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New and little-known bees of the genus Hylaeus Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera, Colletidae) from the Caucasus region
expand article infoMaxim Yu. Proshchalykin, Holger H. Dathe§
‡ Far East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia
§ Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut, Müncheberg, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

New records on 32 species of the genus Hylaeus Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) from the Caucasus region are presented. Hylaeus alievi Dathe & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Azerbaijan. Eight species are newly recorded from the Caucasus: Hylaeus araxanus (Warncke, 1981), H. excelsus (Alfken, 1936), H. intermedius Förster, 1871, H. iranicus Dathe, 1980, H. kotschisus (Warncke, 1981), H. oblitus (Warncke, 1972), H. soror (Pérez, 1903), and H. trifidus (Alfken, 1936). In addition, ten species are newly recorded for Armenia, nine for Azerbaijan, four for Russia, and one for Georgia. An updated checklist of the 54 species of Hylaeus so far known from the Caucasus region is provided.

Keywords

Anthophila, Apiformes, fauna, new records, new species, Palaearctic

Introduction

The present study is the preliminarily last part of a series of papers dealing with the bees of the genus Hylaeus Fabricius, 1793 from the territory of the former Soviet Union (Proshchalykin and Dathe 2012, 2016a, 2016b; Dathe and Proshchalykin 2017, 2018; Proshchalykin 2017). Currently about 100 species are known from this area, but the Hylaeus fauna of the Caucasus region is particularly understudied.

The Caucasus region is a mountain area lying between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, representing part of the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. Geographically it is usually considered part of Western Asia, adjacent to northeastern Turkey and northwestern Iran. The northern edge of the Caucasus is known as the Ciscaucasus and the southern portion as the Transcaucasus. The Ciscaucasus contains the large majority of the Greater Caucasus Mountain range, also known as the Major Caucasus mountains. It includes the southern part of European Russia (Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory, Adygea Republic, Karachay-Cherkessia Republic, Ingushetia Republic, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic, North Ossetia Republic – Alania, Chechnya Republic, and Dagestan Republic) and northern parts of Georgia and Azerbaijan. The Transcaucasus is bordered in the north by Russia, in the west by the Black Sea and Turkey, in the east by the Caspian Sea, and in the south by Iran. It includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. All Armenia, Azerbaijan (excluding the northern parts) and Georgia (excluding the northern parts) are part of the South Caucasus (Kuhlmann and Proshchalykin 2016).

So far 45 Hylaeus species were recorded from the Caucasus (Ciscaucasus – 24; Transcaucasus – 45) (Dathe 1980a; Aliev 1986; Skhirtladze 2003; Kirkitadze and Japoshvili 2015; Ascher and Pickering 2021). Some Hylaeus records from Azerbaijan [H. duckei (Alfken, 1905), H. rinki (Gorski, 1852), H. diplonymus (Schulz, 1906) = H. taeniolatus Förster, 1871, H. absolutus (Gribodo, 1894) and H. gazagnairei (Vachal, 1891)] published by Aliev (1986) and Maharramov et al. (2015) are problematic, and these data are not included in the inventory list of Caucasian Hylaeus (Table 1).

Only two species of Hylaeus (H. ibex Morawitz, 1877 and H. rugicollis Morawitz, 1874) have been described on the basis of specimens from the Caucasus region by Morawitz (1874, 1877), but the discovery of a number of other species can be expected.

Based on a study of specimens in various collections, we here record specimen data of 32 species of Hylaeus, some of them rarely collected and little-known, with one species described as new, and nine species recorded from the Caucasus region for the first time. Including published records, a total of 54 species are now known from this region (Ciscaucasus – 30; Transcaucasus – 53) (Table 1).

Materials and methods

The results presented in this paper are based on 675 specimens newly collected in the Caucasus region and currently housed in the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg, Russia, ZISP); Federal Scientific Center of the East Asia Terrestrial Biodiversity, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok, Russia, FSCV); Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (Müncheberg, Germany, SDEI) and Institute of Bioresources of Nakhchivan Branch of National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan (Nakhchivan, Azerbaijan, IBNA).

Here we use the following abbreviations for collectors:

KA Kh. Aliyev;

MM M. Maharramov;

MO M. Mokrousov;

MP M. Proshchalykin;

VL V. Loktionov;

VR V. Rikhter;

VZ V. Zaitsev.

The records are first sorted alphabetically according to the countries, and then chronologically according to the locality.

