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Research Article
Three new species and two new records of the genus Phaenocarpa Foerster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from South Korea
expand article infoJu-Hyeong Sohn, Cornelis van Achterberg§, Gyeonghyeon Lee, Hyojoong Kim
‡ Kunsan National University, Gunsan, Republic of Korea
§ Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

The species of the genus Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1863 (Braconidae: Alysiinae) from South Korea are revised, and the genus is recorded for the first time from South Korea. Three species, Phaenocarpa artotemporalis sp. nov., P. brachyura sp. nov. and P. lobata sp. nov., are new to Science, and two species, P. masha Belokobylskij, 1998 and P. fidelis Fischer, 1970, are newly recognized in South Korea. They are described and illustrated herein with a provision of the identification key to the Korean species. In addition, the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) has been analyzed for the six species including P. ruficeps for genetic comparison.

Keywords

COI barcode, cyclostome, koinobiont, natural enemy, parasitoid wasp, systematics, taxonomy

Introduction

The subfamily Alysiinae is a relatively large taxon among the family Braconidae, and is subdivided into two tribes; the tribes Alysiini with 76 genera and Dacnusini with 31 genera (Yu et al. 2016). The two tribes are distinguished by the presence (or absence) of fore wing vein r-m as a main key character (Shaw and Huddleston 1991). Alysiinae occurs worldwide and contains over 2,440 valid species (Yu et al. 2016), of which 180 species in 21 genera are listed in the National Species List of South Korea (NIBR 2019). This group is known as koinobiont endoparasitoids of dipterous larvae, using their mandible (with three or four teeth, rarely more or less) to break open the puparium of the host. Some of them, such as Dacnusa sibirica in Dacnusini, are commercially utilized in biological control for Liriomyza trifolii (Abd-Rabou 2006).

The genus Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1863 is a large and worldwide distributed genus of Alysiinae, which includes 228 species with nine subgenera (Yu et al. 2016; Zhu et al. 2017). Phaenocarpa species are known as koinobiont endoparasitoids, mainly in larvae of Dipteran species of Anthomyiidae, Chloropidae, Clusiidae, Drosophilidae, Muscidae, Scathophagidae, Sciomyzidae, Syrphidae and Muscidae (Wharton 1984; van Achterberg 1998, 2009).

In the Korea, Papp (1968, 1994) has recorded four species thus far; Phaenocarpa (Discphaenocarpa) angustipera Papp, 1968, P. (Phaenocarpa) eunice (Haliday, 1838), P. (P.) picinervis (Haliday, 1838) and P. (P.) ruficeps (Nees, 1812). In this study, we present new morphological characters and the barcoding sequences of the COI region of three new species (P. artotemporalis sp. nov., P. brachyura sp. nov. and P. lobata sp. nov.) and two newly recorded species (P. masha Belokobylskij, 1998, P. fidelis Fischer, 1970) plus one previously recorded species, P. ruficeps. Descriptions, diagnoses, an identification key and photographs of the diagnostic characters are also provided.

Materials and methods

Samples used in this study were collected with Malaise traps in South Korea at the DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do. Sorting and preparation were done at the Animal Systematics Lab. (ASL), Department of Biology, Kunsan National University (KSNU) at Gunsan. For morphological identification, Wharton et al. (1997) and Zhu et al. (2017) were used. Morphological characters were observed with a Leica M205C stereo microscope. The Taxapad database (Yu et al. 2016) was used for references. We followed the terminology of Wharton (2002) and van Achterberg (1993). The type specimens are deposited KNA (Korea National Arboretum).

A Leica DMC2900 digital camera and a Leica M205 C microscope (Leica Geosystems AG) were used for photography and several pictures being taken for each height using multi-focusing technology. LAS V4.11 (Leica Geosystems AG) and HeliconFocus 7 (Helicon Soft) software were used for stacking work. After stacking work, illustrations were created using Adobe Photoshop CS6.

