Research Article
Research Article
Taxonomy of the Indo-Malayan presocial potter wasp genus Calligaster de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae)
expand article infoHari Nugroho, Rosichon Ubaidillah, Jun-ichi Kojima§
‡ Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong, Indonesia
§ Ibaraki University, Ibaraki, Japan
Open Access


The taxonomic history and current taxonomic status of the presocial potter wasp genus Calligaster de Saussure, 1852, at generic and species levels are reviewed. The hitherto-unknown female of Calligaster viridipennis Giordani Soika, 1960, is described based on specimens newly collected in Central and Southeast Sulawesi. A key to species is also provided.


Vespidae , Eumeninae , Calligaster , presocial potter wasps, taxonomy, Indo-Malayan


Since Williams (1919) described detailed natural history of Calligaster williamsi Bequaert, 1940, under the name of Zethus (Calligaster) cyanopterus de Saussure, 1852, Calligaster wasps have been considered to practice fully progressive provisioning, and thus to be ones of several subsocial or presocial potter wasps (Cowan 1991). The nesting behavior of Calligaster wasps is unique in the Oriental potter wasps in that, as the wasps of the Neotropical subgenus Zethoides of the genus Zethus Fabricius, they make a nest with plant material (leaves cut into small pieces) and that they nest communally with sisters. All these behavioral characters of Calligaster allow us to consider the genus key to our better understanding of evolution of social and nesting behavior in the Vespidae (Cowan 1991).

Nevertheless, the phylogenetic position of Calligaster in the Eumeninae or even in the Vespidae has not yet been fully studied. Calligaster, in which six valid species are currently recognized, is in general considered as a genus comprising the potter wasp tribe Zethini, together with the following genera: Argentozethus Stange, 1979 (Neotropical in distribution), Australozethus Giordani Soika, 1969 (Australian), Ctenochilus de Saussure, 1856 (Neotropical), Deuterodiscoelius Dalla Torre, 1904 (Australian), Discoelius Latreille, 1809 (Palearctic), Elimus de Saussure, 1852 (Papua-Australian), Ischnocoelia Perkins, 1908 (Australian), Macrocalymma Perkins, 1908 (Australian), Pachycoelius Giordani Soika, 1969 (Australian), Paramischocyttarus Magretti, 1884 (Afrotropical, Palearctic), Protodiscoelius Dalla Torre, 1904 (Neotropical), Raphiglossa Saunders, 1850 (Afrotropical, Palearctic) and Zethus Fabricius, 1804 (worldwide other than Palearctic) (Richards 1962, Bohart and Stange 1965, Giordani Soika 1969, Stange 1979, Pickett and Carpenter 2010, Hermes et al. 2013). Calligaster is Indo-Malayan endemic, occurring from the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent in the west to Sulawesi Island of Indonesia and the Philippines in the east. The genus was not included in Hermes et al.’s (2013) detailed phylogenetic analyses using morphological characters in the Eumeninae.

Furthermore, despite such interesting aspects of Calligaster from the viewpoints of evolution of social and nesting behavior, phylogeny and biogeography, its taxonomy at generic as well as species levels is not yet revised even though such a taxonomic revision would provide us with robust bases for these studies. In the present paper, the history of taxonomy and current taxonomic status of Calligaster at generic and species levels are reviewed, together with a description of the hitherto-unknown female of C. viridipennis Giordani Soika, 1960, and a key to species.

Material and methods

The present study is based on specimens deposited in the collections of the Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense(MZB), Cibinong, Indonesia; Natural History Collection at Ibaraki University(IUNH), Mito, Japan; National Museum of Nature and Science(NMST), Tsukuba, Japan and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR), Hanoi, Vietnam.

Each species account is accompanied by the original citation; sex(es) and locality(ies), if mentioned, are given together with the repository(ies) of name-bearing type specimen(s) in parentheses. Distributional data are summarized under “Distribution”. The acronyms of the type repositories are as follows: BMNH, The Natural History Museum, London; MCZ, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, U.S.A; MSNG, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova Giacomo Doria, Genova; RMNH, Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, Netherlands; USC, University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines; ZMB, Zoologisches Museum der Humboldt Universität, Berlin.

Morphological characters and marking patterns were observed on pinned-and-dried specimens under a stereoscopic dissecting microscope. Male genitalia of some species were dissected, cleared in lactic acid, and observed in glycerin under a stereoscopic dissecting microscope. Line drawings were made by using the drawing tube attached to the microscope. Terminology on morphological characters mainly follows Bohart and Stange (1965), Carpenter and Cumming (1985), that on surface sculpturing follows Harris (1979), and on male genitalia mainly follows Bitsch (2012).