For the species distribution, we use the following terms from a European perspective:

Asia minor Turkey (Asian part);

Near East Arab states (especially Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq and Iran), Israel;

Middle East Afghanistan, Pakistan;

Central Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan;

Far East Russian Far East; Mongolia, China and Japan are mentioned separately.

For detailed synonymy see Dathe and Proshchalykin (2018) and Özbek and Dathe (2020).

The specimens were studied with a stereomicroscope Olympus SZX12, the photos taken with a Leica Application Suite vs. 4.12. The stacks of digital images were processed using Helicon Focus 7.6.4.

List of species

Hylaeus (Abrupta) cornutus Curtis, 1831

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kolani, 24.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 2 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Gahab, 12.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Daridagh, 16.VI.2019, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 5 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Mediterranean to Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Dentigera) alievi Dathe & Proshchalykin, sp. nov.

Figures 1–8

Material examined

Holotype : ♂, Azerbaijan: Nakhchevan Autonomous Republic, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 39°31'N, 45°46'E, 1550 m, 18.VI.2019, M. Proshchalykin, Kh. Aliyev, M. Maharramov [FSCV]. Paratypes: ibid. 14.VI.2019 (4 ♂), 18.VI.2019 (3 ♂), 24.–25.VII.2018 (1 ♂); Sharur, Akhura 39°33'N, 45°13'E, 1640 m, 13.VI.2019 (4 ♂); Shakhbuz, Gizil Gishlag, 39°28'N, 45°35'E, 1460 m, 19.VI.2019 (1 ♂); leg. M. Proshchalykin, Kh. Aliyev, M. Maharramov [FSCV/SDEI].

Diagnosis

This is a small species of the brevicornis group with a short head. In the species of this group (Dathe 1980b: 232; Michener 2007: 204) the metasomal terga are distinctly shagreen and densely punctate; particularly characteristic is the genital capsule of males with curved penis valves with basal tooth in dorsal view (Fig. 8). This male is hardly separable using conventional characters from similar species with a strongly thickened scape and blunt bicuspid transverse callus on S3. However, the peculiar shape of apical lobes of S7, with long bristles, is unique in the group. The female is unknown.

Description

Male. Number of specimens: 14. Total length 4.3–4.9 (mean 4.60) mm, wing length 2.7–3.3 (3.10) mm. — Head (Figs 1, 2) proportions: head length to width ratio 0.87–0.94 (mean 0.91), upper face width to lower face width ratio 1.42–1.59 (1.49); outline rounded-trapezoid. Pilosity short and sparse. Scapes black, laterally with expanded bright yellow area; strongly dilated, scape length to width ratio 1.22–1.59 (1.49). Flagella relatively short, blackened above, yellow below. Mask complete, white, side patch expanded beyond upper margin of scape base, pointed toward orbits. Foveae faciales short, close to the upper margin of the eye. Clypeus length to width ratio 1.11–1.21 (1.16); surface flat, silky-shiny, shagreen with shallow, sparse punctation, anterior margin black. Supraclypeal area white, black on the tip only, transition to the frons fluid. Frons and vertex shagreen with subcontiguous fine punctation; posterior of vertex punctured more coarsely and sparsely. Genae streaked with elongated punctation; occiput rounded; malae very narrow. Labrum black, the bifid mandibles black with brown tips. — Mesosoma (Figs 2–4). Oval, rounded; pilosity reduced, thorax and propodeum sparsely short-haired, also on underside. Coloration black, pronotum with yellow strip that can be narrowly interrupted in the middle, pronotal lobes (calli) totally, tegulae on anterior half yellow. Pronotum somewhat expanded, anterior margin narrow in the middle, dorsolateral angles blunt. Mesonotum (Fig. 2) shagreen, hardly shiny, punctation moderate, dense; scutellum posteriorly with coarser and more scattered punctation; mesopleura (Fig. 4) with punctation somewhat more disperse, anterior margin rounded. Legs black, with yellow anterior surface of foretibiae, base and tips of other tibiae as well as basitarsi, and white second tarsomere; remaining tarsomeres blackened; wings clear, venation brown. Propodeum (Fig. 3) rounded; basal area sharply net-wrinkled, shiny, laterally demarcated by a row of meshes; lateral areas finely wrinkled, matt; terminal area with finely sculptured surface, glossy, propodeal furrow narrow. — Metasoma (Figs 2, 5) cylindrical, coloration black. T1 strongly shagreen, matt with dull lustre, punctation fine, close; T2 and following terga more finely and densely punctate; lateral parts of terga with narrow fringes of cilia. S3 with an obliquely raised bicuspid transverse callus (Fig. 5). Terminalia (Figs 6–8): S7 with triangular apical lobes, laterally with six distinct long bristles on each lobus; S8 rhombiform, weakly sclerotized, apically with only a short, obtusely angled tip; genital capsule of the normal template; penis valves of brevicornis scheme, but only slightly curved and quite close together, in dorsal view shorter than the gonoforcipes.