Extraction of DNA was done in ASL, KSNU. Whole genomic DNA was extracted from the specimens by using a DNeasy Blood & Tissue kit (QIAGEN Inc., Dusseldorf, Germany) following the manufacturer’s protocol. In order to conserve morphologically complete voucher specimens, DNA extraction method was used slightly modified from ‘non-destructive method’ by Favret (2005) and ‘freezing method’ by Yaakop et al. (2009). In the original protocol, the sample was crushed or wounded, and then soaked with 180 μl of buffer ATL + 20 μl of proteinase, following by three hours over incubation at 55 °C. In the slightly modified DNA extraction methods, samples were soaked with 180 μl of buffer ATL + 20 μl of proteinase K without destroying the sample, followed by 10 minutes incubation at 55 °C and then kept in a freezer at -22 °C overnight. After that the general protocol was used for the remaining steps. The primer set of LCO-1490 (5’-GGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGG-3’) and HCO-2198 (5’-TAAACTTCAGGGTGACCAAAAAATCA-3’) was used to amplify approximately 658 bp as the partial front region of the COI. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were amplified by using AccuPowerH PCR PreMix (BIONEER, Corp., Daejeon) in 20 μl reaction mixtures containing 0.4 μM of each primer, 20 μM of the dNTPs, 20 μM of the MgCl2, and 0.05 μg of the genomic DNA template. PCR amplification was performed using a GS1 thermo-cycler (Gene Technologies, Ltd., U.K) according to the following procedure: initial denaturation at 95 °C for 5 min, followed by 34 cycles at 94 °C for 35 sec; an annealing temperature of 48 °C for 25 sec; an extension at 72 °C for 45 sec, and a final extension at 72 °C for 5 min. The PCR products were visualized by electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel. A single band was observed, purified using a QIAquick PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, Inc.), and then sequenced directly using an automated sequencer (ABI Prism 3730 XL DNA Analyzer) at Macrogen Inc. (Seoul, South Korea).

Sequence alignment was performed in MEGA version 7 (Kumar et al. 2016) with ClustalW tool. To estimate the pairwise genetic distances, the P-distance model was conducted using MEGA version 7.

Results

A total of 589 bp of the COI fragments were sequenced from P. fidelis, P. masha, P. lobata sp. nov., P. artotemporalis sp. nov., P. brachyura sp. nov., P. ruficeps, which were deposited in GenBank (accession numbers MZ318083MZ318088). Pairwise distances were estimated by using the P-distance model with the option for pairwise deletion. As results, the morphologically very similar P. artotemporalis sp. nov. showed a large genetic difference by 12% either from P. brachyura sp. nov. or from P. lobata sp. nov. In addition, P. brachyura sp. nov. differed by 7% from P. lobata sp. nov.

Table 1.

COI pairwise genetic distances between the Phaenocarpa species known from South Korea.

Phaenocarpa fidelis Phaenocarpa masha Phaenocarpa lobata Phaenocarpa artotemporalis Phaenocarpa brachyura Phaenocarpa ruficeps
Phaenocarpa fidelis 0.00
Phaenocarpa masha 0.122 0.00
Phaenocarpa lobata 0.053 0.126 0.00
Phaenocarpa artotemporalis 0.124 0.151 0.127 0.00
Phaenocarpa brachyura 0.071 0.136 0.071 0.122 0.00
Phaenocarpa ruficeps 0.097 0.121 0.087 0.139 0.107 0.00

Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1863

Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1863: 267; Papp 1968: 570; Fischer 1970: 409; Shenefelt 1974: 1003; Wharton 1980: 96; Chen and Wu 1994: 114; Belokobylskij 1998: 233. Type species: Alysia picinervis Haliday, 1838.

Synonymy

Homophyla Foerster, 1863 (subgenus); Mesothesis Foerster, 1863; Sathra Foerster, 1863; Idiolexis Foerster, 1863 (subgenus); Asynaphes Provancher, 1886; Kahlia Ashmead, 1900 (subgenus); Stiralysia Cameron, 1910; Rhopaloneura Stelfox, 1941; Discphaenocarpa Belokobylskij, 1998 (subgenus); Neophaenocarpa Belokobylskij, 1998 (subgenus); Sibphaenocarpa Belokobylskij, 1998 (subgenus); Uncphaenocarpa Belokobylskij, 1998 (subgenus); Ussurphaenocarpa Belokobylskij, 1998 (subgenus); Clistalysia Zhu, van Achterberg & Chen, 2017 (subgenus).

