Research Article
Research Article
Synonymy of Kozlotelenomus Mineo, O’Connor & Ashe
expand article infoElijah J. Talamas, Matthew Buffington
‡ Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, United States of America
Open Access


Kozlotelenomus Mineo, O’Connor & Ashe, syn. n. is treated as junior synonym of Trissolcus Ashmead; Trissolcus mopsus (Nixon), comb. rev. is transferred from Kozlotelenomus.


Trissolcus mopsus , Trissolcus , Kozlotelenomus , synonymy, Platygastroidea , Telenominae


Numerous monotypic genera exist in Platygastroidea that were created for placement of autapomorphic species. A cladistic perspective on classification emphasizes shared characteristics for taxonomic placement, not derived characters found in a single species. However, many of these genera were erected with little regard for natural classification and did not include phylogenetic analyses to determine if these genera represent independent evolutionary lineages or a cladistic perspective. In the interest of generating a classification system based on monophyletic groups, and minimizing polyphyly, we examined the holotype specimen of T. mopsus to determine if its characters were unique within Telenominae, as posited by Mineo et al. (2009), and therefore indicative of a lineage separate from Trissolcus.

The contributions of the authors are as follows: E.J. Talamas: specimen examination, imaging, manuscript preparation; M. Buffington: manuscript preparation.

Materials and methods

The locality data reported for primary types are not literal transcriptions of the labels: some abbreviations are expanded; additional data from the collectors are also included. The numbers prefixed with “USNMENT” or “B.M. TYPE HYM. ” are unique identifiers for the individual specimens (note the blank space after some acronyms). Details on the data associated with these specimens may be accessed at the following link,, and entering the identifier in the form. The taxonomic synopses were generated by the Hymenoptera Online Database (

Photographs were captured with a Z16 Leica® lens with a JVC KY-F75U digital camera using Cartograph® software, or from a Leica® DMRB compound microscope with a GT-Vision® Lw11057C-SCI digital camera attached. In both systems, lighting was achieved using techniques summarized in Buffington et al. (2005), Kerr et al. (2009) and Buffington and Gates (2009). Single montage images were produced from image stacks with the program CombineZP®. In some cases, multiple montage images were stitched together in Photoshop to produce larger images at high resolution and magnification. Scanning electron micrographs were produced with a Hitachi® TM3000 desktop scanning electron microscope, and gold/palladium coated specimens were imaged at ‘analysis’ voltage, running in ‘compo’ mode. Full resolution images are archived at the image database at The Ohio State University ( and MorphBank (


This work is based on specimens deposited in the following repositories with abbreviations used in the text:

BMNH Natural History Museum, London, England

OSUC C.A. Triplehorn Insect Collection, Columbus, USA

USNM Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC, USA


Kozlotelenomus Mineo, O’Connor & Ashe, syn. n.

Kozlotelenomus Mineo, O’Connor & Ashe, 2009: 193 (original description. Type: Microphanurus mopsus Nixon, by monotypy and original designation).

Trissolcus mopsus (Nixon), comb. rev.

Figures 1–4, 5

Microphanurus mopsus Nixon, 1935: 96, 97 (original description, keyed); Nixon 1943: 137, 139 (diagnosis, keyed); Risbec 1950: 569, 636 (description, keyed); Risbec 1955: 196 (variation).

Trissolcus mopsus (Nixon): Masner 1965: 127 (type information, generic transfer).

Kozlotelenomus mopsus (Nixon): Mineo, O’Connor and Ashe 2009: 193 (description, generic transfer, distribution, host association).

Material examined

Holotype, female, M. mopsus: SOUTH AFRICA: Eastern Cape Prov., Pondoland, Port Saint John’s, 1.VII–9.VII.1923, R. E. Turner, B.M. TYPE HYM. 9.309 (deposited in BMNH)


Mineo, O’Connor and Ashe (2009) created the genus Kozlotelenomus on the basis of three characters in Trissolcus mopsus (Nixon) that in their estimation were not found elsewhere in Telenominae: an orbital furrow expanded at its intersection with the malar sulcus (Fig. 5, tear-drop collector sensu Mineo et al 2009), a “drill-shape mandible”, and a 3-2 palpal formula. We contend that these characters do not warrant placement in a separate genus for the following reasons: The ventrally expanded orbital furrow is known to occur in Trissolcus, particularly in the flavipes species group, and is present in the type species of Trissolcus, T. brochymenae (Fig. 6). The “drill-shape mandible” illustrated in Mineo et al (2009) has multiple teeth. The shape of mandibular teeth varies between species of Trissolcus (Figs 7–10) and we do not consider this variation to indicate a separate lineage at the generic level. Lastly, the drawing of the maxillo-labial complex in Mineo et al (2009) illustrates a 2-1 palpal formala with incorrect designation of the base of the palpi as segments. Consequently, all of the characters used to separate Kozlotelenomus from Trissolcus are found in Trissolcus.

Figures 1–4. 

Trissolcus mopsus, female holotype (B.M. TYPE HYM. 9.309) 1 head, mesosoma, metasoma, dorsal view 2 lateral habitus 3 head, anterior view 4 mesosoma, dorsolateral view. Scale bars in millimeters.

Figures 5–10. 

5 Trissolcus mopsus, female holotype (B.M. TYPE HYM. 9.309), head, dorsolateral view 6 T. brochymenae, female neotype (USNMENT00954611), head and mesosoma, lateral view 7 T. strabus, female (BMSB 1203), mouthparts, ventral view 8 T. gonopsidis, female (OSUC 542413), mouthparts, ventral view 9 Trissolcus sp. female (USNMENT00872666), mouthparts, ventral view 10 T. japonicus female (USNMENT00896000), mouthparts, ventral view. Scale bars in millimeters. Abbreviations: of, orbital furrow; ms, malar sulcus.


We are grateful to David Notton (BMNH) for the loan of the holotype of T. mopsus, to Luciana Musetti (OSUC) for the loan of T. gonopsidis, to Dylan Johnston-Jordan for SEM imaging, and to Norman Johnson and Joe Cora (OSUC) for database support and making taxonomic literature available. This work was made possible by funding from the Systematic Entomology Lab, USDA-ARS, and the Beneficial Insect Introduction Research Laboratory. Mention of trade names or commercial products in this publication is solely for the purpose of providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the USDA. USDA is an equal opportunity employer.


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