). Propodeum with median carina clearly visible on posterior half (sometimes that carina looks divided, giving the impression of actually being the posterior half of a very thin areola). Propodeum sometimes with transverse rugosity medially, including a poorly and partially defined transverse carina (Figs 28D, F, 29F, G, 30E, F, 31G, H). Fore wing with large, four-sided areolet (Figs 28C, 29D, 30D, 31D). Legs in general short and stout, especially metafemur (Figs 28A, 29A, 30A, 31A). T1 with unusual, very distinctive shape: in some species being extremely long and thin (T1 length at least 6.0 × its width centrally) (Figs 29E–G, 30D, E), in other species very thin on anterior 0.3–0.4, then strongly widening towards posterior margin (width at posterior margin around 3.0 × its width centrally) (Figs 28D, F, 31F, G). T2 either trapezoidal and with lateral margins strongly sculptured, or subtriangular and with lateral margins less sculptured (Figs 28D, F, 29E–G, 30D, E, 31F, G). Ovipositor sheaths almost without setae (with only very few, small setae near apex that are usually invisible at less than 100 × of magnification), ovipositor strongly narrowing toward apex, where it looks almost needle-like.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The carination pattern of propodeum is unique among Microgastrinae. The two known shapes of T1 are also highly unusual. All species of Protomicroplitis and Wilkinsonellus, and some species of Apanteles, Diolcogaster and Venanides have very long and thin T1; however, they have a strong median sulcus on T1 (Diolcogaster, Protomicroplitis and Wilkinsonellus) or are completely unrelated genera with many different and distinguishing features compared to Markshawius (Apanteles and Venanides). The shape of the head is similarly shared with a few species of other genera (e.g., Diolcogaster and, to a lesser extent also some species of Cotesia, Keylimepie and Venanides). All of those genera, except for Diolcogaster, are unrelated to Markshawius, suggesting that trait likely evolved independently several times within Microgastrinae parasitizing stem borers.

Biology

Hosts are unknown at present. However, it is here hypothesized that the modification of head and pronotum serves the purpose of facilitating entering into or egressing from narrow tunnels where the caterpillar hosts live, and those hosts most likely are stem borers, perhaps from the Lepidoptera superfamily Pyraloidea.

Distribution

All known species are found in the Oriental region (Thailand, Vietnam).

Molecular data

Only one sequence available (a complete barcode), but it is very unique, 11.2 % different than next Microgastrinae sequence available in BOLD.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the British braconid expert Mark Shaw, in recognition of his outstanding contributions to the knowledge of Hymenoptera, especially host/parasitoid biology. Throughout the years, Mark has been a mentor, dear friend, and an inspiration for the first author to continue his work with parasitoid wasps. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Comments

The species described below have two different sculpture patterns of propodeum, as well as two different shapes of T1. Future studies may find that those species are better placed in separate genera, but due to the paucity of specimens we prefer to keep them all within one single genus for the time being.

Species

We recognize three different species, all new and described below. They can be separate using the following key.

Key to species

1 T1 entirely parallel-sided and extremely long and thin, its length at least 6.0 × its width; T2 subtriangular and with lateral margins less sculptured (Figs 29E–G, 30D, E); propodeum without transverse rugosity medially and without any defined transverse carina (Figs 29F, 30E, F) [Thailand, Vietnam] Markshawius francescae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
T1 thin and parallel-sided on anterior 0.2–0.3, then widening towards posterior margin so that width at posterior margin is up to 3.0 × its width centrally (Figs 28D, F, 31F, G); T2 trapezoidal and with lateral margins strongly sculptured; propodeum with transverse rugosity medially, including a poorly and partially defined transverse carina (Figs 28D, F, 31G, H) 2
2 Relatively larger size (fore wing L 2.2 mm); fore wing with vein R1 pale (light yellow), in contrast with brown pterostigma; relatively broader pterostigma, its length 2.3 × its maximum width (Fig. 28C); scutoscutellar sulcus with at least ten, well defined crenulae (Fig. 28F); metanotum with five costulae on each side; widest part of T1 (around posterior 0.6) wider than T2 width at anterior margin (Figs 28D, F) [Northern Vietnam] Markshawius erucidoctus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Relatively smaller size (fore wing L 1.6 mm); fore wing with vein R1 brown, same color than pterostigma; relatively narrower pterostigma, its length 2.6 × its maximum width (Fig. 31D); scutoscutellar sulcus with around seven, less defined crenulae (Fig. 31H); metanotum with three costulae on each side; widest part of T1 (around posterior 0.6) same width than T2 width at its anterior margin (Fig. 31F) [Southern Thailand] Markshawius thailandensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Markshawius erucidoctus Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 28

Holotype

Female, Vietnam, RMNH.

Holotype labels

N. VIETNAM: Ninh Binh/Cuc Phuong N.P., nr entrance/c225 m, 15.iv-1.v.2000, Mal. tr. II/Mai Phu Quv, RMNH’00. Second label: CNC878536.

Holotype locality

VIETNAM, Ninh Binh Province, Cuc Phuong National Park, near entrance, 225m.

Diagnosis

The shape of T1 and sculpture of propodeum clearly separate M. erucidoctus from M. francescae (see under that species for further details). As for the other species, M. erucidotus is a larger species than M. thailandensis (fore wing L 2.2 mm versus 1.6 mm), has fore wing vein R1 light yellow (R1 brown in M. thailandensis), has a broader pterostigma and more defined crenulae on scutoscutellar sulcus, and the widest part of T1 is wider than T2 width at anterior margin (widest part of T1 same width than T2 width at anterior margin in M. thailandensis).

Description

Female. Body color mostly brown; face partially reddish-brown; palpi yellow-white; labrum, mandible, scape, pedicel, and most of legs (except for metacoxa, posterior 0.1 of metatibia and metatarsus which are brown) orange-yellow; flagellomeres brown; tegulae and humeral complex, most laterotergites and sternites yellow-white to yellow-brown; wings hyaline, veins mostly brown. Head elongate and strongly concave posteriorly, modified to be tightly appressed to and follow the contour of anterior margin of pronotum (pronotum also concave). Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a triangular flange. Face looking almost depressed, and with very strong sculpture including transverse striae and punctures. Frons very elongate, with ocelli clearly much higher than normally found in Microgastrinae. Frons with strong excavation at antennal base –better appreciated on a lateral view of the head. Antenna very short (shorter than the combined length of head and mesosoma), with all flagellomeres but first with a single row of placodes. Pronotum only with lower sulcus. Propodeum with median longitudinal carina clearly visible on posterior half and with transverse rugosity medially, including a partially defined transverse carina. Propodeum with different sculpture, anterior area with punctures, posterior area mostly smooth. Fore wing with relatively large, four-sided areolet. Legs in general short and stout, especially metafemur. T1 very thin on anterior 0.3–0.4, then strongly widening towards posterior margin (width at posterior margin around 3.0 × its width centrally). T2 trapezoidal and with lateral margins strongly sculptured. Ovipositor sheaths almost without setae (with only very few, small setae near apex that are usually invisible at less than 100 × of magnification), ovipositor strongly narrowing toward apex, where it looks almost needle-like. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.10; F3 L: 0.08; F14 L: 0.08; Malar sulcus L: 0.05; Mandible W: 0.12; T1 L: 0.40; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.16; T1 maximum W: 0.19; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.14; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.23; T2 L: 0.12; Metafemur L: 0.59; Metafemur W: 0.28; Metatibia L: 0.70; Inner spur L: 0.20; Outer spur L: 0.15; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.27; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.25; Body L: 2.45; Fore wing L: 2.40. T1 L and mandible W are approximate.

Figure 28. 

Markshawius erucidoctus female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Metasoma dorsal E Antenna F Mesosoma dorsal.

Male

Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Vietnam.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

From Latin “eruca” (“caterpillar”) and “doctus” (“learned”, “skilled”, “erudite”), referring to a person with considerable knowledge about caterpillars. This species is dedicated to my dear friend and mentor Mark Shaw, the most knowledgeable researcher on caterpillar/parasitoid biology that I have ever met. He is indeed “the master” of the caterpillars and their parasitoids.

Markshawius francescae Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 29, 30

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

Thailand. Chiang Mai/Montha Tarn Water Fall,/18.81560°N, 98.92910°E,/700m, CNCH2123. Second label: CNCH2123.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Chiang Mai, Montha Tarn Water Fall, 18.81560°N, 98.92910°E, 700m.

Paratypes

Nepal. (1♀ CNC), Kathmandu, Godavari, 1828m, Malaise trap, 13–17.viii.1967, coll. Canadian Expedition, Voucher code: CNC878538; (1♀ CNC), 7–12.viii.1967, coll. Canadian Expedition, Voucher code: CNC878539; (1♀ CNC), Kathmandu, Pulchauki, 2011m, Malaise trap, 21–27.vii.1967, coll. Canadian Expedition, Voucher code: CNC878537. Thailand. (1♂ QSBG), Lampang, Chae Son NP, Doi Laan, unit 1, 18.508000, 99.217000, 1413m, 14.viii.2007, coll. B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng, Voucher code: JMIC0496; (2♂ CNC, QSBG), Mae Wong NP, Chong Yen; Kamphaeng Phet, 16.521000, 99.658000, 1306m, 28.iv.2008, coll. C. Piluek, Voucher codes: JMIC0144, JMIC0146; (1♂ QSBG), Chiang Mai, Montha Tarn Water Fall, 18.815600, 98.929100, 700m, Voucher code: CNCH2122; (2♀ CNC, QSBG), Trang, Nayong Khaochong, 7.561, 99.886; 7.561000, 99.886000, 75m, Voucher codes: CNCH1584, CNCH2146. Vietnam. (1♂ RMNH), Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong National Park, near centre, 225m, 15–27.v.2000, coll. Mai Phu Quv, Voucher code: CNC878541; (1♂ RMNH), Hoa Binh, Pa Co Hang Kia Nature Reserve, 20.743611, 104.938889, 1045m, Malaise trap, 8–23.x.2009, coll. C.v. Achterberg & R. de Vries, Voucher code: CNC878542; (1♀ RMNH), Tonkin, Hoang Lien National Reserve, 15km W Sa Pa, 1900m, Malaise trap, 15–21.x.1999, coll. C.v. Achterberg, Voucher code: CNC878540.