Diagnosis

Third antennal segment shorter than fourth segment; fore wing vein 2–SR shorter than vein 3–SR, vein CU1b longer than vein 3–CU1.

Biology

Koinobiont endoparasitoids of larvae of Dipteran species (Wharton 1984).

Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Identification key to the Korean Phaenocarpa species

1 Temples distinctly striate ventrally; mesopleuron largely coarsely sculptured; face laterally extensively and finely striate; [wing membrane distinctly infuscate] P. angustiptera Papp, 1968
Temples smooth ventrally; mesopleuron largely smooth, except for area of precoxal sulcus; face laterally smooth or nearly so 2
2 Vein r-m of fore wing bordered with blackish setae, resulting in an infuscated patch P. picinervis (Haliday, 1838)
Vein r-m of fore wing normal, not bordered with blackish setae (Fig. 6C) 3
3 Mandible very slender, approx. 2.3 times longer than wide P. eunice (Haliday, 1838)
Mandible more robust, at most 1.9 times longer than wide (Fig. 6L) 4
4 Scutellar sulcus evenly narrowed medially, 3–5 times wider than its median length (Fig. 6F); head more or less reddish or yellowish brown (Fig. 6D) P. ruficeps (Nees, 1812)
Scutellar sulcus wide medially, 2–3 times wider than long medially (Fig. 4F); head dark brown or black (Fig. 1D) 5
5 First tooth of mandible gradually connected to second tooth, forming a straight or arcuate connection (Fig. 4L); first metasomal tergite subparallel-sided, 1.7–2.0 times longer than its apical width (Fig. 4H); [ovipositor sheath as long as hind tibia] P. fidelis Fischer, 1970
First tooth of mandible separated from second tooth by incision (Fig. 1L); first tergite gradually widened posteriorly, 1.1–1.8 times longer than its apical width (Figs 1H, 2H, 3H) 6
6 Eye in dorsal view 4.0–4.5 times as long as temple (Fig. 1D); propleuron reddish brown (Fig. 1F); notauli reduced posteriorly (Fig. 1G) P. artotemporalis sp. nov.
Eye in dorsal view 2.0–3.0 times as long as temple (Fig. 2D); propleuron black or orange brown (Fig. 2F); notauli usually complete (up to medio-posterior depression (Fig. 2G) or nearly so 7
7 Mandible subparallel-sided (Fig. 2L); ovipositor sheath approx. 0.7 times as long as hind tibia (Fig. 2I); first metasomal tergite slenderer, approx. 1.4 times longer than its apical width (Fig. 2H) P. brachyura sp. nov.
Mandible distinctly widened dorsally (Fig. 5L); ovipositor sheath 1.2–1.3 times as long as hind tibia (Fig. 5I); first tergite very robust, 1.1–1.2 times longer than its apical width (Fig. 5H) 8
8 Tarsal claws slender (Fig. 5J); third and fourth antennal segments dark brown and slender (Fig. 5B); metanotum more or less tooth-shaped protruding dorsally in lateral view (Fig. 5G); pterostigma approx. 4.2 times longer than wide (Fig. 5C); middle tooth of mandible not widened dorsally (Fig. 5L) P. masha Belokobylskij, 1998
Tarsal claws robust (Fig. 3J); third and fourth antennal segments yellow and robust (Fig. 3B); metanotum obtuse dorsally in lateral view (Fig. 3F); pterostigma approx. 5.5 times longer than wide (Fig. 3C); middle tooth of mandible widened dorsally (Fig. 3L) P. lobata sp. nov.

Phaenocarpa artotemporalis Sohn & van Achterberg, sp. nov.

Figure 1A–L

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (KNA), South Korea, DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, 38°15'09.3"N, 128°06'40.6"E, 08–21.VIII.2017, Shin, Kim. GenBank accession no. MZ318086 for the barcoding sequence of the COI region

Comparative diagnosis

Differs from other species in the group of Phaenocarpa species by notauli reduced posteriorly by having the eye in dorsal view 4.0–4.5 times as long as temple (2.0–3.0 times in other species). Closely related to P. brachyura sp. nov., for differences see key above.

