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Research Article
Updates to the Nomenclature of Platygastroidea in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
expand article infoElijah Talamas, Matthew Buffington
† USDA/SEL, Washington, DC, United States of America
‡ Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA/ARS, , United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Parabaryconus Kozlov & Kononova, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Cremastobaeus Ashmead; Cremastobaeus artus (Kozlov & Kononova), comb. n. is transferred from Parabaryconus; Paridris macrurous Kozlov & Lê, syn. n. and P. taekuli Talamas & Masner, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of P. bispores Kozlov & Lê; Leptoteleia japonica (Kozlov & Kononova), comb. n. is transferred from Triteleia Kieffer; Leptoteleia striola Talamas & Buffington, name n. is provided as a replacement name for Leptoteleia japonica Yamagishi; Dvivarnus punctatus Rajmohana & Veenakumari, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Gryonoides agamades Kozlov & Lê; Dvivarnus agamades comb. n. is transferred from Gryonoides Dodd; Anirama Kozlov, syn. n., Criomica Kozlov, syn. n. and Pyrgaspis Kozlov, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Platygaster Latreille; Platygaster marikovskii Kozlov, comb. rev. and P. semiclavata (Buhl), comb. n. are transferred from Anirama; Platygaster viktorovi (Kozlov), comb. n. is transferred from Criomica; Platygaster haloxylonomyiae (Kozlov), comb. n. and P. striativentris (Buhl), comb. n. are transferred from Pyrgaspis; Stosta Kozlov, syn. n. is treated as a junior synonym of Synopeas Förster; Synopeas tosticola (Kozlov), comb. n. is transferred from Stosta.

Keywords

Platygastroidea, Platygastrinae, Scelioninae, Teleasinae, taxonomy

Introduction

The Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences serves as the repository for a large number of primary and secondary types of species described by the late Mikhail Kozlov. Recent travel to this museum to study Kozlov's primary types of Trissolcus Ashmead offered the opportunity to assess type material for all of Platygastroidea in the Zoological Institute, revealing that the classification for a modest number of taxa requires adjustment. Revisionary work on Trissolcus will occur in a future monograph, and we here treat Platygastroidea exclusive of this genus. For completeness, the holotypes of species subsequently described by Peter Buhl in two of Kozlov's genera, Pyrgaspis and Anirama, were examined and Buhl's diagnostic characters are here photographically illustrated.

Two of Kozlov's platygastrine genera, Pyrgaspsis and Stosta, were established for species with atypical shapes of the mesoscutellum, whereas these species otherwise fit easily into the broad concepts of Platygaster and Synopeas, respectively. Similarly, Anirama was described for a species in which the apical male antennomere is elongate and Criomica for a species with a slightly unusual head shape. Such description of genera for apomorphic species brings attention to unusual morphologies, but is detrimental to the construction of a natural classification if it renders other taxa polyphyletic.

In our perspective, the most needed contribution to classification in the Platygastrinae is detailed character analysis, evaluation of monophyly for existing genera, and placement of species into monophyletic species-groups. We do not consider the characters that Kozlov used to designate new platygastrine genera to indicate lineages separate from Platygaster and Synopeas, but they are potentially useful for species-group classification. It is our hope that the characters, treatments and illustrations presented here will contribute to this cause.

Examination of Kozlov's specimens revealed him to be, in our opinion, a “splitter” as opposed to a “lumper,” that is, he tended not to treat morphological differences as intraspecific or intrageneric variation. A benefit of Kozlov's species concepts is that series identified by him are morphologically uniform. Because of this, we are confident that the paratypes and holotypes of Kozlov and Lê are conspecific. We here treat one of their species, Paridris macrurous, as a junior synonym of Paridris bispores based on a paratype specimen.

Materials and methods

Collections

This work is based on specimens deposited in the following repositories with abbreviations used in the text:

BLGA Burgenlandisches Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, Austria

BPBM Bishop Museum, Honolulu, USA

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

OSUC C.A. Triplehorn Insect Collection, Columbus, USA

USNM Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA

ZIN (ZMAS) Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

ZMUC Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

Informatics

Collection data for all specimens are available in the Hymenoptera Online Database (http://purl.oclc.org/NET/hymenoptera/hol) by entering the specimen identifier (CUID) in the search form. CUIDs for all specimens are presented in the material examined section of each taxonomic treatment and may be identified as a collection coden followed by a number (note capitalization and the space that follows some acronyms). The locality data reported for primary types are not literal transcriptions of the labels: some abbreviations are expanded and additional data from the collectors may be included.