Diagnosis

The shape of T1 (entirely parallel-sided and extremely long and thin, its length at least 6.0 × its width) as well as sculpture of propodeum (without transverse rugosity medially and without any defined transverse carina) clearly separate this species from the other known species in the genus.

Description

Female. Body color mostly dark brown to black; palpi, labrum and mandible yellow-white; scape, pedicel, tegulae and humeral complex, and most of legs (except for anterior 0.5 of metacoxa and metatarsus which are brown) yellow; flagellomeres brown; most laterotergites and sternites yellow-white to yellow-brown; wings hyaline, veins mostly brown. Head elongate and strongly concave posteriorly, modified to be tightly appressed to and follow the contour of anterior margin of pronotum (pronotum also concave). Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a triangular flange. Face looking almost depressed, and with very strong sculpture including transverse striae and punctures. Frons very elongate, with ocelli clearly much higher than normally found in Microgastrinae. Frons with strong excavation at antennal base –better appreciated on a lateral view of the head. Antenna shorter than body (but slightly longer than the combined length of head and mesosoma), with all flagellomeres short, with a single row of placodes or two very small rows that look almost like one. Pronotum only with lower sulcus. Propodeum mostly smooth, with median longitudinal carina clearly visible on posterior half. Fore wing with relatively large, four-sided areolet. Legs in general short and stout, especially metafemur. T1 extremely long and thin (T1 L at least 6.0 × its width centrally). T2 subtriangular and with lateral margins less sculptured. Ovipositor sheaths almost without setae (with only very few, small setae near apex that are usually invisible at less than 100x of magnification), ovipositor strongly narrowing toward apex, where it looks almost needle-like. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.09 (0.09–0.13); F3 L: 0.08 (0.09–0.12); F14 L: 0.08 (0.08–0.10); F15 L: 0.08 (0.08–0.10); Malar sulcus L: 0.05 (0.06–0.08); Mandible W: 0.07 (0.08); T1 L: 0.29 (0.34–0.42); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.05 (0.07); T1 maximum W: 0.07 (0.08); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.05 (0.07–0.09); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.17 (0.22–0.24); T2 L: 0.10 (0.11–0.15); Metafemur L: 0.47 (0.58–0.65); Metafemur W: 0.16 (0.19–0.21); Metatibia L: 0.59 (0.71–0.76); Inner spur L: 0.17 (0.18–0.26); Outer spur L: 0.14 (0.14–0.17); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.26 (0.32–0.35); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.10 (0.22–0.27); Body L: 1.87 (2.00–2.43); Fore wing L: 1.84 (2.30–2.53). Mandible W is approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. As female.

Figure 29. 

Markshawius francescae female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Head lateral D Fore wing E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum G Mesosoma dorsal.

Figure 30. 

Markshawius francescae female paratype CNC878540. A Habitus B Head frontal C Head dorsal D Fore wing, inset: details of the areolet E Metasoma dorsal F Mesosoma dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam.

Molecular data

Only for one of the paratypes (JMIC 0146) there is a 125bp sequence available in BOLD, but it is too short to place the species within the context of other Microgastrinae.

Etymology

Named after Francesca Shaw, in appreciation of her kindness and for being such a wonderful host to the first author when he was visiting the Shaw family in 2013.

Markshawius thailandensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 31

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

Thailand. Trang Prov./Ampuh Nayon Khao/Chong, 7.561°N, 99.886°E, 75m,/BIN#BOLD:AAH1292/CNCH2216. Second label: CNCH2216.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Trang Province, Ampuh Nayon Khao Chong, 7.561°N, 99.886°E, 75m.

Diagnosis

The shape of T1 and sculpture of propodeum clearly separate M. thailandensis from M. francescae (see under that species for further details). As for the other species, M. thailandensis is a smaller species than M. erucidoctus (fore wing L 1.6 mm versus 2.2 mm), has fore wing vein R1 brown (R1 light yellow in M. erucidoctus), has a narrower pterostigma and less defined crenulae on scutoscutellar sulcus, and the widest part of T1 is the same width than T2 width at anterior margin (widest part of T1 wider than T2 width at anterior margin in M. erucidoctus).

Description

Female. Body color mostly brown; face mostly reddish-brown; palpi yellow-white; labrum, mandible, scape, pedicel, and most of legs (except for brown metacoxa) yellow to yellow-orange; flagellomeres brown-yellow; tegulae and humeral complex yellow-white; most laterotergites and sternites yellow; wings hyaline, veins mostly brown. Head elongate and strongly concave posteriorly, modified to be tightly appressed to and follow the contour of anterior margin of pronotum (pronotum also concave). Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a triangular flange. Face looking almost depressed, and with very strong sculpture including transverse striae and punctures. Frons very elongate, with ocelli clearly much higher than normally found in Microgastrinae. Frons with strong excavation at antennal base –better appreciated on a lateral view of the head. Antenna very short (shorter than the combined length of head and mesosoma), with all flagellomeres but first with a single row of placodes. Pronotum only with lower sulcus. Propodeum with median longitudinal carina clearly visible on posterior half (carina looks divided, giving the impression of actually being the posterior half of a very thin areola) and with transverse rugosity medially, including a partially defined transverse carina. Propodeum (apart from carinae and rugosity) mostly smooth, at most with scattered and shallow punctures on anterior half. Fore wing with relatively large, four-sided areolet. Legs in general short and stout, especially metafemur. T1 very thin on anterior 0.3–0.4, then strongly widening towards posterior margin (width at posterior margin around 3.0 × its width centrally). T2 trapezoidal and with lateral margins strongly sculptured. Ovipositor sheaths almost without setae (with only very few, small setae near apex that are usually invisible at less than 100 × of magnification), ovipositor strongly narrowing toward apex, where it looks almost needle-like. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.08; F3 L: 0.08; F14 L: 0.07; Malar sulcus L: 0.07; Mandible W: 0.08; T1 L: 0.29; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.11; T1 maximum W: 0.12; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.09; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.17; T2 L: 0.11; Metafemur L: 0.47; Metafemur W: 0.22; Metatibia L: 0.52; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.09; Body L: 1.94. T1 L is approximate. Fore wing is curved and ripped so wasn’t measured.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 31. 

Markshawius thailandensis female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Head dorsal D Fore wing E Head lateral F Metasoma dorsal G Propodeum H Mesosoma dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand.

Molecular data

The holotype sequence represents BIN BOLD:AAH1292, which is 11.2 % different from the closest Microgastrinae sequence in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the country of the type locality.

Ohenri Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Ohenri gouletorum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Antenna with placodes irregularly distributed in three and up to four rows. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much larger than width of flagellomeres, and clearly larger than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera (Fig. 32F). Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulci. Most of mesosoma sculptured with relatively deep, close punctures. Propodeum with median carina clearly defined on anterior 0.6, and then obscured by partially defined areola on posterior 0.4 (Figs 32E, F). Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe concave and without setae. Tarsal claws pectinate, with two large teeth near base of claw. T1 and T2 dull, T3+ mostly smooth (Fig. 32E). Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized and sharply pointed apically (Fig. 32A). Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and clearly shorter than metatibia length. Ovipositor with four subapical serrate teeth on lower (first) valvulae (Fig. 32D).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Pronotum enlarged dorsally (shared with Qrocodiledundee, see below under description of that genus). The subapical teeth in the lower valvulae of ovipositor are very unusual in Microgastrinae (although not unique to Ohenri), as are the antennal placodes irregularly distributed, the large teeth on tarsal claws, and the propodeum with a combination of a median carina and partially defined areola. The relationships of Ohenri with other genera of Microgastrinae are not clear at present, although some morphological features are related to Sathon s. str. and two new genera, Carlmuesebeckius and Qrocodiledundee, also described in this paper.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Afrotropical region (Nigeria).

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Canadian braconid expert Henri Goulet, a dear friend, colleague and mentor for many years. The letter “O” added to the beginning of the genus name also plays with words, to loosely refer to the chocolate brand “Oh Henry!” –an indirect mention to Henri’s fondness for sweet treats. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Ohenri gouletorum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 32

Holotype

Female, Nigeria, CNC.

Holotype labels

Ibadan, NIGERIA/Aug. 27 1962/D. C. Eidt. Second label: CNC878552. Third label: validus group/Det./W.R.M.Mason78.

Holotype locality

NIGERIA, Ibadan.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma black; metasoma, palpi, legs (except for metatarsus which is brown), tegula and humeral complex, yellow; mandible, labrum, and most of clypeus orange; antenna dark brown; wings hyaline, most veins brown, pterostigma brown with small spot at base. Antenna with placodes irregularly distributed in three and up to four rows. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much longer than width of flagellomeres, and clearly longer than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera. Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulcus. Most of mesosoma, including anteromesoscutum, scutellar disc, most of mesopleuron and propodeum, with relatively deep, close punctures. Propodeum with median carina clearly defined on anterior 0.6, and then obscured by partially defined areola on posterior 0.4. Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe concave and without setae. Tarsal claws pectinate, with two large teeth near base of claw. T1 and T2 dull, T3+ mostly smooth. Hypopygium uniformly sclerotized and sharply pointed apically. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and shorter than metatibia length. Ovipositor with four subapical serrate teeth on lower (first) valvulae. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.43; F3 L: 0.43; Malar sulcus L: 0.09; Mandible W: 0.18; T1 L: 0.53; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.52; T1 maximum W: 0.58; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.79; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.75; T2 L: 0.28; Metafemur L: 1.08; Metafemur W: 0.43; Metatibia L: 1.45; Inner spur L: 0.48; Outer spur L: 0.27; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.71; Ovipositor sheaths L: 1.08; Body L: 4.56; Fore wing L: 4.32. T2 W at anterior margin is approximate.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 32. 

Ohenri gouletarum female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Ovipositor and details of ovipositor tip E Metasoma dorsal F Mesosoma dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Nigeria.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after Henri Goulet’s family, in recognition of the support they have always given to both authors over the past 15 years.