Calligaster de Saussure

Calligaster de Saussure, 1852: 22. Type species: Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852, by subsequent designation of Ashmead (1902: 205).


The genus Calligaster can be differentiated from any other eumenine genera by the combination of the following characters: labial and maxillary palpus with three and six palpomeres respectively; mid tibia with two spurs; mesepisternum with horizontal suture absent; propodeum with propodeal orifice rounded dorsally, apical valvula short and rounded, and submarginal carina not projecting as pointed lobe above valvula; metasomal segment I petiolate; tergum I in dorsal view abruptly widened laterally shortly after basal slit, then nearly parallel-sided apically, with longitudinal striae; metasomal sternum II with basal fossa; male characters: terminal antennal flagellomere simple; distal lobe of gonocoxite sub-truncated; gonostyle subapically with a tuft of short and thin hairs; basivolsella long and narrow, slightly enlarged at the base, with an obliquely truncated apex.


Calligaster was proposed by de Saussure (1852: 23, Pl. IX fig. 6) as a genus to accomodate his two species from “Java”: Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852 and C. hero de Saussure, 1852. Later, he (de Saussure 1855: 115) synonymized C. hero under Zethus gigas Spinola, 1841, which is a South American Zethus species and is now treated as a synonym of Zethus coeruleopennis (Fabricius, 1798) (Bohart and Stange 1965). Although de Saussure (1855) did not refer to the type locality of C. hero given in de Saussure (1852) (= “Java”), it may have been certainly based on an erroneous labeling. Ashmead (1902) designated C. cyanoptera de Saussure as the type species of Calligaster de Saussure, 1852.

The taxonomic status of Calligaster had not been stabilized until Bequaert (1928) reinstalled its generic status; that is, de Saussure (1855) treated it as a division in the genus Zethus; Gribodo (1892), possibly having followed de Saussure (1855), treated Calligaster as a subgenus in the genus Zethus when he described Zethus javanus (=C. cyanopterus); Dalla Torre (1904) treated Calligaster as a genus; and Cameron (1904, 1909) described two species of Zethus, which Bequaert (1928) transferred to the genus Calligaster. But, establishment of the concept of Calligaster currently accepted by most of the vespid taxonomists was of Giordani Soika (1960).

Key to species of Calligaster

As no specimens were available to us, the characters for C. etchellsii and C. zetteli were extracted from Cameron (1909) and Bequaert (1928), and Gusenleitner (2006), respectively. Neither information of the male characters of C. zetelli nor of the female of C. etchellsi is available to us. In Calligaster, we have observed distinct morphological differences between sexes in the head characters, while characters of the mesosoma and metasoma (except for the number of metasomal segments and genital organs) are nearly the same between the sexes. In the following key, sex is specified only for the head characters.

1 Metasomal tergum I other than basal petiolate part in lateral view hardly convex dorsally (Fig. 4) 2
Metasomal tergum I other than basal petiolate part in lateral view more or less distinctly convex dorsally (Figs 1, 3, 5) 3
2 Female clypeus with dense and coarse punctures. Propodeum with dorsal face smooth and barely punctured. Metasomal tergum II basally barely punctured, apically with sparse minute punctures. Female mandible entirely black C. williamsi Bequaert
Female clypeus with sparse minute punctures. Propodeum with dorsal face coarsely punctured. Metasomal tergum II entirely with sparse minute punctures. Female mandible with yellow basal spot C. zetelli Gusenleitner [male unknown]
3 Male clypeus in frontal view about 1.5 times as wide as high. Body black entirely or with bright yellow markings 4
Male clypeus in frontal view about 2 times as wide as high; ventral margin shallowly emarginate medially. Body with pale-yellow markings C. etchellsii (Cameron) [female unknown]
4 Metasomal tergum I in lateral view without distinct subapical depression (Fig. 1); in dorsal view strongly convex along lateral margin (Fig. 6). Wings fuscous, with greenish-purple iridescence C. viridipennis Giordani Soika
Metasomal tergum I in lateral view distinctly constricted subapically (Figs 3, 5); in dorsal view nearly parallel-sided, with slight subapical constriction (Figs 7, 9). Wings fuscous, with blue-green and purple iridescence 5
5 Metasomal segment I in dorsal view relatively slender, about 2.5 times as long as its maximum width (Fig. 7); tergum I hardly punctured, so that dorsal striae are more or less conspicuous C. cyanoptera de Saussure
Metasomal segment I in dorsal view shorter and stouter, about 1.8 times as long as its maximum width (Fig. 9); tergum I with dense and distinct puncture, so that dorsal striae inconspicuous C. himalayanensis (Cameron)

Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852

Figs 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 19–22

Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852: 23, pl. IX figs. 7, 7a, ♀, “Java”, syntypes (?RMNH).