Figures 1–8. 

Hylaeus (Dentigera) alievi Dathe & Proshchalykin, sp. nov., holotype, male 1 head, frontal view 2 habitus, dorsal view 3 propodeum 4 mesopleuron 5 metasterna with bicuspid transverse callus on S3 6 sternum 7 7 sternum 8 8 copulatory capsule. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

We dedicate the new species to our friend and colleague Dr. Khalid Ali Aliyev (1949–2019) in his honorable memory. He added significantly to the knowledge of the bee fauna of Transcaucasia and was actively involved in the expeditions which yielded the material assessed here.

Distribution

Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan AR).

Hylaeus (Dentigera) breviceps Morawitz, 1876

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, Berdadzor River, Zoo, 16.VI.1959, (2 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (19 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; idem, 14.VI.2019, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 6 km SW of Gubden vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Kufa vill., 6 km NW of Rutul, 1.VII.2018, (11 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Central Asia, China.

Remarks

Hylaeus araxanus is herein recorded from Russia (Dagestan Rep.) and Armenia for the first time.

Hylaeus (Dentigera) imparilis Förster, 1871

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (4 ♂); idem, 8.IX.1962, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (4 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (25 ♀, 15 ♂); idem, 14.VI.2019, (3 ♀, 3 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Julfa, Gazanchi, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (4 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 30.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Gahab, 12.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (3 ♀, 2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Dize, 20.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., Derbent, 28–29.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

West Palaearctic, Circum-Mediterranean, Asia Minor, Iran.

Remarks

Hylaeus imparilis is herein recorded from Russia (Dagestan Rep.) and Armenia for the first time.

Hylaeus (Dentigera) intermedius Förster, 1871

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, Berdadzor River, Zoo, 16.VI.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Ekhegnadzorsky distr., Kavushug, 12.VII.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Megri, 16.VIII.1959, (2 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 3 ♂); idem, 14.VI.2019, (3 ♀, 1 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019 (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018 , (5 ♀, 3 ♂); idem, 17.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (10 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 22 km SW of Terekli-Mekteb, 21.VI.2018, (2 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Central Europe, Circum-Mediterranean and Black Sea countries.

Remarks

Hylaeus imparilis is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Dentigera) kahri Förster, 1871

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, 12.VI.1961, (1 ♀); idem, 14–20.VIII.1962, (2 ♀, 1 ♂); idem, 8.IX.1962, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (3 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kolani, 24.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (26 ♀, 6 ♂); idem, 14.VI.2019, (12 ♀, 19 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (16 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Teyvaz, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Western Europe to Iran; Mediterranean and Black Sea countries.

Remarks

Hylaeus kahri is herein recorded from Armenia for the first time.

Hylaeus (Dentigera) pallidicornis Morawitz, 1876

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (9 ♀); idem, 30.VII 2018, (2 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kolani, 24.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (3 ♀); idem, 18.VI.2019, (2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Julfa, Gulistan, 26.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, Sirab, 10.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Daridagh, 16.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 17.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Ukraine, Southern Russia, Caucasus, Central Asia, China.

Remarks

Hylaeus pallidicornis is herein recorded from Azerbaijan for the first time.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) angustatus (Schenck, 1861)

Material examined

Russia: Dagestan Rep., 22 km SW of Terekli-Mekteb, 21.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Kufa vill., 6 km NW of Rutul, 1.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Palaearctic (North Africa, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Near East, Central Asia, China, Siberia).

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) araxanus (Warncke, 1981)

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, Berdadzor River, Zoo, 16.VI.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Asia Minor, Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia.

Remarks

Hylaeus araxanus is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) communis Nylander, 1852

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (3 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kolani, 24.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (1 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Bayahmad, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Holarctic.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) kotschisus (Warncke, 1981)

Material examined

Armenia: Ashtarak, Kasakh River, 25.V.1961, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (5 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., near Kufa vill., 6 km NW of Rutul, 1.VII.2018, MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

East Mediterranean, Caucasus, Asia Minor.