Photography

Images were produced using a Microvision Instruments imaging system with Cartograph software, a Z16 Leica lens and a JVC KY-F75U digital camera. Single montage images were produced from image stacks with the program CombineZP. In some cases, multiple montaged images were stitched together in Photoshop to produce larger images at high resolution and magnification. Full resolution images, and additional photographs of the specimens treated here, are archived in the Hymenoptera Online Database (http://purl.oclc.org/NET/hymenoptera/specimage) and MorphBank (http://www.morphbank.net).

Morphological terms

The following terms are used in the text and are active links to anatomical concepts in the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (Yoder et al. 2010)

antennomere http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000107
axillula http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000160
clava http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000203
frontal depression http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000911
lateral propodeal carina (lpc: Figs 18, 26) http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001919
mediotergite http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001860
mesoscutellar disc http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000915
posterior mesoscutellar carina (pmc: Figs 18, 2122, 2526) http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002278
posterior mesoscutellar area (pma: Figs 18, 2526) http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002277
posterolateral mesoscutellar carina (plmc: Fig. 26) http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002280
posterolateral mesoscutellar area (plma: Fig. 26) http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002279
scutoscutellar sulcus http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000919

Scelioninae

Cremastobaeus Ashmead

Parabaryconus Kozlov & Kononova, syn. n.

Cremastobaeus artus (Kozlov & Kononova), comb. n.

Figures 13; Morphbank 1

Parabaryconus artus Kozlov & Kononova, 2000: 32 (original description); Kononova and Kozlov 2008: 217 (description).

Link to distribution map

2

Material examined

Holotype, male: JAPAN: Aichi Pref., Honshu Isl., 40km NW Nagoya, Inuyama City, 4.X.1981, E. Sugonyaev, ZMAS 0136 (ZIN).

Comments

The transverse carinae above the frontal depression, setose eyes, serrate A2–A3, and shape of the metasoma in lateral view unequivocally place this species in Cremastobaeus according to the concept of this genus established by Masner (1976) and Galloway and Austin (1984).

Figures 1–3.

36Cremastobaeus artus (Kozlov & Kononova), male holotype (ZMAS 0136) 1 Lateral habitus 2 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 3 Head and mesosoma, ventrolateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Paridris Kieffer

Paridris bispores Kozlov & Lê

Paridris bispores Kozlov & Lê, 2000: 65, 335 (original description, keyed).

Paridris macrurous Kozlov & Lê, 2000: 65, 69, 337 (original description, keyed). syn. n.

http://bioguid.osu.edu/osuc_concepts:179769

Paridris taekuli Talamas & Masner, 2013: 13, 14, 29, 30, 43 (original description, diagnosis, keyed). syn. n.

http://bioguid.osu.edu/osuc_concepts:303974

Link to distribution map

3

Material examined

Holotype of P. bispores: VIETNAM: OSUC 184371 (ZIN); Paratype of P. macrurous: VIETNAM: 1 female, OSUC 184373 (ZIN); Holotype of P. taekuli: NEW CALEDONIA: Nord Prov., Pouembout Commune, Tiéa Forest, 7.XII-14.XII.2000, malaise trap, M. E. Irwin, OSUC 266150 (MNHN).

Leptoteleia Kieffer

Leptoteleia japonica Kozlov & Kononova, comb. n.

Triteleia japonica Kozlov & Kononova, 1990: 174, 176 (original description); Kononova 1995: 69 (keyed); Kononova and Petrov 2000: 28 (keyed); Kononova and Kozlov 2008: 223, 225 (description, keyed).

Link to distribution map

4

Material examined

Holotype, female, T. japonica: JAPAN: Aichi Pref., Honshu Isl., Inuyama City, 6.X.1981, E. Sugonyaev, ZIN 0012 (ZIN).

Leptoteleia striola Talamas & Buffington, name n.

