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Revision of the Palearctic species of Fidiobia Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea)
expand article infoOvidiu Alin Popovici, Lubomir Masner§, Zachary Lahey|, Elijah Talamas
‡ Al. I. Cuza’ University of Iasi, Iaşi, Romania
§ Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Ottawa, Canada
| United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Columbus, United States of America
¶ Florida State Collection of Arthropods, Division of Plant Industry, Gainesville, United States of America
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Abstract

The Palearctic species of the genus Fidiobia are revised, seventeen new species are described (F. bohemica sp. nov.; F. brevialis sp. nov.; F. communis sp. nov.; F. gallica sp. nov.; F. hirta sp. nov.; F. insoonae sp. nov.; F. lisenchiae sp. nov.; F. longiclava sp. nov.; F. nipponica sp. nov.; F. platystasioides sp. nov.; F. politoides sp. nov.; F. pronotatoides sp. nov.; F. roatai sp. nov.; F. rugosifronsoides sp. nov.; F. sashai sp. nov.; F. tripotini sp. nov.; F. vladlubomiri sp. nov.), and eleven species (F. brevinotaula Veenakumari et al., 2018; F. filicornis Buhl, 2014; F. flaviabdominalis Veenakumari et al., 2018; F. hispanica Popovici & Buhl, 2010; F. hofferi Kozlov, 1978; F. polita Buhl, 1998; F. pronotata Szabó, 1958; F. rugosifrons Crawford, 1916; F. striatitergitis (Szabó, 1962); F. synergorum (Kieffer, 1921); F. vanharteni Buhl, 2010) are redescribed. A key for identification of females and distributional data for each species are provided. Brachypterous specimens are reported for F. rugosifrons and F. hofferi. Fidiobia gordoni Popovici & Buhl, 2010 is treated as a junior synonym of Fidiobia striatitergitis (Szabó, 1962).

Keywords

α-taxonomy, egg-parasitoids, new species, Platygastridae, Sceliotrachelinae

Introduction

Fidiobia Ashmead, 1894 is one of the “classical” genera of Platygastridae, originally described as monotypic, with F. flavipes Ashmead, 1894 as the type species. Masner and Huggert (1989) placed Fidiobia in Sceliotrachelinae and it is presently the largest genus in the subfamily. The earliest records of Fidiobia are from the Eocene, including compression fossils and Baltic amber (Buhl 2002; Talamas and Buffington 2015), and the body plan of this genus has been remarkably conserved. The numerous undescribed species of Fidiobia, combined with many species that have been insufficiently described, have created the need for large-scale revision of the genus on a worldwide scale. Our efforts here represent the largest treatment of Fidiobia to date.

Taxonomic history

Ashmead (1894) included Fidiobia in the Platygastrinae and placed it between Amitus Haldeman and Anopedias Förster, with interesting remarks comparing structure of the metasoma to that of Telenominae (Scelionidae). The diagnosis of Fidiobia in Ashmead (1894) is very general (sculpture of frons, description of notauli) and contains some errors (e.g., number of antennomeres, fore wing venation, propodeum with two foveolae). Because of this, Brues (1909), who was aware of Fidiobia, erected Rosneta Brues, 1909 with the type species R. tritici Brues, 1909, and considered it to be related to Fidiobia and Anopedias. Rosneta was separated from Fidiobia by the 9-merous antenna and the deeply grooved notauli (parapsidal furrows in Brues 1909).

Crawford (1916) amended the diagnosis of Fidiobia, correcting some of Ashmead’s errors: sculpture of frons, number of antennomeres, notauli (mesonotal furrows in Crawford 1916) and the propodeal carinae. Also, Crawford (1916) described the second species in Fidiobia, F. rugosifrons Crawford, 1916. In the same year, Brèthes (1916), apparently unaware of Fidiobia and Rosneta, described a new genus, Triclavus Brèthes 1916, with the type species Triclavus bonariensis Brèthes, 1916, as a genus close to Allotropa Förster. Kieffer (1921) described a new monotypic genus, Fahringeria, but mentioned no apomorphic character to identify it. Fouts (1924) revisited the diagnosis of Fidiobia and treated Rosneta as a junior synonym of Fidiobia. Fouts (1924) regarded the type species of Rosneta as a junior synonym of F. flavipes. Two years later, apparently unaware of Fouts (1924), Kieffer (1926) treated Fidiobia and Rosneta as distinct genera and considered them to be restricted to the Nearctic region. Concerning Fidiobia, Kieffer followed Ashmead’s perspective and placed it in the identification keys near Amitus, Isolia and Anopedias. In the case of Rosneta, Kieffer placed it near his genus Fahringeria. Szelényi (1938) described the monotypic Platyllotropa with the type species P. gallicola Szelényi, 1938, for which the main distinguishing characteristic was the strongly depressed body. Szelényi (1938) made no mention of possible relationships of Platyllotropa with other platygastrid genera. Muesebeck and Masner (1967) transferred Fidiobia from the Platygastrinae to Inostemminae and synonymized Triclavus with Fidiobia.