Remarks

Hylaeus kotschisus is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) leptocephalus (Morawitz, 1871)

Material examined

Armenia: Megri, 16.VIII.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Bayahmad, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gazanchi, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 20 km W of Makhachkala, Barkhan Sarykum, 23–24.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Palaearctic (Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia).

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) moricei (Friese, 1898)

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (♀, ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Julfa, Bayahmad, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (2 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 8 km SE of Staroterechnoe vill., 19.VI.2018, (5 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) oblitus (Warncke, 1972)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Central Asia, Mongolia, China.

Remarks

Hylaeus oblitus is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) scutellaris Morawitz, 1874

Material examined

Armenia: Megri, 16.VIII.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Julfa, Milakh, 27.VII.2018, (1 ♂); idem, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 14.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (4 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 3 km SW of Novoterechnoe vill., 20.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; 20 km W of Makhachkala, Barkhan Sarykum, 26.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Southeastern Europe, Caucasus, Asia Minor, Middle East and Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) tardus (Warncke, 1981)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (2 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (4 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Babek, Sirab, 10.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, 3 km NE of Sirab, 21.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Asia Minor, Iran.

Hylaeus (Hylaeus) trifidus (Alfken, 1936)

Material examined

Armenia: Megri, 16.VIII.1959, (3 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Erevan, 14–20.VIII.1962, (5 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

East Mediterranean, Caucasus, Asia Minor.

Remarks

Hylaeus trifidus is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Koptogaster) punctulatissimus Smith, 1842

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 14.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

West Palaearctic, Asia Minor.

Hylaeus (Lambdopsis) dilatatus (Kirby, 1802)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., Derbent, 28–29.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) lineolatus (Schenck, 1861)

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, 12.VI.1961, (1 ♀); idem, 14–20.VIII.1962, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Megri, 6.VIII.1959, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Batabat, 24.VII 2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 3 ♂); idem, 14.VI.2019, (4 ♀, 6 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Goydara, 26.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (4 ♀, 2 ♂); idem, 17.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kechili, 19.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 20 km W of Makhachkala, Barkhan Sarykum, 23–24.VI.2018, (2 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; Derbent, 28–29.VI.2018, (2 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Near East, Central Asia.

Remarks

Hylaeus lineolatus is herein recorded from Armenia for the first time.

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) sinuatus (Schenck, 1853)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Georgia: Bashiya from S to Verkhny Omalo, 18.VII.1959, (3 ♀, 25 ♂), VZ [ZISP].

Distribution

Europe, Russia, Asia Minor, Iran.

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) soror (Pérez, 1903)

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, Berdadzor River, Zoo, 16.VI.1959, (4 ♀, 4 ♂); idem, 14–20.VIII.1962, (1 ♀, 4 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Ashtarak, Kasakh River, 25.V.1961, (1 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (4 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Julfa, Gazanchi, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

West Palaearctic, Asia Minor.

Remarks

Hylaeus soror is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) styriacus Förster, 1871

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VI. 2018, (4 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (2 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 14.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Europe, West Asian Russia, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Near Asia, Iran.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) excelsus (Alfken, 1936)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Badamli, 19.VI.2019, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Asia Minor, Near East, Caucasus, Iran.

Remarks

Hylaeus excelsus is herein recorded from the Caucasus (Azerbaijan) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) hyrcanius Dathe, 1980

Material examined

Armenia: Megri, 16.VIII.1959, (6 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Ashtarak, Kasakh River, 25.V.1961, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., 8 km SE of Staroterechnoe vill., 19.VI.2018, (2 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; 20 km W of Makhachkala, Barkhan Sarykum, 26.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Iran.

Remarks

Hylaeus hyrcanius is herein recorded from Armenia for the first time.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) meridionalis Förster, 1871

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Batabat, 24.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, 3 km NE of Sirab, 10.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, Payiz, 11.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 17.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Kechili, 19.VI.2019, (5 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV/IBNA]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., Izberbash, 27.VI.2018, MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Southern West Palaearctic, Caucasus, Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) rugicollis Morawitz, 1874

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Shakhbuzkend, 22.VII.2018, (4 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gazanchi, 27.VII.2018, (2 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, Payiz, 11.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Goynuk, 12.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Milakh, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Teyvaz, 15.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, 3 km NE of Sirab, 21.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Southeast Europe, Southwest Russia, Asia Minor, Near East, Caucasus, Iran, Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) signatus (Panzer, 1798)