Zethus cyanopterus; de Saussure 1855: 115 (here called Zethus cyanopterus Lep. [!]), 123 (in division Calligaster; ♂).

Zethus (Calligaster) cyanoptera; Gribodo 1892 (1891): 260.

Zethus (Calligaster) javanus Gribodo, 1892 (1891): 261, ♂ (in subgenus Calligaster), “Kaliparè (Giava orientale)”, holotype [by monotypy] (MSNG). Synonymized under Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852 by van der Vecht (1937: 262).

Calligaster javana; Dalla Torre 1904: 17 (cat.).

Zethus erythrostomus Cameron Meade-Waldo, 1914: 404, “Java”, holotype [by monotypy] (BMNH), as a synonym of Calligaster cyanopterus de Saussure. Available under Article 11.6.1 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.


Calligaster cyanoptera is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: metasomal tergum I in lateral view moderately convex dorsally, with distinct preapical depression (Fig. 3), in dorsal view nearly parallel-sided, relatively slender, about 2.5 times as long as its maximum width (Fig. 7); female clypeus in frontal view about 1.5 times as wide as high, with ventral margin more or less truncated rather than broadly rounded (Fig. 10); male clypeus in frontal view about 1.5 times as wide as high, with semi-elliptic emargination at ventral margin (Fig. 14); tergum I hardly punctured, so that dorsal striae are more or less conspicuous (Fig. 7).

Figures 1–9. 

Calligaster species. 1–9 Female 1, 2, 6 C. viridipennis 3, 7 C. cyanoptera 4, 8 C. williamsi 5, 9 C. himalayensis 1 Body, lateral view 2 Head, frontal view 3–5 Metasomal segments I–II, lateral view 6–9 Metasomal tergum I, dorsal view. Scale 1 mm.

Figures 10–18. 

Calligaster species. 10–13 Female. 14–18 Male 10, 14, 17 C. cyanoptera 11 C. viridipennis 12, 15, 18 C. williamsi 13, 16 C. himalayensis 10–13 Female clypeus 14–16 Male clypeus 17, 18 Apex of male antenna. Scale 1 mm.

Figures 19–22. 

Calligaster cyanoptera. 19 Female from Garut, West Java 20 Single cell nest from Garut, West Java 21 Nest with a newly constructed cell (made of cuts of fresh leaves) from Garut, West Java 22 Nest from Bali.

Material examined

JAVA: 1♂ (MZB), Tjikadjang, Bandjarwangi, alt. 8–900 m, 7–10.iv.1939, M.A. Lieftinck; 1♂ (MZB), Priangan, Gn. [= “Mt.”] Limboeng, alt. 1000 m, 28.vii.1934, M.A. Lieftinck; 1♀ (MZB), Priangan, Gn. Limboeng, 1000 m, 28.vii.1934, M.A. Lieftinck; 2♂ (MZB), Djampang, Gn. Tjimerang, xii.1932, M. E. Walsh; 1♀ (MZB), Djasinga, 4.xii.1938, M. A. Lieftinck; 1♂ (MZB), Djampang Tengah, G. Tjisoeroe, alt. 600–800 m, 1933, M. E. Walsh; 1♂ (MZB), G. Gedeh, Tjiboenar, 14.xi.1929, F.C. Drescher; 1♂ (MZB), Tjipanas, 19.xii.1930; 3♀ (MZB), Soekanegara, alt. 400–1000 m, ii.1940, native coll.; 1♂ (MZB), Pelaboean Ratoe, 16–17.iv.1933, M.A. Lieftinck; 1♂ 2♀ (MZB), Priangan, Mt. Limboeng, alt. 900 m, 30.vii.1934, M.A. Lieftinck; 1♂ (MZB), Cikaniki, Gn. Halimun, Sukabumi, alt. 950 m, 8.viii.1997, Zamilah et al.; 1♀ (MZB), Cikaniki, Gn. Halimun, Sukabumi, alt. 950–1000 m, 26.iv–2.v.1999, T. Ueno, M.R. Sofyan; 1♀ 1♂ (MZB), 2.v.1937, Mt. Salak; 1♀ (MZB), Mt. Gede, i.1935; 1♂ (MZB), Djasinga, 2.viii.1952, Amsari; 1♀ (MZB), Gn. Tjimerang, 600 m, Bodjongkulong, Djampang Tengah, iii.1941, native coll.; 5♀ 3♂ (MZB), Mt. Gede, 1000 m, i.1935, native coll.; 1♂ (MZB), Gn. Halimun Nat. Park, Cikaniki, 06°45'04”S 106°31'31”E, alt. 925 m, 15.ix.1999, W.A. Noerdjito; 1♀ (MZB), Sukabumi, Jampang, Bojong Pari, 07°10’S 106°37’E, 29.iii.2002, R. Ubaidillah; 1♂ (MZB), Penandjoeng bay, Kalipoetjang, alt. 300 m, vi.1936, M.A. Lieftinck; 1♀ 1♂ (MZB), Batoerraden, Gn. Slamat, Java, 23.xii.1928, F.C. Drescher; 1♀ (MZB), Batoerraden, Gn. Slamat, Java, 9.vii.1939, F.C. Drescher; 3♀ 1♂ (MZB), Cisompet, Garut, W. Java, 4.vii.2013, H. Nugroho & J. Kojima. BALI: 2♀ (MZB), Baturiti, Tabanan, 13.ix.2013, H. Nugroho et al.