The next important step in the taxonomy of Fidiobia was made by Masner and Huggert (1989) in their review of the subfamilies Inostemmatinae and Sceliotrachelinae. Here, Fidiobia was for the first time well described, keyed, and diagnosed and the relationships between Fidiobia and other platygastrid genera were discussed. Masner and Huggert (1989) treated Fahringeria and Platyllotropa as junior synonyms of Fidiobia.

Until 1989, only ten species of Fidiobia had been formally described (Table 1) despite there being numerous undescribed species present in the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes (Ottawa). Masner and Huggert (1989) incorporated the morphological diversity present in these undescribed species, in addition to those that had been formally characterized, in their description and diagnosis of the genus. The number of Fidiobia species that have been described has since increased to forty-eight (Table 1). This spectacular rise in the number of newly described species of Fidiobia came to support the metaphoric comparison of this genus with the tip of an iceberg by Lubomír Masner in 2010 (Popovici and Buhl 2010).

Table 1.

Species of Fidiobia described prior to this study and their distribution.

Nr. crt. Species Author(s) Year Biogeographical regions
1 F. benjamini (Nixon) 1969 Afrotropical
2 F. danielssoni Buhl 2001
3 F. tanzaniana Buhl 2010
4 F. vanharteni Buhl 2010
5 F. zebra Buhl 2010
6 F. filicornis Buhl 2014
7 F. semirufa Buhl 2014
8 F. tschirnhausi Buhl 2014
9 F. celeritas van Noort and Lahey 2021
10 F. synergorum (Kieffer) 1921 Palearctic
11 F. pronotata Szabó 1958
12 F. hofferi Kozlov 1978
13 F. polita Buhl 1998
14 F. gordoni Popovici and Buhl 2010
15 F. hispanica Popovici and Buhl 2010
16 F. flavipes Ashmead 1894 Nearctic
17 F. drakei (Oglobin) 1944
18 F. rugosifrons Crawford 1916 Holarctic
19 F. bonariensis (Brèthes) 1916 Neotropical
20 F. citri (Nixon) 1969
21 F. asina (Loiácono) 1982
22 F. dominica Evans and Peña 2005
23 F. flava Buhl 2011
24 F. semistriata Buhl et al. 2009 Oriental
25 F. nagarajae Veenakumari et al. 2012
26 F. virakthamati Veenakumari et al. 2012
27 F. brevinotaula Veenakumari et al. 2018
28 F. carinata Veenakumari et al. 2018
29 F. crocea Veenakumari et al. 2018
30 F. dantela Veenakumari et al. 2018
31 F. decora Veenakumari et al. 2018
32 F. doddi Veenakumari et al. 2018
33 F. flaviabdominalis Veenakumari et al. 2018
34 F. flavifrons Veenakumari et al. 2018
35 F. fusca Veenakumari et al. 2018
36 F. galben Veenakumari et al. 2018
37 F. hima Veenakumari et al. 2018
38 F. leptidantela Veenakumari et al. 2018
39 F. longiabdominalis Veenakumari et al. 2018
40 F. multicarinata Veenakumari et al. 2018
41 F. nandi Veenakumari et al. 2018
42 F. nilgiriensis Veenakumari et al. 2018
43 F. prashanthi Veenakumari et al. 2018
44 F. punyakoti Veenakumari et al. 2018
45 F. setosa Veenakumari et al. 2018
46 F. striatipleura Veenakumari et al. 2018
47 F. szaboi Veenakumari et al. 2018
48 F. vandu Veenakumari et al. 2018

This paper is only a small part of a large and ambitious project concerning the revision of the world fauna of Fidiobia, a genus of beetle egg parasitoids.