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, Sirab, 10.VI.2019, (8 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, 3 km NE of Sirab, 12.VI.2019, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Gahab, 12.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Daridagh, 16.VI.2019, (6 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, 5 km N of Dize, 20.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Russia: Dagestan Rep., near Talgi vill., 25.VI.2018, (1 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Kufa vill., 6 km NW of Rutul, 1.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 2 ♂), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

North Africa, Europe, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Central Asia.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) variegatus (Fabricius, 1798)

Material examined

Armenia: Ekhegnadzorsky distr., Kavushug, 12.VII.1959, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Shaumyansky distr., Parakar, 3.VII.1981, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 24–25.VII.2018, (2 ♀, 2 ♂); idem, 14.VI.2019, (3 ♀, 8 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 28.VII.2018, (2 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Nurgut, 29.VII.2018, (1 ♀, 1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gazanchi, 15.VI.2019, (5 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Julfa, Gulistan, 16.VI.2019, (3 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Ordubad, Aghdara, 17.VI.2019, (23 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Georgia: Bashiya from S to Verkhny Omalo, 18.VII.1959, (1 ♀), VZ [ZISP].

Distribution

Transpalaearctic, from North Africa to Russian Far East, including Mongolia and China.

Hylaeus (Prosopis) variolaris Morawitz, 1876

Material examined

Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Asia Minor.

Hylaeus (Spatulariella) iranicus Dathe, 1980

Material examined

Russia: Dagestan Rep., Derbent, 28–29.VI.2018, (1 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV]; near Kufa vill., 6 km NW of Rutul, 1.VII.2018, (2 ♀), MP, VL, MO [FSCV].

Distribution

Caucasus, Asia Minor, Iran.

Remarks

Hylaeus iranicus is herein recorded from Russia (Dagestan Rep.) for the first time.

Hylaeus (Spatulariella) longimacula (Alfken, 1936)

Material examined

Armenia: Erevan, Berdadzor River, Zoo, 16.VI.1959, (3 ♀); idem, 14–20.VIII.1962, (1 ♀, 5 ♂), VR [ZISP]; Ashtarak, Kasakh River, 25.V.1961, (1 ♀), VR [ZISP]; Azerbaijan: Nakhichevan AR, Shakhbuz, Kechili, 22.VII.2018, (1 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Babek, Sirab, 10.VI.2019, (2 ♀), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Sharur, Akhura, 13.VI.2019, (2 ♀, 9 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Shakhbuz, Zarnatun, 14.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 6 ♂); idem, 18.VI.2019, (1 ♀, 5 ♂), MP, KA, MM [FSCV]; Georgia: Tbilisi, 10.VI.1959, (2 ♀), VZ [ZISP]; Bashiya from S to Verkhny Omalo, 18.VII.1959, (2 ♂), VZ [ZISP].

Distribution

North Africa, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Near East, Central Asia.

Remarks

Hylaeus longimacula is herein recorded from Georgia for the first time.

Conclusion

In total, 54 species of Hylaeus are recorded from the Caucasus (Table 1). This is a comparable number to the Iranian fauna – 52 species (Ascher and Pickering 2021), but distinctly less in comparison with the adjacent fauna of Turkey – 86 species (Özbek and Dathe 2020), and Central Asia – 70 species (Dathe and Proshchalykin 2018). The real number of species of Hylaeus in the Caucasus may be at least one third more. Further studies will certainly reveal many species new not only to Caucasian fauna but also to science.

Table 1.

Checklist of the Hylaeus bees of the Caucasus.