Description

Holotype, ♀: length of body in lateral view 2.0 mm, length of antenna 3.2 mm, and length of fore wing 2.6 mm.

Colour. Body (Fig. 1A) entirely reddish brown; antenna brown basally, medially dark brown, Mandible pale orange.

Figure 1. 

Phaenocarpa artotemporalis sp. nov., ♀ A body B antennae C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and metasoma, dorsal I ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Head. Head (Fig. 1D) width 1.9 times median length in dorsal view. Antenna (Fig. 1B) 1.6 times longer than body in female, 25-segmented. Fourth segment 1.5 times longer than third segment, 1.2 times longer than fifth segment. Eye slightly oval, 1.1 times as long as wide in lateral view. Width of face (Fig. 1E) 1.6 times its height from ventral rim of antennal sockets to upper margin of clypeus; face with long setae. Eye in dorsal view 4.2 times as long as temple. Ocello-ocular line (OOL) 3.4 times longer than diameter of anterior ocellus; OOL:antero-posterior ocellar line (AOL):postero-ocellar line (POL)= 15:4:6. Stemmaticum concave. Vertex smooth and polish with fine groove. Mandible with three teeth (Fig. 1L); second tooth narrow and sharp with dark brown tip and separated from first tooth by incision. Labrum 2.5 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp 0.7 times longer than mesosoma.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma 1.9 times longer than wide in dorsal view. Mesosoma (Fig. 1G) with medio-posterior depression; notauli reduced posteriorly; scutellar sulcus with two carinae; small basal bump on hind coxa. Propodeum (Fig. 1H) entirely smooth, propodeal areola with bumpy sculpture; precoxal sulcus (Fig. 1F) distinct, with about five crenulae. Fore wing (Fig. 1C) 2.3 times as long as wide; pterostigma long and narrow, 4.4 times longer than wide; vein r of fore wing 2.0 times longer than wide; vein 1-SR+M slightly bent; 2-SR+M sclerotized; 1-SR+M:2-SR+M = 10:4; vein 2-SR:vein r:vein 3-SR = 12:3:24; first subdiscal cell of fore wing ca 0.9 times longer than wide.

Leg. Hind coxa compressed, grooved and 1.4 times longer than hind trochanter; hind femur 0.8 times longer than hind tibia; hind tibia 1.2 times longer than hind tarsus.

Metasoma. First tergite widened posteriorly, striate, and 1.8 times longer than its apical width; T1:T2 = 32:36. Setose part of ovipositor sheath (Fig. 1I) 1.4 times longer than mesosoma, 1.3 times as long as hind tibia and with long setae.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

South Korea.

Etymology

From “artus/arctus” (Latin for narrow) and “tempus” (Latin for area behind eyes) because of the enlarged temples.

Phaenocarpa brachyura Sohn & van Achterberg, sp. nov.

Figure 2A–L

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (KNA), South Korea, DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, 38°15'09.3"N, 128°06'40.6"E, 21.VIII–05.IX.2017, Shin, Kim. GenBank accession no. MZ318087 for the barcoding sequence of the COI region

Comparative diagnosis

Runs to the East Palaearctic P. basarukini Belokobylskij, 1998 and to the West Palaearctic P. curticauda van Achterberg, 1998 because of the short ovipositor sheath (approx. 0.7 times as long as hind tibia). The new species differs from P. basarukini by the slightly longer ovipositor sheath (0.5–0.6 times as long as hind tibia in P. basarukini), first mandibular tooth distinctly lobe-shaped and middle tooth slenderer, pterostigma and hind femur wider. Differs from P. curticauda by the wider pterostigma, longer 1r-m of hind wing and 1-CU1 of fore wing, second tooth less widened dorsally, complete notauli, first tergite 1.4 times longer than its apical width and areola of propodeum wider.

Colour. Head black, around eye brown; antenna yellowish brown; mandible brown and apically dark brown. First tergite dark brown and mesonotum entirely black.