Sumatra Is. (Marang), Java Is., Bali Is. (new record).


In his monograph on solitary vespid wasps, de Saussure (1852) described Calligaster cyanoptera based on at least two (the body length was mentioned as “20 á 25 mill. [20 to 25 mill.]”) females from “Java”. The syntypes were indicated to be in “Musée de Leyde” (de Saussure 1852: 24), but no one has referred to the syntypes. Gribodo (1892: 261) described Zethus (Calligaster) javanus based on a single male from “Kaliparè [in Malang] (Giava orientale [East Java])”, and van der Vecht (1937: 262) synonymized it under C. cyanoptera, stating “… Gribodo’s species is undoubtedly conspecific with C. cyanopterus … the shape of the clypeus is very different in the two sexes”. Meade-Waldo (1914: 204) published, as a synonym of C. cyanopterus de Saussure, 1852, “Zethus erythrostomus Cameron”, which was actually an unpublished Cameron’s manuscript name for a female specimen from Lawang, East Java (Bequaert 1928: 157).

This species have so far been recorded from Sumatra Is. (Gribodo 1892: 260) and Java Is. (de Saussure 1852, Gribodo 1892, van der Vecht 1937, 1938; our own data as listed below), and we herewith firstly record the species from Bali Is. We also collected a couple of nests made on tree twigs along the creek at Baturiti, Bali; their structure is basically the same as that from the south of Garut, West Java, described by van der Vecht (1938).

Calligaster etchellsii (Cameron, 1909)

Zeuthus [!] etchellsii Cameron, 1909: 206, ♂, “Kuching, Borneo”, holotype [by monotypy] (BMNH).

Calligaster etchellsii; Bequaert 1928: 157 (holotype examined; notes).


This species was described based on a single male specimen from “Kuching, Borneo” in combination with Zethus (Cameron 1909: 206) and Bequaert (1928: 157) moved it to the genus Calligaster. Neither other records of this species have so far been published nor have we collected any wasps of this species in our rather intensive field collection at several places in Kalimantan.

Bequaert (1928: 157), having examined the holotype (by monotypy), stated “... quite a distinct species in the shape of the clypeus, which is unusually wide (twice as broad as high) and ends in a deep semi-elliptic emargination.” Such a deep semi-elliptical emargination at the ventral margin of the male clypeus is also found in C. cyanoptera, while the male clypeus in the latter is about 1.5 times as wide as high.

Material examined

No specimen examined.


Only the type locality [Kuching in Sarawak, Borneo Is.].

Calligaster himalayensis (Cameron, 1904)

Figs 5, 9, 13, 16

Zethus himalayensis Cameron, 1904: 13, ♀, “Sikkim” (BMNH).

Calligaster himalayensis; Bequaert 1928: 157 (holotype examined; possibly a valid species).

Zethus hymalayensis [!]; Giordani Soika 1941: 216 (incorrect spelling of Zethus himalayensis Cameron; syn. of C. cyanopterus de Saussure).