No. Hylaeus species Ciscaucasus Transcaucasus
Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia
1 H. alievi Dathe & Proshchhalykin, sp. nov.
2 H. angustatus (Schenck, 1861) ○●
3 H. annulatus (Linnaeus, 1758)
4 H. araxanus (Warncke, 1981)
5 H. armeniacus (Warncke, 1981)
6 H. bifasciatus (Jurine, 1807)
7 H. breviceps Morawitz, 1876 ○●
8 H. brevicornis Nylander, 1852
9 H. clypearis (Schenck, 1853)
10 H. communis Nylander, 1852
11 H. confusus Nylander, 1852
12 H. cornutus Curtis, 1831 ○●
13 H. difformis (Eversmann, 1852)
14 H. dilatatus (Kirby, 1802) ○● ○●
15 H. euryscapus Förster, 1871
16 H. excelsus (Alfken, 1936)
17 H. gibbus Saunders, 1850
18 H. gracilicornis (Morawitz, 1867)
19 H. gredleri Förster, 1871
20 H. hungaricus (Alfken, 1905)
21 H. hyalinatus Smith, 1842
22 H. hyrcanius Dathe, 1980 ○●
23 H. ibex Morawitz, 1877
24 H. imparilis Förster, 1871 ○●
25 H. incongruus Förster, 1871
26 H. intermedius Förster, 1871
27 H. iranicus Dathe, 1980
28 H. kahri Förster, 1871 ○●
29 H. kotschisus (Warncke, 1981)
30 H. leptocephalus (Morawitz, 1871) ○● ○● ○●
31 H. lineolatus (Schenck, 1861) ○● ○●
32 H. longimacula (Alfken, 1936) ○● ○●
33 H. meridionalis Förster, 1871 ○● ○●
34 H. moricei (Friese, 1898) ○● ○● ○●
35 H. nigritus (Fabricius, 1798)
36 H. oblitus (Warncke, 1972)
37 H. pallidicornis Morawitz, 1876
38 H. pectoralis Förster, 1871
39 H. pfankuchi (Alfken, 1919)
40 H. pictipes Nylander, 1852
41 H. pictus (Smith, 1853)
42 H. punctatus (Brullé, 1832)
43 H. punctulatissimus Smith, 1842 ○●
44 H. rugicollis Morawitz, 1874 ○●
45 H. scutellaris Morawitz, 1874 ○● ○● ○●
46 H. scutellatus (Spinola, 1838)
47 H. signatus (Panzer, 1798) ○●
48 H. sinuatus (Schenck, 1853) ○● ○●
49 H. soror (Pérez, 1903)
50 H. styriacus Förster, 1871 ○●
51 H. tardus (Warncke, 1981) ○●
52 H. trifidus (Alfken, 1936)
53 H. variegatus (Fabricius, 1798) ○● ○● ○●
54 H. variolaris Morawitz, 1876 ○●
Total: 30 27 48 26
53

It would be worthwhile to examine the Caucasus more closely also with regard to its zoogeographic features. From the genus Hylaeus, various elements of the Western Palaearctic, Near East and Central Asian faunas come together here. Genetic evidence from various animal groups had shown that glacial refugia existed in the Caucasus, from which parts of the Western Palaearctic were colonised postglacially, similarly to colonisation of large areas of Eastern Europe from the Ciscaucasus (Schmitt 2020).

We provide new information in support of this view (Table 1). Besides widespread Palaearctic species such as Hylaeus communis, H. angustatus, H. moricei or H. variegatus, representatives from the Mediterranean and Near East such as H. imparilis, H. meridionalis, H. lineolatus, H. longimacula, as well as Central Asian species such as H. breviceps, H. oblitus or H. hungaricus were found in the area. All this points to an intermediate character of the Caucasian fauna between several zoogeographical regions. However, a detailed faunistic analysis of the genus Hylaeus in the Caucasus is not yet possible, since a considerable number of its members apparently remains unrecorded for this area. This is also shown by the relatively numerous new records, eight for the Caucasus alone – H. araxanus (Warncke, 1981), H. excelsus (Alfken, 1936), H. intermedius Förster, 1871, H. iranicus Dathe, 1980, H. kotschisus (Warncke, 1981), H. oblitus (Warncke, 1972), H. soror (Pérez, 1903), and H. trifidus (Alfken, 1936) – as well as for individual countries, with ten species new for Armenia, nine for Azerbaijan, four for Russia, and one for Georgia.

Acknowledgements

We thank our friend Arkady Lelej, a great and well-known Russian entomologist, for his permanent support and collaboration on the Hymenoptera studies, and express our best wishes for his 75th anniversary.

We also thank Mahir Maharramov (IBNA), Valery Loktionov (FSCV), Mikhail Mokrousov (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia), and the late Khalid Aliyev (Baku, Azerbaijan) for their help during field work in the Caucasus as well as to the guest editor (Vladimir Gokhman, Moscow, Russia) and four reviewers (Michael Kuhlmann, Kiel, Germany; Yulia Astafurova, St. Petersburg, Russia; Ryuki Murao, Fukuoka, Japan and Shuichi Ikudome, Kagoshima, Japan) for their valuable comments, which helped to improve the quality of this paper. Andrew Liston (SDEI) is thanked for his language check of this manuscript.

The Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturfoschung (SGN), Frankfurt am Main, generously supported HHD’s contribution to this paper.

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