Leptoteleia japonica Yamagishi, 1993: 812 (original description); Kononova and Kozlov 2008: 302 (description).

Comments

The transfer of Triteleia japonica to Leptoteleia renders, L. japonica Yamagishi as a junior objective homonym. We hereby provide a replacement name in the interest of nomenclatural clarity.

Etymology

The Latin adjectival epithet “striola,” meaning “furrow” or “line”, refers to the longitudinal costae mentioned by Yamagishi (1993) as a character useful for the diagnosis for this species.

Teleasinae

Dvivarnus Rajmohana & Veenakumari

Dvivarnus agamades (Kozlov & Lê), comb. n.

Figure 6; Morphbank 5

Gryonoides agamades Kozlov & Lê, 1986: 100 (original description); Lê 2000: 218 (description, type information).

Dvivarnus punctatus Rajmohana & Veenakumari, 2011: 44 (original description). syn. n.

Link to distribution map

6

Associations

collected on co: [Cyperales: Poaceae]

Material examined

Paratype: VIETNAM: 1 male, OSUC 184258 (ZIN). Other material: INDIA: 2 males, OSUC 230647, 59262 (OSUC). LAOS: 1 female, USNMENT00877588 (BPBM). THAILAND: 4 females, OSUC 284994, 342789, 374197-374198 (OSUC).

Comments

Rajmohana and Veenakumari (2011) stated that the mesoscutellar spines of Dvivarnus punctatus differ from those of Gryonoides based on their location on the mesoscutellum. We agree, and more specifically, the mesoscutellar spines of Gryonoides proximally abut the axillula and are derived at least in part from striations of the scutoscutellar sulcus (Fig. 5) whereas those of Dvivarnus are derived entirely from the mesoscutellar disc (Fig. 6). Rajmohana and Veenakumari asserted that the presence of punctation throughout T3 is unique to D. agamades. This character is indeed rare among teleasines, but it may also be found in Trimorus (Fig. 4) and Xenomerus (X. spinosus Mikó & Masner, X. comatus Mikó & Masner) (Mikó et al 2007). The biogeographical records published by Rajmohana and Veekakumari (2011) led them to suggest that this species was limited to semi-arid habitats. A broader geographic sampling has revealed that this species also inhabits the tropical rainforests of Southeast Asia.

Figures 4–6.

374 Trimorus sp., Dorsal habitus, female (OSUC 334274) 5 Gryonoides sp., scutellar-axillar complex, lateral view, male (USNMENT00872152) 6 Dvivarnus agamades (Kozlov & Lê), scutellar-axillar complex, lateral view, male (USNMENT00872152). Scale bars in millimeters.

Platygastrinae

Platygaster Latreille

Anirama Kozlov, syn. n.

Comments

Kozlov described Anirama as a genus separate from Platygaster because the apical antennomere of the male is elongate. There are otherwise no characters to indicate that this lineage is distinct from Platygaster and we consider this antennal morphology to be apomorphic within Platygaster.

Platygaster marikovskii Kozlov, comb. rev.

Figures 79, 11; Morphbank 7

Platygaster marikovskii Kozlov, 1967: 717 (original description).

Anirama marikovskii (Kozlov): Kozlov 1970: 224 (generic transfer).

Diagnosis

Buhl (2007) used the the relative lengths of males antennomeres to distinguish P. semiclavata from P. marikovskii: A10 as long as A6-A9 in P. semiclavata and A10 twice as long as A6–A9 in P. marikovskii. This character is illustrated in Figures 1011.

Figures 7–9.

38Platygaster marikovskii Kozlov, female paratype (USNMENT00872137) 7 Lateral habitus 8 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 9 head and mesosoma, ventral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 10–11.

3910 Platygaster semiclavata (Buhl), male holotype (zmuc00036868), head, mesosoma, antennae, dorsal view 11 Platygaster marikovskii Kozlov, male paratype (USNMENT00872134), head and antennae, ventral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Link to distribution map

8

Associations

emerged from Haloxylonomyia deformans solitaria Marikovskij: [Diptera: Nematocera: Bibionomorpha: Cecidomyioidea: Cecidomyiidae]

Material examined

Holotype, female, P. marikovskii: KAZAKHSTAN: Almaty Reg., secondary stream, Ili River, no date, P. Marikovskij, ZMAS 0115 (ZIN). Paratypes: KAZAKHSTAN: 4 females, 1 male, USNMENT00764942, USNMENT00872134, USNMENT00872136, USNMENT00872137, USNMENT00896493 (ZIN).