The characters which may allow us to differentiate C. himalayensis from C. cyanoptera are as follows [characters for C. cyanoptera are given in the brackets]: Metasomal segment I in dorsal view shorter and stouter (Fig. 9), about 1.8 times as long as its maximum width [slender, about 2.5 times as long as its maximum width (Fig. 7)]; tergum I with dorsal striae inconspicuous, in consequence of strong and distinct punctures [dorsal striae conspicuous; tergum with nearly no punctures]; mesoscutum strongly punctured, also in areas along notauli [strongly punctured, but areas along notauli with no punctures]; scutellum and metanotum with denser, larger and deeper punctures than those in C. cyanoptera; dorsal face of propodeum with strong punctures along the border with the posterior face [glossy, nearly without punctures]; lateral face of propodeum with denser and deeper punctures [punctures sparser, interspaces between punctures wider than diameter of a puncture]; male antennal scape yellow ventrally [black entirely]; interantennal space with paired yellow spots [usually absent in female, rarely absent in male]; female clypeus black entirely [black with wide reddish-brown transverse band ventrally]; male clypeus with large yellow spot occupying nearly entire disk of clypeus [closely paired yellow spots in ventral part, but occasionally lacking].

Material examined

VIETNAM: 1♂ (IUNH), Me Linh, emerged from a nest collected on 9.iii.2005, F. Saito et al. [the nest, in its structure, is similar to that of C. cyanoptera we observed and that of C. williamsi described by Williams (1919)]; 1♀ 1♂ (IEBR), Kim Hy National Park, Bac Kan, 5.viii.2012, L.T.P Nguyen et al.


Sikkim, China, Laos, northern parts of Vietnam.


Cameron (1904: 13) proposed Zethus himalayensis for a single female from “Sikkim [India]” and Bequaert (1928: 157) moved it to the genus Calligaster. Bequaert (1928: 157), having examined the holotype, mentioned that “Although similar to C. cyanopterus, it appears to differ in the shape of the clypeus and is possibly a valid species.” Based on the comparison of our specimens from Vietnam [given under “Material examined”] with those of C. cyanoptera from Java and Bali, we recognized that C. himalayensis differs from the latter in having stronger and more distinct punctures.

Other than the locality given in the original description (Sikkim in India), C. himalayensis has been recorded from China (Giordani Soika 1960; without giving any specific localities). We have herein firstly recorded the species from northern parts of Vietnam (new record), suggesting that C. himalayensis may occur along the eastern slope of the Himalayas from Sikkim to northern parts of Vietnam, and probably to southeastern parts of China.

Calligaster viridipennis Giordani Soika, 1960

Figs 1, 2, 6, 11

Calligaster viridipennis Giordani Soika, 1960: 72, fig. 11 (nos. 7–8), 74, ♂, “Celebes: Enrekang”, holotype (ZMB).


Giordani Soika (1960: 72, 74) proposed Calligaster viridipennis for a single male from “Celebes: Enrekang”. Since then, no information on this species has been added.

Based on the specimens recently collected in Central and Southeast Sulawesi we describe below the female of this Sulawesi-endemic Calligaster wasp for the first time.

The female can be associated with the male by the combination of the following characters: posterior face of propodeum strongly and reticulately punctured; basal fossa of metasomal sternum II deep and distinct, with dense fulvous hairs; wings fuscous, with strong greenish-purple iridescence.

Female characters

Body length (head + mesosoma + metasomal segments I and II) 21–22 mm; fore wing length 20 mm. Head in frontal view subcircular, slightly wider than high, 1.2 times as wide as high (Fig. 2). Clypeus in profile smoothly and weakly convex; in frontal view about 1.5 times as wide as high (Fig. 11), with dorsal margin deeply emarginate medially and ventral margin slightly convex.

Mesosoma flattened dorsoventrally, 1.5 times as long as high in lateral view (Fig. 1); in dorsal view 1.4 times as long as wide. Propodeum with posterior face strongly and reticulately punctured (instead of rugosely striated). Metasomal segment I shorter than mesosoma, 0.8 times as long as mesosoma; tergum I strongly convex dorsally (Fig. 1) [moderately convex in cyanoptera]; tergum in dorsal view strongly convex along lateral margins, with faint oblique striae (Fig. 6). Metasomal sternum II with basal fossa as in C. cyanoptera, but distinct and deeper, with dense fulvous hairs.