Qrocodiledundee Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Qrocodiledundee outbackense Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head with eyes relatively small, with relatively large malar line, and with gena bulging behind eyes (Fig. 33A, C). Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Mesosoma relatively flattened dorso-ventrally. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much larger than width of flagellomeres, and clearly larger than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera (Fig. 33C). Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulcus. Anteromesoscutum with relatively deep and close punctures centrally, smooth anteriorly, laterally and posteriorly (Fig. 33G). Scutellar disc and most of mesopleuron smooth, metapleuron with coarse sculpture on posterior half. Propodeum with an apophysis laterally, near posterior margin (Fig. 33D–G), which looks like a small tubercle. Propodeum with median carina clearly defined on anterior 0.6, and then obscured by partially defined areola on posterior 0.4 (Figs 33F, G). Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe straight and entirely setose. Metafemur relatively very small and thick, 2.0 × as long as its maximum width. Tarsal claws simple. T1 and T2 dull, T3+ mostly smooth. T2 relatively enlarged, almost as long as T3 (Fig. 33D, F).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

This new genus shares with Ohenri the pronotum enlarged dorsally and propodeum with a median carina and partially defined areola. However, Qrocodiledundee has flagellomeres with two rows of placodes, simple tarsal claws, and setose vannal lobe (flagellomeres with 3–4 rows of placodes, pectinate tarsal claws and setoseless vannal lobe in Ohenri). Qrocodiledundee can be easily recognized on the account of its propodeal apophysis, unique among Microgastrinae, as well as its flattened mesosoma and short and stout metafemur. The relationships of Qrocodiledundee with other genera of Microgastrinae are not clear at present, although some morphological features are related to Sathon and Carlmuesebeckius and Ohenri (the latter two also described in this paper).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Australasian region (Australia).

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the iconic Australian movie “Crocodile Dundee”, one of the favorite movies of the first author (who at one point was even nicknamed as that because, as with the main character of the movie, he also caught crocodiles and was bitten by one). The first letter of the name is changed to a “Q” to guarantee the uniqueness of the name and avoid potential homonyms. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Qrocodiledundee outbackense Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 33

Holotype

Male, Australia, CNC.

Holotype labels

Normanton/Australia/Mar. 9–20. Second label: CNC878553.

Holotype locality

AUSTRALIA, Normanton.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Male. Body almost entirely orange-yellow, except for small black spot on axillar complex; wings infumated, veins brown. Head relatively wide, with eyes relatively small, relatively large malar line, and gena bulging behind eyes. Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Mesosoma relatively flattened dorso-ventrally, in lateral view its length about twice its height. Pronotum enlarged dorsally, its median length (on a dorsal view) very large, much longer than width of flagellomeres, and clearly longer than propodeum in most Microgastrinae genera. Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulcus. Anteromesoscutum with relatively deep and close punctures centrally, smooth anteriorly, laterally and posteriorly. Scutellar disc and most of mesopleuron smooth, metapleuron with coarse sculpture on posterior half. Propodeum with an apophysis laterally, near posterior margin (Fig. 33D–G), which looks like a small tubercle. Propodeum with median carina clearly defined on anterior 0.6, and then obscured by partially defined areola on posterior 0.4. Fore wing without areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe straight and entirely setose. Metafemur relatively very small and thick, 2.4 × as long as its maximum width. Tarsal claws simple. T1 and T2 dull, T3+ mostly smooth. T2 relatively enlarged, almost as long as T3. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.45; F3 L: 0.43; F14 L: 0.33; F15 L: 0.27; Malar sulcus L: 0.10; Mandible W: 0.12; T1 L: 0.63; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.68; T1 maximum W: 0.68; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.76; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.83; T2 L: 0.42; Metafemur L: 0.86; Metafemur W: 0.35; Metatibia L: 1.43; Inner spur L: 0.29; Outer spur L: 0.23; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.58; Body L: 4.48; Fore wing L: 4.52. T2 W at posterior margin is approximate. Maximum W of T1 is taken at the posterior margin of T1.

Female. Unknown.

Figure 33. 

Qrocodiledundee outbackense male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Head dorsal D Fore wing E Pronotum F Metasoma dorsal G Mesosoma dorsal. Red arrow shows the propodeal apophysis.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Australia.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the Outback, the vast and remote interior of Australia where the holotype specimen was collected. It also happens to be that the Outback is an important part of the “Crocodile Dundee” movie.

Silvaspinosus Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Silvaspinosus vespa Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Clypeus extremely long and thin (Figs 34B, 35B, F). Malar line extremely short, almost nonexistent (0.01 mm long). Mandible base separate from head by a desclerotized area that looks almost like an opening (Figs 34B, 35F). Mandibles relatively stout and large (Figs 34B, 35F). Tentorial pits relatively very large (Figs 34B, 35F). Anteromesoscutum mostly smooth, with shallow and sparse punctures (Fig. 34F). Notauli not indicated by sculpture. Scutellar disc without posteromedian band of rugosity (Figs 34F, G, 35E). Propodeum mostly with rugose sculpture and with median longitudinal carina complete (Figs 34G, 35D). Fore wing with large, quadrangular areolet (Figs 34C, 35C). Fore tarsus with a curved, spine-like seta. Metacoxa relatively short (its length not surpassing posterior margin of T2), metatibial spurs relatively short (less than half the length of first segment of metatarsus). T1 smooth and without median longitudinal sulcus (Fig. 34E). T2 smooth and with central area slightly raised and poorly defined from lateral areas by weak sulcus (Figs 34E, 35D).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The shape of clypeus, and mandible separation from head by desclerotized area are unique among Microgastrinae. Silvaspinosus seems to belong to the Microplitini group of genera (sensu Mason 1981), based on the relatively short metacoxa and metatibial spurs, fore wing with large areolet, as well as its DNA barcode sequence (see below under “Molecular data”). However, the spine-like seta on the fore tarsus and the absence of a median band of rugosity on the posterior margin of the scutellar disc would be unique and distinctive among Microplitini (those features tend to be present in some species of a few genera within Cotesini (sensu Mason 1981)).

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Afrotropical region (Madagascar).

Molecular data

One of the female paratypes (CNCH3044) rendered a partial barcode (427bp), which is 8.3% different from the closest Microgastrinae (several Microplitis species).

Etymology

From “silva” (in Latin “forest”) and “spinosus” (in Latin “spinous, thorny”), referring to the famed Madagascar spiny forests, where the wasp is found, apparently as an endemic taxon from that ecoregion. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Comments

This genus seems to be related to the Microplitis group of genera (Microplitini sensu Mason 1981), based on fore wing areolet size, metacoxa size, length of metatibia spurs, and shape of T2. However, other characters are highly unusual (shape of clypeus) or not previously known from Microplitini (spine on fore tarsus). The spiny forests of Madagascar are considered by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) as one of the “Global 200” ecoregions, a list that includes those areas of the planet with higher value and priority for conservation. Thus, the description of this new genus and species of Microgastrinae wasp as endemic to those forests reinforces the unique biodiversity values of that region.

Species

Only one species is known. We have seen four additional male specimens which have a different and lighter coloration pattern, and might represent a different species, but because they are no associated females, we prefer not to describe them for the time being.

Silvaspinosus vespa Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 34, 35

Holotype

Female, Madagascar, CAS.

Holotype labels

Madagascar. Toliara/Province: Vohidava/Forest, 88.9 km N/Amboasary, 24.40556°S. Second label: 46.287778°E, 500m,/6–8.XII.2006, MT, B. L./Fisher et al, BLF15694, CNC649545.

Holotype locality

MADAGASCAR, Toliara Province: Vohidava Forest, 88.9 km North of Amboasary, 24.40556°S, 46.287778°E, 500m.

Paratypes

Madagascar. (1♀ CNC), Toliara Province, Beza Mahafaly Reserve, -22.840500, 44.731200, 165m, 24.xii.2002, coll. R. Harin`Hala, Voucher code: CNCH3044; (1♂ CAS), Tulear Province, Andohahela National Park, Ihazofotsy Parcelle III, -24.830833, 46.536167, 80m, dry spiny forest, Malaise trap, 23.ix-4.x.2003, coll. M. Irwin, R. Harin’Hala & F. Parker, Voucher code: CASENT8402170; (3♂ CAS, CNC), Tulear Tsimanampetsotsa National Park, Mitoho Forest, across trail at base of escarpment, -24.048500, 43.752333, 120m, Dense dry forest, Malaise trap, 23–31.i.2009, coll. M. Irwin & R. Harin’Hala, Voucher codes: CASENT8402171, CASENT8402172, CASENT8402173; (1♀ 4♂ CAS, CNC), Toliara Province, Vohidava Forest, 88.9 km N Amboasary, -24.240556 46.287778, 500m, MT, 6–8.xii.2006, coll. B. L. Fisher et al, Voucher codes: CNC649540, CNC649542, CNC649543, CNC649544, CNC649546.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma mostly black, mesosoma mostly dark brown, except for T1 light brown; clypeus, labrum and flagellomeres dark brown; mandibles orange; scape and pedicel yellow-brown; palpi usually mostly white (except for labial palpi 1–2 dark brown), but some specimens with darker palpi (mostly dark brown); legs mostly dark brown (except for protibial, protarsus, mesotibia and mesotarsus which are orange-yellow or yellow-white, and small white spot on anterior 0.1 or less of all tibiae); metatibial spurs yellow-white; wings slightly infumated on apical half, veins brown but parastigma yellow-white. Clypeus extremely long and thin. Malar line extremely short, almost nonexistent (0.01 mm or less long). Mandible base separate from head by a desclerotized area that looks like an opening. Mandibles relatively stout and large. Tentorial pits relatively very large. Anteromesoscutum mostly smooth, with shallow and sparse punctures. Notauli not indicated by sculpture. Scutellar disc without posteromedian band of rugosity. Propodeum mostly with rugose sculpture, with median longitudinal carina complete. Fore wing with large, quadrangular areolet (second submarginal cell). Fore tarsus with a curved, spine-like seta. Metacoxa relatively short (its length not surpassing posterior margin of T2), metatibial spurs relatively short (less than half the length of first segment of metatarsus). T1 smooth and without median longitudinal sulcus. T2 smooth and with central area slightly raised and poorly defined from lateral areas by weak sulcus. T3+ smooth and with sparse, relatively long setae. Hypopygium relatively short, not extending beyond last tergites. Ovipositor sheaths mostly smooth and very short, 0.14 × metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.24 (0.21); F3 L: 0.23 (0.21); F14 L: 0.15 (0.13); F15 L: 0.15 (0.13); Malar sulcus L: 0.01 (0.03); Mandible W: 0.21 (0.21); T1 L: 0.51 (0.38); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.10 (0.10); T1 maximum W: 0.28 (0.23); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.60 (0.49); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.75 (0.68); T2 L: 0.25 (0.23); Metafemur L: 0.83 (0.79); Metafemur W: 0.33 (0.29); Metatibia L: 1.00 (1.00); Inner spur L: 0.18 (0.15); Outer spur L: 0.18 (0.18); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.39 (0.38); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.14 (0.18); Body L: 3.31 (3.19); Fore wing L: 2.83 (2.58). T1 L is approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. As female.