Platygaster semiclavata (Buhl), comb. n.

Figure 10; Morphbank 9

Anirama semiclavata Buhl, 2007: 329 (original description).

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of of P. marikovskii.

Link to distribution map

10

Material examined

Holotype, male: UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: al-Ajban, 7.XII-28.XII.2006, malaise trap/light trap, A. v. H., zmuc00036868 (deposited in ZMUC). Paratypes: UNITED ARAB EMIRATES: 4 females, 1 male, USNMENT00979300, USNMENT00979301, USNMENT00979302, USNMENT00979303, USNMENT00979304 (ZMUC).

Criomica Kozlov, syn. n.

Comments

The separation of Criomica from Platygaster was justified on the basis of the shape and proportions of the head. The eyes are somewhat triangular, but otherwise the cephalic shape of Criomica is unremarkable. The 3-merous clava in the female of this species is notable and may be a useful character for future species-group placement.

Platygaster viktorovi (Kozlov), comb. n.

Figures 1214; Morphbank 11

Criomica viktorovi Kozlov, 1975: 965 (original description).

Link to distribution map

12

Material examined

Holotype, female: MONGOLIA: Övörhangay Prov., E coast of Taatsïn Tsagaan Nuur Lake, 2.VIII-4.VIII.1969, M. Kozlov, ZMAS 0114 (ZIN). Paratypes: MONGOLIA: 6 females, 1 male, USNMENT00916649, USNMENT00916650, USNMENT00916651, USNMENT00916652, USNMENT00916653, USNMENT00916654, USNMENT00916655 (ZIN).

Figures 12–14.

40Platygaster viktorovi (Kozlov), female paratype (USNMENT00916654) 12 Dorsal habitus 13 Ventral habitus 14 Lateral habitus. Scale bar in millimeters.

Pyrgaspis Kozlov, syn. n.

Comments

Kozlov considered Pyrgaspis to be closest to Synopeas, presumably because of the pointed mesoscutellum, and he separated these genera based on the orientation and height of the mesoscutellar spine. However, the widely separated lateral propodeal carinae (propodeal keels) (Fig. 18) indicate that Pyrgaspis haloxylonomiae does not belong in or near Synopeas. In the context of the gamut of mesoscutellar morphology within Platygaster (Figs 1924), the dorsally pointed mesoscutellum alone does not warrant placement in a separate genus. Evaluation of this character revealed that the mesoscutellar points in P. haloxylonomyiae and P. striativentris are formed by a carina on the posterior surface of this sclerite (Figs 18, 2122, 25). Examination of Platygaster from the eastern United States yielded a specimen that has a similar, but more pronounced, carina on the posterior surface of the mesoscutellum which does not form a point dorsally (Fig. 26). The mesoscutellum of this specimen also bears a character that is new to us, the posterolateral mesoscutellar carina (Figs 2326).

Figures 15–18.

41Platygaster haloxylonomyiae (Kozlov), female paratype (USNMENT00872149) 15 Lateral habitus 16 Dorsal habitus 17 Head, anterior view 18 Mesosoma, posterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 19–24.

4219 Platygaster sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view (USNMENT00877276) 20 Platygaster sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, male (USNMENT00872147) 21 Platygaster haloxylonomyiae (Kozlov), dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female paratype (USNMENT00872149)22 Platygaster striativentris (Buhl), dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, male paratype (USNMENT00872149)23 Platygaster sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female (USNMENT00877259)24 Platygaster sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female (OSUC 334012). Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 25–28.

4325 Platygaster striativentris (Buhl), mesosoma, posterolateral view, male paratype (USNMENT00979421)26 Platygaster sp., mesosoma, posterolateral view, male (USNMENT00877259)27 Platygaster striativentris (Buhl), metasoma, dorsolateral view, male holotype (BLGA 0001)28 Platygaster haloxylonomyiae Kozlov, metasoma, dorsolateral view, male paratype (USNMENT00872138). Scale bars in millimeters.