Body densely covered with dense whitish pubescence; tibia and tarsi with golden pubescence. Head strongly punctured, but vertex and gena only sparsely with smaller punctures. Mesosoma strongly punctured; mesoscutum, scutellum and metanotum with punctures sparser and smaller, as those on vertex and gena. Metasomal segment I with punctures slightly stronger than those on C. cyanoptera; tergum I with punctures smaller than those on mesonotum; tergum II with small and superficial punctures, regularly arranged from base to apex.

Body black, without markings. Wings fuscous, with greenish-purple iridescence.

Material examined

SULAWESI: 3♀ 1♂ (NMST), Palu, Palolo, [2♀ 1♂, vii.1995; 1♀, i.1991], Mokuyosha; 1♀ (MZB), North Kolaka, Tinukari, Mekongga, 03°38'17"S, 121°11'31"E, alt. ca. 1430 m, 17.vii.2011, R. Ubaidillah et al.; 1♀ (MZB), Luwuk timur, Towuti, Soroako, 03°35'10"S, 121°24'06"E, alt. ca.450 m, 1–5.i.2007, A. Suwito & E. Cholik.


Sulawesi Is. (central, south, and southeast Sulawesi).

Calligaster williamsi Bequaert, 1940

Figs 4, 8, 12, 15, 18

Zethus (Calligaster) cyanopterus; Williams 1919: 157–164 (natural history).

Calligaster n. sp.; van der Vecht 1937: 263.

Calligaster williamsi Bequaert, 1940: 124, fig. 1 A–D, ♀♂, “Los Baños, Luzon, Philippine Is.”, holotype female (MCZ).


Calligaster williamsi can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: metasomal tergum I in lateral view barely convex dorsally, with preapical dorsal depression weakly produced (Fig. 4), in dorsal view weakly and evenly convex laterally (Fig. 8); longitudinal striae on tergum I strong, more or less regularly arranged (Fig. 8); apex of male terminal antennal flagellomere rounded [Fig. 18; bluntly pointed in C. cyanoptera (Fig. 17)].

Material examined

LUZON: 1♀ (IUNH), Los Banos, Laguna, 31.iii.1978, T. Murota; 2♀ 1♂ (IUNH), Los Banos, Laguna, 2-5.viii.1978, H. Kurokawa; 1♀ (IUNH), Univ. Phil. Los Banos, Laguna, 21.iii.1980, J. Kojima; 1♂ (IUNH), Univ. Phil. Los Banos, Laguna, 10.iii.1980, J. Kojima; 1♂ (IUNH), Univ. Phil. Los Banos, Laguna, 15.iii.1980, J. Kojima; 1♂ (NSMT), Mt. Maquiling, Laguna Province, 17–, Y. Kurosawa. MINDANAO: 1♀ (NSMT), N. Zamboanga, 5.xii.1994, J. Abella, Nagase coll.; 1♀ (NSMT), Aras-asan, Surigao, S. Mindanao, x.1978.


Philippines: Luzon Is., Mindoro Is., Mindanao Is.


Van der Vecht (1937: 262) pointed out that the Phiippine species of Calligaster, of which life history was described by Williams (1919) under the name of Zethus (Calligaster) cyanopterus, was “not conspecific with C. cyanopterus” and mentioned that the species “will be described in a forthcoming paper by Prof. J. Bequaert.” Bequaert (1940: 124–126) proposed Calligaster williamsi for the females and males from several places on Luzon Is. and Mindoro Is., with designation of a female from “Los Baños, Luzon” as the holotype.

As listed above, we examined specimens also from Mindanao Is., suggesting this species would be distributed throughout the Philippines Islands except for Palawan Is.

Calligaster zetteli Gusenleitner, 2006

Calligaster zetteli Gusenleitner, 2006: 1353, ♀, “Philippinen ... Bais Forest, Negros-Oriental Province”, holotype (USC).

Material examined

No specimen examined.


Gusenleitner (2006: 1353–1355) proposed Calligaster zetteli for females from Negros, Bohol, and Mindanao Islands, as a species similar to C. williamsi. According to Gusenleitner (2006), this species may be differentiated from C. williamsi by the characters given in the key to Calligaster species [for complete comparison see Gusenleitner (2006: 1354)].


Philippines: Negros Is., Bohol Is., Mindanao Is.


This study is supported by the JSPS–LIPI Bilateral Research (2012–2015). We are thankful to A. Shinohara (NSMT) for arranging a loan of specimens and the ICBG Project, University California-Davis – LIPI for the specimens from southeast Sulawesi. We thank to J. M. Carpenter and an anonymous reviewer for comments on the manuscript.


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