Figure 34. 

Silvaspinosus vespa female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Mesosoma dorsal F Propodeum.

Figure 35. 

Silvaspinosus vespa female CNC644540 (A–E) and male CASENT8402171 (F) paratypes. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Head frontal, male.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Madagascar, apparently restricted to the Spiny Forest ecoregion, also known as Madagascar spiny thickets (sensu https://www.worldwildlife.org/ecoregions/at1311).

Molecular data

One of the female paratypes (CNCH3044) rendered a partial barcode (427bp), which is 8.3% different from the closest Microgastrinae (several Microplitis species).

Etymology

From Latin “vespa” (meaning “wasp”), referring to the species being a parasitoid wasp. It also intends to play with the generic name (which means “spiny forest”) thus producing the combined name of “wasp of the spiny forest” for the species.

Tobleronius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Tobleronius orientalis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Head with relatively large tentorial pits and palpi (Fig. 36B). Traces of an occipital carina latero-dorsally (scarsely visible in Fig. 36D). Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 4–6 strongly defined crenulae. Scutellar disc with coarse and slightly raised posteromedian band of rugosity (Figs 36D, 37E). Propodeum with complete areola and incomplete transversal carina (Figs 36D, F, 37D–F). Fore wing with large and quadrate areolet (Figs 36C, 37C). Metacoxa relatively long, extending to the posterior margin of T3 (Fig. 37A). T1 shape relatively unique (better illustrated in Figs 36E, F, 37D–F), with much wider anterior 0.6–0.7 and strongly narrowed posterior 0.3, so that widest part of tergite (near anterior margin) is around 4.0 × narrowest width (on posterior margin). T1 anterior 0.6–0.7 desclerotized and slightly concave. T2 very long and thin, although slightly widening towards posterior margin. Area surrounding spiracles on laterotergite 2 partially sclerotized and same color than T2, giving the impression of T2 having “three peaks” (the largest and central one being the actual T2, the two smallest and lateral ones being the area surrounding spiracles on laterotergites; better illustrated in Figs 36E, F, 37D, F).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Tobleronius belongs to the Microplitini (sensu Mason 1981) group of genera, and seems to be mostly related to Alloplitis. It can be distinguished by all other genera within that group by the unusual shape and lack of sculpture of T1 and T2, and the relatively long metacoxa (which reaches to the posterior margin of T3, unlike most Microplitini, where metacoxa length almost always is shorter than the combined length of T1 and T2). The carination pattern of the propodeum is also highly unusual, as in Microplitini only Alloplitis has a complete areola and complete transverse carina; Tobleronius has a complete areola but the transverse carina is incomplete.

An important character to analyze in future studies of Microgastrinae phylogeny is that the back of the head of Tobleronius shows traces of an occipital carina latero-dorsally. Until now all Microgastrinae had been considered to lack an occipital carina. In this paper we have described two genera with at least partial occipital carina (Gilbertnixonius and Tobleronius). But even among previously described genera of Microplitini there are additional examples. We have found, upon further examination of specimens in the CNC, that most (perhaps all) species of Philoplitis have an occipital carina. That feature was unfortunately overlooked by all authors until now: Nixon (1965) when describing the genus, Mason (1981) when discussing its position within the subfamily, Whitfield et al. (2002) when reassessing Microgastrinae phylogeny based on morphological and molecular data, and Fernandez-Triana & Goulet (2009) in the most recent revision of the genus. We also examined all specimens of Alloplitis in the CNC and found that at least some species show traces of an occipital carina, in a similar way to what is found in Tobleronius. It now seems clear that at least some lineages within Microplitini have an occipital carina, or at least traces of it.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Oriental region (Thailand, Vietnam).

Molecular data

Three sequences are currently available, two almost complete (601 and 614 bp) and one partial (497 bp). They represent in BOLD two closely related BINS (BOLD:ADE3103 and BOLD:ADE4131), which are 3% different between each other, but are far apart from any other sequence (based on a Neighbor Joining tree built with 35,000+ Microgastrinae sequences available in BOLD as of January 2018).

Etymology

The name refers to the chocolate brand “Toblerone”, one of the favourites of the first author. The shape of T2 looks like one of the triangles that compose Toblerone bars (if one has enough imagination and love for chocolate!). Here is hoping that someday a wasp-shaped chocolate bar is produced. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is recognized at present. However, the molecular differences (see above) as well as slight morphological differences between specimens from Thailand and Vietnam suggest that they could actually represent two different species. But because only three specimens were available for study, we prefer to keep them as one species for the time being.

Tobleronius orientalis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 36, 37

Holotype

Male, Vietnam, RMNH.

Holotype labels

Vietnam. North Vietnam./Hoa Binh Pa Co Hang Kia/N.R., 20.743611°N, 104.938889°E, 1045m,/ MT, C.V./Achterberg & R. de Vries,/CNC521393, 9–23.X.2009. Second label: N. VIETNAM: Hoa Binh/Pa Co Hang Kia N.R., 1045m/22°44'37"N, 104°56'20"E, 9–23.x.2009, Mal. tr. 6, RMNH’09/C.v.Achterberg & R. de Vries.

Holotype locality

VIETNAM, Hoa Binh Pa Co Hang Kia Nature Reserve, 20.743611°N, 104.938889°E, 1045m.

Paratypes

Thailand. (1♂ QSBG), Chiang Mai, Huai Nam Dang NP Visitor center, 19.313383, 98.606800, pan trap, 30.ix-1.x.2007, coll. Anuchart & Thawatchai, Voucher code: CNC521929. Vietnam. (1♂ CNC), North Vietnam. Hoa Binh Pa Co Hang Kia N.R., 20.745000, 104.892778, Malaise trap, 24.x.2009, coll. C.V. Achterberg & R. de Vries, Voucher code: CNC521392.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Male. Body mostly dark brown; palpi and anterior 0.6–0.7 of T1 white-yellow; mandibles, scape, pedicel and most of legs (except for posterior 0.2–0.3 of metatibia and metatarsus which are brown) yellow; anterior laterotergites and sternites white; flagellomeres brown; wings hyaline, most veins brown. Head with relatively large tentorial pits and palpi. Traces of an occipital carina latero-dorsally. Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively wide and deep, with 4–6 strongly defined crenulae. Scutellar disc with coarse and slightly raised posteromedian band of rugosity. Propodeum with complete areola and incomplete transversal carina. Fore wing with large and quadrate areolet. Metacoxa relatively long, extending to the posterior margin of T3. T1 shape relatively unique (better illustrated in Figs 36E, F, 37D–F), with much wider anterior 0.6–0.7 and strongly narrowed posterior 0.3, so that widest part of tergite (near anterior margin) is around 4.0 × narrowest width (on posterior margin). T1 anterior 0.6–0.7 desclerotized and slightly concave. T2 very long and thin, although slightly widening towards posterior margin. Area surrounding spiracles on laterotergite 2 partially sclerotized and same color than T2, giving the impression of T2 having “three peaks” (the largest and central one being the actual T2, the two smallest and lateral ones being the area surrounding spiracles on laterotergites; better illustrated in Figs 36E, F, 37D, F). T3+ smooth and with sparse, relatively long setae. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.26; F3 L: 0.28; F14 L: 0.23; F15 L: 0.23; Malar sulcus L: 0.08; Mandible W: 0.09; T1 L: 0.36; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.08; T1 maximum W: 0.30; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.08; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.49; T2 L: 0.25; Metafemur L: 0.83; Metafemur W: 0.23; Metatibia L: 1.07; Inner spur L: 0.20; Outer spur L: 0.18; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.42; Body L: 2.97; Fore wing L: 2.90. T1 L is approximate.

Female. Unknown.

Figure 36. 

Tobleronius orientalis male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum.

Figure 37. 

Tobleronius orientalis male paratype CNC521929. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal F Propodeum.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand, Vietnam.

Molecular data

The holotype and one paratype (CNC521392) rendered almost complete barcodes (601 and 614 bp respectively), whereas for the other paratype a partial sequence (497 bp) was also available. Those sequences represent in BOLD two closely related BINS (BOLD:ADE3103 and BOLD:ADE4131), which are 3% different. As explained in the genus description, for the time being we prefer to consider all those specimens as belonging to the same species, although barcodes suggest they could actually represent two different species.

Etymology

The species refer to the species distribution in the Oriental region.

Ungunicus Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Ungunicus vietnamensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Body mostly smooth, with few, scattered, mostly shallow punctures. Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulcus. Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively narrow but with numerous crenulae (Fig. 38E). Scutellar disc smooth, without posteromedian band of rugosity (Fig. 38E). Propodeum mostly smooth, with strongly defined median longitudinal carina and a few short carinae radiating from median one (Fig. 38E). Fore wing with quadrangular areolet (Fig. 38C). Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metacoxa reaching to the posterior margin of T3. Last segment of tarsi relatively large, with small setae or spine (peg-like) on apical half, near the claws (Fig. 39I). Tarsal claws unique in Microgastrinae (better seen in Fig. 39F–I), with a very large basal tooth (longer than tarsal claw apex), and a median lobe (with setae arising from its margin, which seems slightly bilobate). T1 with central sulcus on anterior half, T2+ smooth (Fig. 38D, E). Ovipositor short but relatively thick and strongly curved downwards (Fig. 38A). Ovipositor sheaths with few, sparse, but relatively long setae.

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Ungunicus seems to be related to some species of Diolcogaster (sharing with it the ovipositor shape, ovipositor sheaths with setae, and T1 with medium sulcus; but differing in the mostly smooth body, lack of posteromedian band of rugosity on scutellar disc, and shape of tarsal claws) and Rasivalva (sharing with it the relatively smooth body and absence of a posteromedian band of rugosity on scutellar disc; but differing in having relatively long setae on ovipositor sheaths and shape of tarsal claws). The tarsal claws are truly unique within Microgastrinae, and serve as the main diagnostic character as well as the main putative autapomorphy.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Oriental region (Vietnam).