Head. Head (Fig. 2D) width 1.6 times median length in dorsal view. Antenna (Fig. 2B) twice as long as body, 41 segmented. Fourth segment 1.4 times longer than third segment and 1.2 times longer than fifth segment. Eye slightly oval, 1.2 times as long as wide in lateral view. Width of face (Fig. 2E) 1.6 times its height from ventral rim of antennal sockets to upper margin of clypeus; face with long setae. Eye in dorsal view 2.4 times as long as temple. Ocello-ocular line 3.0 times longer than diameter of anterior ocellus; OOL:AOL:POL = 21:5:7. Stemmaticum concave. Mandible with three teeth (2L), subparallel-sided, first mandibular tooth distinctly lobe-shaped and separated from second tooth by incision. Labrum 2.9 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp 0.4 times longer than mesosoma.

Figure 2. 

Phaenocarpa brachyura sp. nov., ♀ A body B antennae C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and T1 to T3, dorsal I ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma (Fig. 2G) 2.1 times longer than wide in dorsal view. Notauli crenulated, reaching medio-posterior depression; scutellar sulcus with two carinae; in lateral view, mesopleuron and metapleuron with long setae. Anterior half of propodeum smooth, posterior of median carina strongly wrinkled (Fig. 2H), lateral view of propodeum not curved dorsally; precoxal sulcus (Fig. 2F) shallow and with 10 crenulae. Fore wing (Fig. 2C) 2.3 times longer than wide; pterostigma long and narrow, 2.9 times longer than wide; vein r of fore wing 1.9 times longer than wide; vein 2-SR slightly bent; vein 2-SR+M and r-m not sclerotized; vein 2-SR:vein r:vein 3-SR = 10:2:18; first subdiscal cell of fore wing ca 0.6 times longer than wide.

Leg. Hind coxa compressed, grooved and 1.3 times longer than hind trochanter; hind femur 0.7 times longer than hind tibia; hind tibia 0.8 times longer than hind tarsus.

Metasoma. First tergite widened posteriorly, striate and narrow, 1.4 times longer than its apical width; T1:T2 = 48:37. Setose part of ovipositor sheath (Fig. 2I) 0.6 times as long as mesosoma, 0.7 times as long as hind tibia and with setae.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

South Korea.

Etymology

From “brachys” (Greek for short) and “oura” (Greek for tail) because of the comparatively short ovipositor sheath.

Phaenocarpa lobata Sohn & van Achterberg, sp. nov.

Figure 3A–L

Type material

Holotype, ♀ (KNA), South Korea, DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, 38°15'09.3"N, 128°06'40.6"E, 19.IX–10.X.2017, Shin, Kim. GenBank accession no. MZ318085 for the barcoding sequence of the COI region.

Comparative diagnosis

Differs from other species treated in this paper by the long pterostigma of the fore wing (approx. 5.5 times as long as wide; 2.9–4.4 times in other species). The orange antenna and the yellow and robust third and fourth antennal segments distinguish it from other Phaenocarpa species. Closely related to P. masha Belokobylskij, 1998, for differences see key above.

Description

Holotype, ♀; length of body in lateral view 3.3 mm (Fig. 3A), length of antenna 6.1 mm and length of fore wing 3.6 mm.

Figure 3. 

Phaenocarpa lobata sp. nov., ♀ A body B antennae C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and metasoma, dorsal I ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Colour. Head (Fig. 3D) black; antenna orange (third and fourth antennal segments yellow); mandible orange brown. First tergite dark brown and mesonotum entirely reddish brown, area around of medio-posterior depression orangish brown.