Platygaster haloxylonomyiae (Kozlov), comb. n.

Figures 1518, 21, 28; Morphbank 13

Pyrgaspis haloxylonomyiae Kozlov, 1967: 716 (original description).

Diagnosis

Buhl (2009) distinguished Platygaster striativentris from P. haloxylonomyiae on the basis of shorter striae on T2 and a more pronounced point on the mesoscutellum in the latter. These characters are illustrated in Figures 2122 and Figures 2728, respectively.

Link to distribution map

14

Associations

emerged from Haloxylonomyia deformans solitaria Marikovskij: [Diptera: Nematocera: Bibionomorpha: Cecidomyioidea: Cecidomyiidae]

Material examined

Holotype, female: KAZAKHSTAN: Almaty Reg., secondary stream, Ili River, 14.III.1952, Marikovskij, ZMAS 0116 (ZIN). Paratypes: KAZAKHSTAN: 1 female, 1 male, USNMENT00872138, USNMENT00872149 (ZIN).

Platygaster striativentris (Buhl), comb. n.

Figures 22, 25, 27; Morphbank 15

Pyrgaspis striativentris Buhl, 2009: 76 (original description).

Diagnosis

See diagnosis of P. haloxylonomiae.

Link to distribution map

16

Material examined

Holotype, male: MONGOLIA: Bayanhongor Prov., 1240m, 45°03'N 100°59'E, 130km S Bayanhongor (Bayankhongor), 6.VII.2004, J. Halada, BLGA 0001 (deposited in BLGA). Paratypes: MONGOLIA: 3 males, USNMENT00979420, USNMENT00979421, USNMENT00979422 (BLGA).

Synopeas Förster

Synopeas tosticola (Kozlov), comb. n.

Figures 2932; Morphbank 17

Stosta tosticola Kozlov, 1975: 311 (original description).

Link to distribution map

18

Associations

collected on Brachanthemum gobium Krasch.: [Asterales: Asteraceae]

Material examined

Holotype, male: MONGOLIA: Ömnögovi Prov., 35km NNE Bulgan, sandy desert, N edge of Bayan Dzaan (Bain-Dzag) Mountain, 31.VIII.1969, M. Kozlov, ZMAS 0137 (ZIN). Paratype: MONGOLIA: 1 male, USNMENT00872135 (ZIN).

Comments

Kozlov’s treatment of Stosta was essentially identical to that of Pyrgaspis in that the description of a new genus was performed to accommodate the shape of the mesoscutellum. As in Platygaster, a broad range of mesoscutellar forms can be found in Synopeas (Figs 2730) and we do not consider this character to be useful to indicate a lineage separate from Synopeas.

Figures 29–31.

44Synopeas tosticola (Kozlov), male paratype (USNMENT00872135) 29 Lateral habitus 30 Head and mesosoma, dorsal view 31 Head, anterior view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 32–35.

4532 Synopeas tosticola, dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female paratype (USNMENT00872135) 33 Synopeas sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female (OSUC 266261) 34 Synopeas sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female (OSUC 334240) 30 Synopeas sp., dorsal mesosoma, lateral view, female (USNMENT00877326). Scale bars in millimeters.

Acknowledgements

We extend our thanks to: Sergey Belokobilskij (ZIN) for hosting a visit of the first author to the Zoological Institute and the loan of specimens that made this publication possible; Peter Buhl, Lars Vilhelmsen (ZMUC), Shepherd Myers (BPBM) and Martin Schwarz (BLGA) for specimen loans; Norman Johnson and Joe Cora (OSUC) for critical database support and making taxonomic literature available; Alexander Konstantinov (USDA/SEL) for translating Kozlov’s descriptions; Lubomír Masner (CNCI) for commentary on Platygastrinae; István Mikó (PSUC) for his input on morphological terms and the Teleasinae, David Notton (BMNH) for comments on Latin grammar, and Alexander Timokhov (MSU) for comments on nomenclature. This work was made possible by funding from the Systematic Entomology Lab, USDA-ARS, and the Beneficial Insect Introduction Research Laboratory. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.

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Endnotes