Molecular data

Both the holotype and paratype rendered almost full barcode sequences, representing BIN BOLD:ADE2636, which is different by 8.7% of the closest Microgastrinae sequences currently available in BOLD.

Etymology

From “ungu” (in Latin “claw”, “hoof”, “nail”) and “unicus” (in Latin “unique”), referring to the highly unusual and remarkable structure of the tarsal claws found in this genus. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Ungunicus vietnamensis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 38, 39

Holotype

Female, Vietnam, RMNH.

Holotype labels

Vietnam, Hoa Binh Pa/Co Hang Kia N.R./20.743058°N, 104.895833°E,/1319m, 10–24.X.2009,/MT, C. V. Achterberg & R./de Vries, CNC521412. Second label: N. VIETNAM: Hoa Binh/Pa Co Hang Kia N.R., 1319m/20°44'35"N, 104°53'45"E, 10–24.x.2009, Mal. tr. 14, RMNH’09/C. v. Achterberg & R. de Vries.

Holotype locality

VIETNAM, Hoa Binh Province, Pa Co Hang Kia Nature Reserve, 20.743058°N, 104.895833°E, 1319m.

Paratype

Vietnam. (1♀ CNC), same locality than holotype, Voucher code: CNC521411.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Female. Head and mesosoma dark brown to black; metasoma mostly brown, with anterior four laterotergites and sternites white or yellow; palpi, mandibles, scape, pedicel and most of legs (except for metatibia and metatarsus which are slightly darker) yellow; flagellomeres brown; wings hyaline, most veins white, pterostigma light brown-yellow. Body mostly smooth, with few, scattered, mostly shallow punctures. Flagellomeres with two rows of placodes. Pronotum with dorsal and ventral sulcus. Scutoscutellar sulcus relatively narrow but with numerous crenulae. Scutellar disc smooth, without posteromedian band of rugosity. Propodeum mostly smooth, with strongly defined median longitudinal carina and a few short carinae radiating from median one. Fore wing with quadrangular areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe entirely setose. Metacoxa reaching to the posterior margin of T3. Last segment of tarsi relatively large, with small setae or spine (peg-like) on apical half, near the claws. Tarsal claws unique in Microgastrinae (better seen in Figs 39F-I), with a very large basal tooth (longer than tarsal claw apex), and a median lobe (with setae arising from its margin, which seems slightly bilobate). T1 with central sulcus on anterior half, T2+ smooth. Ovipositor short but relatively thick and strongly curved downwards. Ovipositor sheaths with few, sparse, but relatively long setae. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.19 (0.20); F3 L: 0.18 (0.18); F14 L: 0.11 (0.11); F15 L: 0.11 (0.10); Malar sulcus L: 0.06 (0.06); Mandible W: 0.08 (0.10); T1 L: 0.36 (0.33); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.09 (0.12); T1 maximum W: 0.14 (0.16); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.11 (0.13); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.38 (0.33); T2 L: 0.17 (0.17); Metafemur L: 0.65 (0.67); Metafemur W: 0.18 (0.18); Metatibia L: 0.83 (0.85); Inner spur L: 0.13 (0.15); Outer spur L: 0.12 (0.14); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.29 (0.30); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.26 (0.26); Body L: 2.06 (2.20); Fore wing L: 2.45 (2.55). Maximum W of T1 and T2 W at posterior margin are approximate for 2 specimens. T1 L, T1 W at posterior margin and T2 W at anterior margin are approximate for 1 specimen.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 38. 

Ungunicus vietnamensis female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal.

Figure 39. 

Ungunicus vietnamensis female holotype, details of metatarsus and claws. F Dorsal G Ventral H Ventro-lateral I Last segment of metatarsus and claws, ventro-lateral.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Vietnam.

Molecular data

Both the holotype and paratype rendered almost full barcode sequences (629 and 632 bp), representing BIN BOLD:ADE2636, which is 8.7% different from the closest Microgastrinae sequences currently available in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the country of the type locality.

Ypsilonigaster Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Ypsilonigaster tiger Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Face with strong sulcus medially near antennal base. Scutellar disc flat, entirely smooth, and shiny (Figs 41D, 43E, 44C, E, 45G). Propodeum mostly smooth but with strong median carina (Figs 41D, 43E, 44E). Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Metatibia with short, stout spines dorsally. T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y” (Figs 40B, 41E, F, 42A, 43D, E, 44B–C, E, 45D, H). Hypopygium unfolded and inflexible (Figs 41A, 42C, 44A). Ovipositor relatively strongly curved downwards (Figs 41A, 42C, 44A). Ovipositor sheaths thoroughly covered by setae (Fig. 44A).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

Ypsilonigaster has T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y”, a unique feature within Microgastrinae. Ypsilonigaster seems to be related to other Old World genera with strong median carina on propodeum, fore wing areolet, and relatively long ovipositor sheaths (e.g., Choeras s.l., see Discussion below), but differs from most of those genera by having an unfolded and inflexible hypopygium.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

All known species are found in the Old World tropics (Afrotropical and Oriental regions).

Molecular data

Two DNA barcodes are available, both very distant from any other Microgastrinae sequence available in BOLD (8–10% of base pair differences). However, those two sequences (which were obtained from two different species and belong to BINs BOLD:AAV2124 and BOLD:ABY3660) which are also very different from each other and cluster very separate (based on a Neighbor Joining tree built with 35,000+ Microgastrinae sequences available in BOLD as of January 2018).

Etymology

From “Ypsilon” (in several languages an alternative form or synonym of the ancient Greek letter “Upsilon”, which is depicted as a “Y”) and “gaster” (in Greek “stomach” or “abdomen”, also used for the metasoma in Hymenoptera), referring to the Y-shaped sulcus in the first tergite of metasoma that characterizes this genus. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

We recognize at least six different species, four of them new and described below. They can be separate using the following key.

Key to species of Ypsilonigaster

1 Tegula (yellow) and humeral complex (dark brown) differently coloured; body with striking contrast of four different colors between areas (yellow on head, front legs, and anterior half of mesosoma; black on posterior half of mesosoma and hind legs; white on T1, parts of T2/T3, some laterotergites and metatibial spines; brown on antenna, middle legs and most of metasoma) (Figs 44A–E) [Thailand] Ypsilonigaster tiger Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Tegula and humeral complex of same coloration (either yellow or light brown); body mostly uniformly colored (either white-yellow, orange-yellow, red-yellow or brown-black), without striking color contrast between areas (at most with parts of mesosoma and/or metasoma slightly darker than surrounding areas) [Africa and Malaysia] 2
2 Body mostly red-yellow or dark brown or black; wings infumated or partially so 3
Body mostly yellow to yellow-white; wings hyaline 4
3 Mesosoma, tegula, metatibia and metatarsus red-yellow; T1 with anterior and posterior halves of similar width (with a slight constriction around half length of tergite) (Fig. 40B); fore wing with veins r and 2RS meeting in a more acute angle (Fig. 40A) [Democratic Republic of the Congo] Ypsilonigaster bumbana (de Saeger, 1942)
Mesosoma, tegula, metatibia and metatarsus dark brown to black; T1 with anterior half clearly wider than posterior half (Fig. 42A); fore wing with veins r and 2RS meeting in a more rounded angle (Fig. 42B) [Democratic Republic of the Congo] Ypsilonigaster pteroloba (de Saeger, 1944)
4 Mesosoma T1 not significantly narrowing towards posterior margin, its width at anterior and posterior margins about the same (Figs 43D, E); T1 with rather coarse sculpture on posterior 0.3 (Fig. 43E); T3 and T4 mostly brown (Figs 43A, D) [Republic of Congo] Ypsilonigaster sharkeyi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
T1 rather strongly narrowing towards posterior margin, its width at anterior margin at least 1.2 × its width at posterior margin; T1 smooth; T3 and T4 yellow (Figs 41E, F, 45D, H) 5
5 Body color mostly white-yellow; tegula and humeral complex yellow (Fig. 45A–H) [Madagascar] Ypsilonigaster zuparkoi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.
Body color darker, mostly yellow with back of head and anteromesoscutum orange to orange-brown, and tergites 5+ mostly brown; tegula and humeral complex brown (Figs 41A-F) [Malaysia] Ypsilonigaster naturalis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Ypsilonigaster bumbana (de Saeger, 1942), comb. n.

Fig. 40

Microgaster bumbana de Saeger, 1942. Original description (de Saeger 1942: 332).

Holotype

Female, Democratic Republic of the Congo, RMCA (Musee Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium). Not examined, but original description checked.

Diagnosis

Y. bumbana can be separate from all known species of Ypsilonigaster (except for Y. pteroloba) based on its darker body color (red-yellow) and infumated wings (all other species are mostly yellow or white-yellow, or have body with striking contrast of four different colors between areas, and all have hyaline wings). Y. bumbana can in turn be differentiated from Y. pteroloba because it has a mostly red-yellow body color, a less constricted T1 and the fore wing veins r and 2RS join in a more acute angle (compare Figs 40A, B with Figs 42A, B).

Figure 40. 

Ypsilonigaster bumbana holotype based on modified drawings from the original descriptions of the species (de Saeger 1942). A Fore wing B Tergites 1 to 3.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Ypsilonigaster naturalis Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 41

Holotype

Female, Malaysia, RMNH.

Holotype labels

MALAYSIA: SE.SABAH/nr Danum Valley Field C./WON1, Mal. trap 5, c.150m/5–26.x.1987, RMNH’87/C.v.Achterberg &D.Kennedy. Second label: CNC878528.

Holotype locality

MALAYSIA, South-East Sabah, near Danum Valley, Field C., 150m.

Paratypes

Malaysia. (3♀ RMNH, CNC), same locality than holotype, Voucher codes: CNC878529, CNC878530, CNC878531.

Diagnosis

The combination of body colour mostly yellow (but with back of head and anteromesoscutum orange to orange-brown; antenna, tegula and humeral complex brown; and tergites 5+ mostly brown) and T1 sculpture and shape (T1 smooth and strongly narrowing towards posterior margin, its width at anterior margin at least 1.2 × its width at posterior margin) are enough to separate Y. naturalis from all other known species in the genus.