Head. Width 1.9 times median length in dorsal view. Antenna (Fig. 3B) twice as long as body, 39 segmented. Fourth segment 1.5 times longer than third segment and 1.3 times longer than fifth; third and fourth segments robust. Eye slightly oval, 1.3 times as long as wide in lateral view. Width of face (Fig. 3E) 1.6 times its height from ventral rim of antennal sockets to upper margin of clypeus. Eye in dorsal view 2.6 times as long as temple. Ocello-ocular line 4.1 times longer than diameter of anterior ocellus; OOL:AOL:POL = 25:6:9. Stemmaticum concave. Vertex smooth, glossy. Mandible with three teeth and first tooth separated from second tooth by incision (Fig. 3L); middle tooth of mandible widened dorsally, with black tip. Labrum 2.0 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp 0.8 times longer than mesosoma.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma (Fig. 3G) 1.8 times longer than wide in dorsal view. Notauli comparatively coarsely crenulate near middle of mesoscutum and reaching medio-posterior depression; medio-posterior depression nearly reaching transscutal articulation; scutellar sulcus with two carinae; metanotum obtuse dorsally in lateral view; small bump on hind coxa adjacent to metapleuron; in lateral view metapleuron with distinct setae. Anterior half of propodeum less sloping; propodeum bent in lateral view; precoxal sulcus (Fig. 3F) deep and distinct, with about eight crenulae. Fore wing (Fig. 3C) 2.4 times as long as wide; pterostigma long and narrow, 5.5 times longer than wide; vein r of fore wing 1.5 times longer than wide; vein 2-SR slightly bent; vein r-m not sclerotized; vein 2-SR:vein r:vein 3-SR = 11:2:16; first subdiscal cell of fore wing ca 0.9 times longer than wide.

Leg. Hind coxa compressed, grooved and 1.2 times longer than hind trochanter; hind femur 0.6 times longer than hind tibia; hind tibia 1.2 times longer than hind tarsus; tarsal claws robust.

Metasoma. First tergite very robust, 1.2 times longer than its apical width; T1:T2 = 44:54. Setose part of ovipositor sheath (Fig. 3I) 1.2 times longer than mesosoma, as long as hind tibia and with long setae (Fig. 3I).

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

South Korea.

Etymology

From “lobus” (Latin for lobe), because of the lobe-shaped third mandibular tooth.

Phaenocarpa fidelis Fischer, 1970

Figure 4A–L

Examined material

1♀ (KNA), South Korea, DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, 38°15'09.3"N, 128°06'40.6"E, 20.VI.–4.VII.2017, H.T. Shin, S.J. Kim. GenBank accession no. MZ318083 for the barcoding sequence of the COI region.

Description

♀; length of body in lateral view 2.9 mm (Fig. 4A), length of antenna 4.7 mm, length of fore wing 3.1 mm.

Figure 4. 

Phaenocarpa fidelis Fischer, 1970, ♀ A body B antenna C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and metasoma, dorsal I metasoma, ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Colour. Head (Fig. 4D) entirely black; mandible yellowish brown. Antenna entirely brown (first and second segments orangish brown). First tergite dark brown.

Head. Width 1.9 times median length in dorsal view. Antenna (Fig. 4B) 1.6 times longer than body, 28 segmented. Fourth segment 1.6 times longer than third segment, 1.1 times longer than fifth. Eye slightly oval, 1.2 times longer than wide in lateral view. Width of face (Fig. 4E) 1.3 times its height from ventral rim of antennal sockets to upper margin of clypeus. Face with dense setae. Eye in dorsal view 2.6 times longer than temple. Ocello-ocular line 2.6 times longer than diameter of anterior ocellus; OOL:AOL:POL = 17:5:7. Stemmaticum concave. Mandible robust with three teeth (Fig. 4L) and first tooth gradually connected to second tooth, forming a straight or arcuate connection. Labrum 1.8 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp 0.7 times longer than mesosoma.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma (Fig. 4G) 2.3 times longer than wide in dorsal view, with medio-posterior depression and setae near it; notauli narrowly crenulate near middle of mesoscutum, not reaching medio-posterior depression; scutellar sulcus with two carinae, 2.4 times wider than long medially; metanotum sculptured; with small bump on hind coxa adjacent to metapleuron; metapleuron with long setae; in lateral view mesoscutum with anterior bump. Propodeum (Fig. 4H) extensively rugose medially and in lateral view not bent; precoxal sulcus (Fig. 4F) complete and with 12 crenulae; scutellum with setae partially. Fore wing (Fig. 4C) 2.4 times longer than wide; pterostigma long and narrow, 4.3 times longer than wide; vein r of fore wing 2.3 times longer than wide; vein 2-SR slightly bent; vein r-m not sclerotized; vein 2-SR:vein r:vein 3-SR = 9:2:15; first subdiscal cell of fore wing ca 1.1 times longer than wide; second submarginal cell robust.

Leg. Hind coxa compressed, grooved and 1.1 times longer than hind trochanter; hind femur 0.7 times longer than hind tibia; hind tibia 0.9 times longer than hind tarsus.

Metasoma. First metasomal tergite subparallel-sided (Fig. 4H), 2.0 times longer than apical width; T1:T2 = 50:24. Setose part of ovipositor sheath (Fig. 4I) 0.5 times as long as mesosoma, 0.4 times as long as hind tibia and with long setae.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Eastern Palaearctic, Western Palaearctic, Europe; South Korea (new record).

Phaenocarpa masha Belokobylskij, 1998

Figure 5A–L

Examined material

1♀ (KNA), South Korea, DMZ Botanical Garden, Mandae-ri, Haean-myeon, Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do, 38°15'09.3"N, 128°06'40.6"E, 20.VI.–4.VII.2017, H.T. Shin, S.J. Kim. GenBank accession no. MW376066 for the barcoding sequence of the COI region.

Description

♀; length of body in lateral view 2.8 mm (Fig. 5A), length of antenna 4.7 mm and length of fore wing 3.3 mm.

Figure 5. 

Phaenocarpa masha Belokobylskij, 1998, ♀ A body B antennae C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and T1 to T3, dorsal I metasoma, ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Colour. Head (Fig. 5D) entirely black; mandible orangish brown. Antenna entirely brown (third and fourth segments dark brown). First tergite reddish brown and mesonotum orangish brown.

Head. Width 1.7 times median length in dorsal view. Antenna (Fig. 5B) 1.6 times longer than body, 27-segmented. Fourth segment 1.6 times longer than third segment and 1.2 times longer than fifth, third and fourth segments dark brown and slender. Eye slightly oval, 1.2 times as long as wide in lateral view. Width of face (Fig. 5E) 1.5 times its height from ventral rim of antennal sockets to upper margin of clypeus. Face with dense setae. Eye in dorsal view 3.0 times as long as temple. Ocello-ocular line 4.1 times longer than diameter of anterior ocellus; OOL:AOL:POL = 21:5:7. Stemmaticum concave. Mandible with three teeth (Fig. 5L) and first tooth separated from second tooth by incision; third tooth bent outside, middle tooth not widened dorsally. Labrum 2.4 times longer than wide. Maxillary palp 0.9 times longer than mesosoma.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma (Fig. 5G) 1.9 times longer than wide in dorsal view, with medio-posterior depression and setae near it; notauli line-shape, reaching medio-posterior depression; scutellar sulcus with two carinae; metanotum more or less tooth-shaped protruding dorsally in lateral view; small bump on hind coxa adjacent to metapleuron. Propodeum (Fig. 5H) 0.7 times longer than width, more extensively rugose medially; lateral view of propodeum not bent; precoxal sulcus (Fig. 5F) completed with 11 crenulae; scutellum with setae partially. Fore wing (Fig. 5C) 2.5 times as long as wide; pterostigma long and narrow, 4.2 times longer than wide; vein r of fore wing 3.0 times longer than wide; vein r-m not sclerotized; vein 2-SR:vein r:vein 3-SR = 10:2:14; first subdiscal cell of fore wing ca 0.7 times longer than wide; second submarginal cell robust.

Figure 6. 

Phaenocarpa ruficeps (Nees, 1812), ♀ A body B antennae C wings D head, dorsal E head, anterior F mesosoma, lateral G mesosoma, dorsal H propodeum and metasoma, dorsal I metasoma,ovipositor and its sheaths, lateral J tarsus, lateral K tarsus, dorsal L mandible, lateral.

Leg. Hind coxa compressed, grooved and 1.4 times longer than hind trochanter; hind femur 0.6 times longer than hind tibia; hind tibia 1.2 times longer than hind tarsus; tarsal claws slender.

Metasoma. First tergite robust, widened posteriorly, 1.2 times longer than apical width; T1:T2 = 32:30. Setose part of ovipositor sheath (Fig. 5I) 1.2 times longer than mesosoma, 1.1 times longer than hind tibia and with long setae.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Eastern Palaearctic; South Korea (new record).

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Korean National Arboretum (KNA1-1-20) and a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202130203). This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Biological Resources (NIBR), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIBR202102204).

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