Description

Body colour mostly yellow (but with back of head and anteromesoscutum orange to orange-brown; antenna, tegula and humeral complex brown; and tergites 5+ mostly brown). Body mostly smooth (including most of propodeum, entire scutellar disc, and most tergites except for T2 which is coarsely sculptured), anteromesoscutum sparsely punctate. Scutoscutellar sulcus with 10 crenulae. Lunules relatively low (around 0.3 × height of lateral face of scutellum). Propodeum with strongly raised, median carina. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with more or less straight vannal lobe which is uniformly setose. Metafemur L 3.10–3.14 × its W. Metatibial inner spur L 1.55–1.88 × metatibia outer spur L; metatibia inner spur 0.61–0.71 × first segment of metatarsus L. T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y”; T1 L 1.70–1.88 × T1 width at posterior margin. T2 subtriangular; T2 width at posterior margin 3.28–4.21 × T2 L. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and 0.65–0.67 × as long as metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.28 (0.28); F3 L: 0.27 (0.27); F14 L: 0.21 (0.21); F15 L: 0.18 (0.18–0.19); Malar sulcus L: 0.08 (0.08); Mandible W: 0.12 (0.12–0.13); T1 L: 0.64 (0.67–0.68); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.36 (0.36–0.39); T1 maximum W: 0.59 (0.58–0.63); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.38 (0.34–0.38); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.68 (0.67–0.68); T2 L: 0.21 (0.16–0.19); Metafemur L: 1.16 (1.14–1.15); Metafemur W: 0.38 (0.37); Metatibia L: 1.36 (1.33–1.39); Inner spur L: 0.38 (0.41); Outer spur L: 0.24 (0.22–0.25); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.62 (0.58); Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.88 (0.88–0.93); Body L: 3.80 (3.64–3.96); Fore wing L: 3.92 (3.64–3.92). Maximum W of T1 and T2 W at anterior margin are approximate for 2 specimens. T1 L is approximate for 3 specimens. T1 W at posterior margin and T2 W at posterior margin are approximate for 1 specimen.

Figure 41. 

Ypsilonigaster naturalis female holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Head and mesosoma, dorsal E Metasoma dorsal F Propodeum.

Male

Unknown.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Only known from the type locality in Malaysia.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after the Naturalis Biodiversity Center in Leiden (the Netherlands) in recognition of the outstanding and important collection of 18+ million insect specimens that institution holds, including one of the largest and most complete Microgastrinae collection in the world.

Ypsilonigaster pteroloba (de Saeger, 1944), comb. n.

Fig. 42

Microgaster pteroloba de Saeger, 1944. Original description (de Saeger 1944: 65).

Holotype

Female, Democratic Republic of the Congo, RMCA (Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium). Not examined, but original description checked.

Diagnosis

Y. pteroloba can be separate from all known species of Ypsilonigaster (except for Y. bumbana) based on its darker body color (dark brown to black) and infumated wings (all other species are mostly yellow or white-yellow, or have body with striking contrast of four different colors between areas, and all have hyaline wings). Y. pteroloba can in turn be differentiated from Y. bumbana because the later has a mostly red-yellow body color, a less constricted T1 and the fore wing veins r and 2RS join in a more acute angle (compare Figs 40A, B with Fig. 42A, B).

Figure 42. 

Ypsilonigaster pteroloba holotype based on modified drawings from the original descriptions of the species (de Saeger 1944). A Tergites 1 to 3 B Fore wing details of pterostigma and nearby veins C Hypopygium, ovipositor and ovipositor sheaths.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Ypsilonigaster sharkeyi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 43

Holotype

Male, Republic of the Congo, CNC.

Holotype labels

REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO:/Pool, Abio Lesio-Loun Pk,/330m, 09.xi.2008/3°06.020'S, 015°31.440'E/Sharkey & Braet. Second label: JMIC 0517.

Holotype locality

REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, Abio-Lesio Louna Park, 3°06.020'S, 015°31.440'E, pool, 330m.

Diagnosis

Ypsilonigaster sharkeyi can be distinguished from all other known species in the genus due to the unique sculpture pattern and shape of T1 (T1 width at anterior and posterior margins about the same, and with rather coarse sculpture on posterior 0.3).

Description

Female unknown. Male. Body colour mostly yellow (but with antenna brown and tergites 3+ mostly brown). Body mostly smooth (including most of propodeum, entire scutellar disc, and most tergites except for posterior 0.3 of T1 and T2 which are coarsely sculptured), anteromesoscutum sparsely punctate. Scutoscutellar sulcus with 7 crenulae. Lunules relatively low (around 0.25 × height of lateral face of scutellum). Propodeum with strongly raised, median carina. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with vannal lobe slightly concave centrally, and without setae on that central area. Metafemur L 3.42 × its W. Metatibial inner spur L 1.65 × metatibia outer spur L; metatibia inner spur 0.55 × first segment of metatarsus L. T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y”; T1 L 1.38 × T1 W at posterior margin. T2 subtriangular; T2 width at posterior margin 3.05 × T2 L Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.25; F3 L: 0.26; F14 L: 0.23; F15 L: 0.21; Malar sulcus L: 0.08; Mandible W: 0.10; T1 L: 0.46; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.33; T1 maximum W: 0.33; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.26; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.46; T2 L: 0.15; Metafemur L: 0.88; Metafemur W: 0.26; Metatibia L: 1.07; Inner spur L: 0.28; Outer spur L: 0.17; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.50; Body L: 2.63; Fore wing L: 3.00. Mandible W is approximate.

Figure 43. 

Ypsilonigaster sharkeyi male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Head and mesosoma, dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Only known from the type locality in southeastern Republic of the Congo.

Molecular data

The holotype rendered an almost complete DNA barcode (621 bp), which represents BIN BOLD:AAV2124. That sequence is 8.02% different from the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after Michael Sharkey, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of parasitoid wasps, and also for sending the first author valuable specimens –some of which were studied and are part of this paper.

Ypsilonigaster tiger Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 44

Holotype

Female, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

THAILAND Chiang Mai/Huai Nam Dang NP Guest House/19°18.803'N, 98°36.395'E/Malaise trap 31.x-7.xi.2007/Anuchart & Thawatchai leg. T5553. Second label: JMIC 0536.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Huai Nam Dang National Park Guest House, 19°18.803'N,t 98°36.395'E.

Diagnosis

This species is very distinctive due to its unusual coloration pattern, which includes contrasting areas in white, yellow, brown and black. It also has the shortest ovipositor sheaths and the longest fore wing among the known species in the genus.

Description

Body with striking contrast of four different colors between areas (yellow on head, front legs, and anterior half of mesosoma; black on posterior half of mesosoma and hind legs; white on T1, parts of T2/T3, some laterotergites and metatibial spines; brown on antenna, middle legs and most of metasoma). Tegula (yellow) and humeral complex (dark brown) differently coloured. Body mostly smooth, including propodeum, entire scutellar disc, and all tergites (but anteromesoscutum with shallow punctures all over except for notauli). Scutoscutellar sulcus with 9–10 crenulae. Lunules relatively normal (around 0.4 × height of lateral face of scutellum). Propodeum with strongly raised, median carina. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with more or less straight vannal lobe which is uniformly setose. Metafemur L 2.98 × its W. Metatibial inner spur L 1.79 × metatibia outer spur L; metatibia inner spur 0.62 × first segment of metatarsus L. T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y”; T1 L 2.53 × T1 width at posterior margin. T2 subtriangular; T2 width at posterior margin 3.0 × T2 L. Ovipositor sheaths uniformly setose and 0.48 × as long as metatibia length. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.33; F3 L: 0.32; F14 L: 0.24; F15 L: 0.21; Malar sulcus L: 0.08; Mandible W: 0.13; T1 L: 0.76; T1 W at posterior margin: 0.30; T1 maximum W: 0.54; T2 W at anterior margin: 0.23; T2 W at posterior margin: 0.63; T2 L: 0.21; Metafemur L: 1.28; Metafemur W: 0.43; Metatibia L: 1.52; Inner spur L: 0.43; Outer spur L: 0.24; First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.69; Ovipositor sheaths L: 0.73; Body L: 3.84; Fore wing L: 4.60. Fore wing L is approximate.

Male. Unknown.

Figure 44. 

Ypsilonigaster tiger female holotype. A Habitus B Tergite 1 C Mesosoma dorsal D Mesosoma lateral E Propodeum.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Only known from the type locality in northern Thailand.

Molecular data

The holotype rendered an almost complete DNA barcode (622 bp), which represents BIN BOLD:ABY3660, a unique sequence that is 9.86% different from the closest Microgastrinae in BOLD.

Etymology

Named after the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research (TIGER), a collaborative project between the Queen Sirikit Botanical Garden and the National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department with the goal of conducting inventories of insect biodiversity in Thailand (see also: http://www.sharkeylab.org/tiger/). All specimens of Thailand studied for this paper came from those inventories, and will be deposited in the QSBG for future reference.

Ypsilonigaster zuparkoi Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Fig. 45

Holotype

Male, Madagascar, CAS.

Holotype labels

MADAGASCAR: Majunga/Ambatofolaka, Namoroka/53km from Soalala 3km N/Vitanandro village. Second label: 30.xi-9.xii.2007, elev. 400ft/16°28.4'S, 45°23.48'E, Calif./Acad. Of Sciences coll: Irwin,/Harin’Hala, malaise trap in/dense dry forest, MG040A-10. Third label: CNC878532.

Holotype locality

MADAGASCAR, Majunga, Ambatofolaka, Namoroka, 53 km from Soalala, 3km North of Vitanandro village, 16°28.4'S, 45°23.48'E, 400ft, dense dry forest.

Paratypes

Madagascar. (1♂ CNC), same locality than holotype, Voucher code: CNC878533.

Diagnosis

The combination of body colour mostly white-yellow and T1 sculpture and shape (T1 smooth and strongly narrowing towards posterior margin, its width at anterior margin at least 1.2 × its width at posterior margin) are enough to separate Y. zuparkoi from all other known species in the genus.

Description

Female unknown. Male. Body colour mostly white-yellow (only ventral sides of scape and F1–F2 brown). Body mostly smooth (including most of propodeum, entire scutellar disc, and most tergites except for T2 which is slightly duller), anteromesoscutum sparsely punctate. Scutoscutellar sulcus with 10 crenulae. Lunules relatively low (around 0.25 × height of lateral face of scutellum). Propodeum with strongly raised, median carina. Fore wing with small, slit-shaped areolet. Hind wing with more or less straight vannal lobe which is uniformly setose. Metafemur L 2.66–2.78 × its W. Metatibial inner spur L 1.59–1.67 × metatibia outer spur L; metatibia inner spur 0.58–0.64 × first segment of metatarsus L. T1 divided in three areas by a strong sulcus shaped as an inverted “Y”; T1 L 2.00–2.41 × T1 width at posterior margin. T2 subtriangular; T2 width at posterior margin 2.95–3.47 × T2 L. Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.26 (0.26); F3 L: 0.26 (0.26); F14 L: 0.22 (0.23); F15 L: 0.21 (0.21); Malar sulcus L: 0.08 (0.09); Mandible W: 0.13 (0.10); T1 L: 0.50 (0.54); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.25 (0.23); T1 maximum W: 0.33 (0.46); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.23 (0.18); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.49 (0.55); T2 L: 0.17 (0.16); Metafemur L: 0.93 (0.98); Metafemur W: 0.33 (0.37); Metatibia L: 1.04 (1.08); Inner spur L: 0.29 (0.29); Outer spur L: 0.18 (0.18); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.46 (0.50); Body L: 3.03 (3.28); Fore wing L: 2.75 (2.90).

Female. Unknown.

Figure 45. 

Ypsilonigaster zuparkoi male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing and hind wing D Metasoma dorsal E Genitalia F Metatibia G Head and mesosoma, dorsal H Tergites 1 to 2.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Madagascar.

Molecular data

No molecular data available.

Etymology

Named after Robert Zuparko, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of parasitoid wasps, and also for sending the first author valuable specimens –some of which were studied and are part of this paper.

Zachterbergius Fernandez-Triana, gen. n.

Type species

Zachterbergius tenuitergum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, here designated.

Diagnostic description

Labial palpi very long, extending to mesopleuron (Fig. 46A, B). Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a small triangular flange which has a median carina (Fig. 46B). Scape relatively very transverse (Fig. 46B). Flagellomere with two rows of placodes. Polished band of scutellum interrupted medially by band of rugosity (Figs 46E, F, 47B). Propodeum with clearly defined median carina and partially defined transverse carina and apical part of an areola (Figs 46E, F, 47A, B). Fore wing with quadrangulate areolet (Fig. 46C). T1 with broad depression on anterior half (Figs 46D, 47A, B). T2 longest and thinnest of Microgastrinae (T2 L 4.0 × its width at base and apex, T2 0.7–0.8 × as long as T1 L, T2 around 1.5 × as long as T3 L) (Figs 46D, E, 47A, B).

Putative autapomorphies and potentially related genera

The relationships of Zachterbergius with other genera of Microgastrinae are not clear at present. The length of T2 is unique among known species of Microgastrinae. The propodeum carination pattern is uncommon in the subfamily, as are the scape shape and elongate labial palpi. The available barcode sequence is also very different from all other known barcodes within the subfamily.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

The only known species is found in the Oriental region (Thailand).

Molecular data

A single sequence is available, representing BIN BOLD:AAV2126, which is 15.6% different than the closest sequence available in BOLD.

Etymology

The genus name refers to and honors the Dutch braconid expert Kees van Achterberg, in recognition of his significant contributions to the knowledge of Braconidae of the world, as well as other Hymenoptera groups. Over the years Kees has been a dear friend, mentor and colleague of the first author, and has kindly supported his work on Microgastrinae. The letter “Z” was added at the beginning of the name to guarantee the uniqueness of the name and avoid potential homonyms -due to the large number of taxa named after Kees van Achterberg. The gender of the genus is neuter.

Species

Only one species is known.

Zachterbergius tenuitergum Fernandez-Triana & Boudreault, sp. n.

Figs 46, 47

Holotype

Male, Thailand, QSBG.

Holotype labels

THAILAND: Chiang Mai huai/Nam Dang NP Helipad/19°18.33'N, 98°36.289'E/30.xii.2007–7.i.2008/Anuchart leg. T5597. Second label: CNC878554.

Holotype locality

THAILAND, Chiang Mai Province, Huai Nam Dang National Park, Helipad, 19°18.33'N, 98°36.289'E.

Paratype. Thailand. (1♂ QSBG), Chiang Mai, Huai Nam Dang NP, visitor center, 19.188000, 98.364000, 28.x.2007, coll. Anuchart, Thawatchai, Voucher code: JMIC0538.

Diagnosis

This is the only known species in the genus so far, thus the generic diagnosis works as the species diagnosis as well.

Description

Male. Body mostly brown to dark brown; palpi and first few laterotergites and sternites white; scape, pedicel and labrum yellow-white; flagellomeres light brown; propleuron and pronotum yellow-orange (darker in pronotum); legs mostly yellow-white (except for posterior 0.3 of metatibia and metatarsus which are brown); wings hyaline, most veins brown, pterostigma brown with pale spot on anterior 0.2. Labial palpi very long, extending to mesopleuron. Upper margin of face produced dorsally between the antennal insertions into a small triangular flange which has a median carina. Scape relatively very transverse (Fig. 46B). Flagellomere with two rows of placodes. Polished band of scutellum interrupted medially by band of rugosity. Propodeum with clearly defined median carina and partially defined transverse carina and apical part of an areola. Fore wing with quadrangulate areolet. T1 with broad depression on anterior half. T2 longest and thinnest of Microgastrinae (T2 L 4.0 × its width at base and apex, T2 0.7–0.8 × as long as T1 L, T2 around 1.5 × as long as T3 L). Body measurements (mm). F2 L: 0.29 (0.30); F3 L: 0.28 (0.29); F14 L: 0.24 (0.26); F15 L: 0.23 (0.25); Malar sulcus L: 0.08 (0.09); Mandible W: 0.08 (0.08); T1 L: 0.33 (0.33); T1 W at posterior margin: 0.09 (0.08); T1 maximum W: 0.24 (0.26); T2 W at anterior margin: 0.05 (0.06); T2 W at posterior margin: 0.16 (0.23); T2 L: 0.27 (0.30); Metafemur L: 0.88 (0.89); Metafemur W: 0.19 (0.20); Metatibia L: 1.10 (1.10); Inner spur L: 0.25 (0.26); Outer spur L: 0.21 (0.22); First segment of Metatarsus L: 0.53 (0.52); Body L: 2.80 (2.75); Fore wing L: 2.90 (3.00).

Female. Unknown.

Figure 46. 

Zachterbergius tenuitergum male holotype. A Habitus B Head frontal C Fore wing D Metasoma dorsal E Propodeum F Head and mesosoma, dorsal.

Figure 47. 

Zachterbergius tenuitergum male paratype JMIC 0538. A Habitus dorsal B Mesosoma and metasoma, dorsal.

Biology

Host unknown.

Distribution

Thailand.

Molecular data

A single sequence was obtained from the paratype, representing BIN BOLD:AAV2126, which is 15.6% different than the closest sequence available in BOLD.

Etymology

From “tenuis” (in Latin “thin”), and “tergum” (in Latin “back”, also used as the dorsal/upper portion of an arthropod segment), referring the very thin second tergite of metasoma.

Discussion

When considering the classification of braconid wasps, it is interesting to note the disparity of treatments among the different groups. For example, and based on the information currently available (Table 1), there is an average of almost 20 described species per described genus (spp/genus) in Braconidae; however, the variation is very significant. Among the eight most diverse subfamilies, all of which have at least 1,200 described species each, Microgastrinae has 45 spp/genus (or 34 spp/genus when adding the results of the present paper). But even after our results are accounted for, that ratio still ranks as the third highest among Braconidae, almost 2.5 × the average for the entire family and considerably higher than other subfamilies with similar species diversity (e.g., 4.5 × more than in Doryctinae, 2.0 × more than Alysiinae). Although the spp/genus ratio does not necessarily have to be the same between different groups, the data suggest that the current generic framework for Microgastrinae is still insufficient and more work is needed.

Diversity of species and genera of the family Braconidae and its eight most diverse subfamilies. To provide a fair comparison all data is based on the same source (Yu et al. 2016), even though numbers for some groups have slightly changed for the past two years. For Microgastrinae, the values between parentheses include the new data from the present paper.

Subfamily # of described Species # of described Genera Species/Genus ratio
BRACONIDAE 21,221 1,103 19.2
Braconinae 3,052 189 16.1
Microgastrinae 2,715 (2,759) 60 (81) 45.2 (34.1)
Alysiinae 2,442 107 22.8
Opiinae 2,063 39 52.9
Doryctinae 2,045 196 10.4
Cheloninae 1,523 23 66.2
Euphorinae 1,270 59 21.5
Agathidinae 1,213 52 23.3

Mason (1981) provided the first comprehensive and more explicit phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily Microgastrine, including its arrangement within six tribes and 50 genera (23 of which were newly described by him in that paper). Subsequent papers have found that the monophyly of those tribes is not well supported (e.g., Walker et al. 1990, Maeto 1996, Whitfield et al. 2002, van Achterberg 2003), and thus at present many authors do not follow any tribal arrangement within the subfamily. However, Mason’s generic concepts, with a few exceptions, have been widely accepted by most authors (but see van Achterberg 2003, Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014, and Whitfield et al. 2018 for different opinions and further discussion on the topic). The history of Microgastrine systematics and classification was recently summarized by Whitfield et al. (2018), although they only listed 63 genera, as they missed a new genus described around the same time (Xiong et al. 2017). Since 1981, one of Mason’s genera has been synonymized (Whitfield 2006) and 15 new genera have been proposed, for a total of 64 valid genera previous to the present paper.

We described in this paper 17 new genera from all tropical regions of the world (Afrotropical, Australasian, Neotropical and Oriental). Thus, the total of extant genera of Microgastrinae stands now at 81 (Table 2). Although our results have increased the number of genera worldwide by 21 %, we are aware of additional genera that remain undescribed in collections. We expect that the actual diversity in the subfamily will probably be around one hundred genera.

For every new genus described above, putative autapomorphies, morphological diagnostic features (to separate the new taxa from their potentially most closely related genera), and molecular data (DNA barcodes, whenever available) were presented. However, no attempt is made in this paper to reassess the phylogeny of Microgastrinae, nor it is possible to conclude at present on generic limits or relationships between different taxa. An improved and updated phylogeny of the subfamily is still years in the making and will require more comprehensive analyses, including revised morphological studies (reassessing characters previously used that were wrongly coded, and adding some overlooked in the past), a larger molecular dataset (including many more genes), and biological data (roughly half of the described species of Microgastrinae have some host data associated, but there has never been any attempt to critically revise that information, much less to analyze it at a world scale). In spite of these difficulties, we provide below a few comments which we hope will be useful for future studies of Microgastrinae phylogeny.

Updated list of 81 extant genera of Microgastrinae worldwide. Based on Whitfield et al. (2018), with the addition of Xiong et al. (2017) and the new genera described in the present paper.

Agupta Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Glyptapanteles Ashmead, 1904 Philoplitis Nixon, 1965
Alloplitis Nixon, 1965 Hygroplitis Thomson, 1895 Pholetesor Mason, 1981
Alphomelon Mason, 1981 Hypomicrogaster Ashmead, 1898 Prasmodon Nixon, 1965
Apanteles Foerster, 1863 Iconella Mason, 1981 Promicrogaster Brues & Richardson, 1913
Austinicotesia Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Illidops Mason, 1981 Protapanteles Ashmead, 1898
Austrocotesia Austin & Dangerfield, 1992 Janhalacaste Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Protomicroplitis Ashmead, 1898
Beyarslania Kocak & Kemal, 2009 Jenopappius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Pseudapanteles Ashmead, 1898
Billmasonius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Jimwhitfieldius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Pseudofornicia van Achterberg, 2015
Buluka de Saeger, 1948 Keylimepie Fernandez-Triana, 2016 Pseudovenanides Xiao & You, 2002
Carlmuesebeckius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Kiwigaster Fernandez-Triana, Ward & Whitfield, 2011 Qrocodiledundee Fernandez-Triana, 2018
Chaoa Luo & You, 2004 Kotenkosius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Rasivalva Mason, 1981
Choeras Mason, 1981 Larissimus Nixon, 1965 Rhygoplitis Mason, 1981
Clarkinella Mason, 1981 Lathrapanteles Williams, 1985 Sathon Mason, 1981
Cotesia Cameron, 1891 Mariapanteles Whitfield & Fernandez-Triana, 2012 Semionis Nixon, 1965
Cuneogaster Choi & Whitfield, 2006 Markshawius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Sendaphne Nixon, 1965
Dasylagon Muesebeck, 1958 Microgaster Latreille, 1804 Shireplitis Fernandez-Triana & Ward, 2011
Deuterixys Mason, 1981 Microplitis Foerster, 1863 Silvaspinosus Fernandez-Triana, 2018
Diolcogaster Ashmead, 1900 Miropotes Nixon, 1965 Snellenius Westwood, 1882
Distatrix Mason, 1981 Napamus Papp, 1993 Tobleronius Fernandez-Triana, 2018
Dodogaster Rousse, 2013 Neoclarkinella Rema & Narendran, 1996 Ungunicus Fernandez-Triana, 2018
Dolichogenidea Viereck, 1911 Nyereria Mason, 1981 Venanides Mason, 1981
Eripnopelta Xiong, van Achterberg & Chen, 2017 Ohenri Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Venanus Mason, 1981
Exix Mason, 1981 Papanteles Mason, 1981 Wilkinsonellus Mason, 1981
Exoryza Mason, 1981 Parapanteles Ashmead, 1900 Xanthapanteles Whitfield, 1995
Exulonyx Mason, 1981 Parenion Nixon, 1965 Xanthomicrogaster Cameron, 1911
Fornicia Brullé, 1846 Paroplitis Mason, 1981 Ypsilonigaster Fernandez-Triana, 2018
Gilbertnixonius Fernandez-Triana, 2018 Pelicope Mason, 1981 Zachterbergius Fernandez-Triana, 2018

Among the newly described genera, four (Gilbertnixonius, Jenopappius, Silvaspinosus and Tobleronius) are clearly part of the Microplitini (sensu Mason 1981). This is one the best defined groups of genera within Microgastrinae, and most likely to be monophyletic. Until now, it included four genera (Alloplitis, Microplitis, Philoplitis and Snellenius) and thus our results double that total. Except for the very diverse and cosmopolitan Microplitis, and the moderately diverse and mostly pantropical Snellenius (these two genera comprising more than 95% of the described species of Microplitini), the other six genera are found in the Oriental or Afrotropical regions, perhaps an indication that the origin of this clade was in the Old World tropics. Microplitini is characterized by relatively large tentorial pits, head mostly coarsely sculptured, stemmaticum usually very well defined and slightly to strongly raised from surrounding areas, anteromesoscutum and scutellar disc usually coarsely sculptured, notauli almost always defined (often very clearly), propodeum always sculptured and with several strongly defined carinae, fore wing with areolet (which is usually large), relatively small metacoxa, short metatibial spurs, first metasomal tergite with median longitudinal sulcus, hypopygium inflexible and relatively short, ovipositor sheaths with few setae mostly limited to apex, and ovipositor almost always very short (scarsely or not at all projecting beyond apex of hypopygium).

A partial to complete occipital carina is reported for Microgastrinae for the first time in this paper, and was found in at least members of four different genera (Alloplitis, Gilbertnixonius, Philoplitis and Tobleronius). A partial to complete epicnemial carina is present in at least two genera (Snellenius and Gilbertnixonius), the only other genus of Microgastrinae with that carina being the unrelated and very specialized Fornicia. The presence, in some members of Microplitini, of the occipital and epicnemial carinae is further indication of the uniqueness of this group within the subfamily.

In spite of Microplitini being relatively well defined and relatively unique within Microgastrinae, its relationship with the rest of the subfamily is not clear at present. Some results from previous studies have suggested that Microplitini is a basal group within Microgastrinae (e.g., Mason 1981, Dowton and Austin 1998, Quicke et al. 2004). Indeed, in other subfamilies of Braconidae, the presence of occipital and epicnemial carinae has been interpreted as plesiomorphic (e.g., Quicke and van Achterberg 1990 and references there, but also see counterarguments in Wharton et al. 1992). However, data from other studies, mostly based on biology, suggest the opposite (e.g., Shaw and Huddleston 1991, Austin and Dangerfield 1993, Whitfield et al. 2002). All verified host data (information only available for Microplitis and Snellenius) show that this group only parasitizes the most apomorphic groups of Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea and Bombycoidea (e.g., host data compiled in Fernandez-Triana et al. 2015, Yu et al. 2016). The wasp larvae are mostly haemolymph feeders and their cocoons are very specialized (e.g., Shaw and Huddleston 1991, Quicke et al. 2004), both characters being considered as derived as compared to the presumably plesiomorphic Apantelini and Cotesiini (sensu Mason 1981). More research will be needed to clarify the position of Microplitini within the subfamily.

Four other new genera being described in this paper (Agupta, Kotenkosius, Ohenri and Ypsilonigaster) are presumably related to Choeras s.l. It has long been proposed that Choeras represents a paraphyletic assemble (e.g., Williams 1988), or may even be polyphyletic (e.g., Austin and Dangerfield 1992), although the limits of that genus and related ones are not well understood at present. Based on the described species (and also unpublished data from collections), Choeras should probably be redefined, in a stricter sense, to include mainly Holartic taxa. The tropical species of Choeras s.l. are very numerous and seem to represent several lineages; they are probably better placed within other genera (including the new taxa described above as well as additional new genera to be proposed in the future).

Three new genera (Jimwhitfieldius, Markshawius, and Ungunicus) clearly belong to what Mason (1981) named as Cotesini –although that tribe is clearly not monophyletic. Ungunicus is likely related to Diolcogaster, whereas the relationships of Jimwhitfieldius and Markshawius within Cotesiini are more difficult to assess. The three genera all have rather unique morphological features within the entire Microgastrinae (such as very large metatibial spines and unique trochantellus shape in Jimwhitfieldius, propodeum carination pattern and shape of T1 and T2 in Markshawius, and very unique tarsal claws in Ungunicus).

The new genus Austinicotesia is clearly related to Austrocotesia, as both lack vein 2r-m in the hind wing, a feature very rarely found in Microgastrinae (the only other genus to lack that vein is Miropotes) (e.g., see Austin and Dangerfield 1992). Although there are some morphological features that seem to indicate they are different (see above under description of Austinicotesia), additional studies, especially further analysis of molecular data, might change in the future our current understanding of those two genera.

The genus Janhalacaste is clearly related to Mariapanteles, and to a lesser extent to Pseudapanteles. These three genera comprise mostly Neotropical taxa, with only a few species of Pseudapanteles reaching the Neartic (Fernandez-Triana et al. 2014b and unpublished data).

Four of the newly described genera (Billmasonius, Carlmuesebecki, Qrocodiledundee and Zachterbergius) are difficult to relate at present with any known group of Microgastrinae. Their rather bizarre morphological features, and the fact that the available barcoding sequences are very different from all other microgastrines with available barcodes in BOLD, prevent us to even propose preliminary relationships with any other genus within the subfamily.

Although an updated and more comprehensive phylogeny of Microgastrinae is probably years ahead, we hope the present paper contributes toward that goal by describing a significant number of new taxa and making them available for future studies.

Acknowledgements

JFT wants to especially thank Jim Whitfield, Mark Shaw, Kees van Achterberg and Henri Goulet for being such great Braconidae mentors and, most importantly, dear friends over the years. Bill Mason’s papers and collection (left at the CNC) had a huge influence in JFT becoming an apprentice of Microgastrinae. The works of Douglas Wilkinson, Carl Muesebeck, Gilbert Nixon, Jeno Papp, Andy Austin, Ankita Gupta and Anatoly Kotenko have also been important and have contributed in several ways to the preparation of the current paper. Our colleagues at the Hymenoptera Unit in Ottawa (CNC) have all helped with many valuable suggestions to improve the quality of the manuscript, especially John Huber. Frederique Bakker, Gavin Broad, Mike Sharkey, Claire Villemant, and Bob Zuparko loaned specimens studied for this paper. JFT work was partially supported by a 2013 Temnick fellowship from Naturalis Biodiversity Center (the Netherlands). Work from JFT and CB was supported by Project J-001283 “Arthropod Systematics” from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

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