Materials and methods

Specimens

Taxonomic studies are greatly informed by the examination of large numbers of specimens to determine morphological variation and geographic distribution, and to associate conspecific males and females. Fidiobia is not a rare genus, but the number of specimens in European collections is typically very small. We believe this is partly because knowledge about the biology of the genus is lacking, which hinders the development of more efficient collecting strategies. For example, some genera that are now commonly collected (e.g., Baeoneurella Dodd, Tiphodytes Bradley, Baryconus Förster) were once considered rare. Now that the biology of some of their species has been elucidated, they can be easily captured with appropriate methods in certain habitats.

The specimens used in this study are deposited in the following institutions with the abbreviations (in bold) used in the text and the name of curators in parentheses:

CNCI Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes, Ottawa, Canada (Lubomír Masner);

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary (Zoltán Vas);

ISNB Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles (Yvonnick Gerard);

MNHN Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris (Claire Villement);

NHMUK Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (David Notton);

NHRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm, Sweden (Rune Bygebjerg);

NMPC National Museum (Natural History), Prague, Czech Republic (Jan Macek);

OPPC O.A. Popovici personal collection, stored in the Faculty of Biology, University ‘Al. I. Cuza’ Iasi, Romania;

ZMUC Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Denmark (Lars Vilhelmsen).

Primary types

Images of the primary types of Fidiobia rugosifrons Crawford, 1916, were made available via the Museum of Biological Diversity database at The Ohio State University (https://mbd-db.osu.edu/hol/collecting_units/0eae5d1c-58ba-3aaa-e053-0100007f2cc9) by Prof. Dr. Norman Johnson. Primary types of Platyllotropa gallicola Szelényi, 1938 (HNHM), Fidiobia tatrae Szelényi, 1941 (HNHM), Rosneta phryne Debauche, 1947 (ISNB), Fidiobia pronotata Szabó, 1958 (HNHM), Fidiobia hofferi Kozlov, 1978 (OPPC), Fidiobia polita Buhl, 1998 (ZMUC), Fidiobia hispanica Popovici & Buhl, 2010 (ZMUC), Fidiobia vanharteni Buhl, 2010 (ZMUC) and Fidiobia filicornis Buhl, 2012 (ZMUC) were studied and photographed. In our opinion, the digitisation of the type specimens is essential because it allows the specimens to be accessible to a large number of researchers around the world while minimizing the risk associated with shipping.

Collecting and preserving methods

The specimens used in this study were collected using a variety of methods. For each specimen, the collecting method, when known, is placed in parentheses using the following abbreviations:

LT light trap.

MT Malaise trap. For some species this method was very useful in obtaining a series of specimens.

SN sweep net. This method uses an entomological net with a circular or triangular frame. Specimens are extracted individually using an aspirator.

SS screen sweeping. This method uses an entomological net with a triangular frame (Noyes 1982), equipped with a 4–7 mm wire mesh screen across the net opening to exclude debris and large insects (e.g., butterfly, bumblebees, crickets, grasshoppers). A similar net was used by Fusu and Polaszek (2017) and Popovici et al. (2018).

TT conical trunk traps for collecting parasites of xylobionts (Tereshkin 1990, Varga 2017).

YPT yellow pan trap.

Samples were stored in 80% ethanol at -20 °C. The micro-Hymenoptera, including minute species of Fidiobia, were sorted in the laboratory using a Kruss MSZ54 stereomicroscope. Specimens for general examination were mounted on white points, and specimens selected for photography were mounted on black points to reduce glare during imaging. Prior to mounting, the specimens were dehydrated in a series of increasingly concentrated ethanol (90%, 99.6%) and dried using hexamethyldisilazane (‘HMDS’, Brown 1993) to prevent the collapse of weakly sclerotized individuals. For species with a large series of specimens, the antenna and the wings on one side of the body (usually the left side) were removed. Wing interference patterns (WIP) were illustrated using the method of Shevtsova et al. (2011), Shevtsova and Hansson (2011) and Fusu (2017), then the wings and the antenna were mounted in Canada balsam on a small microscope slide placed on the pin, under the labels of the specimen.

Species descriptions

The descriptions of species were generated using vSysLab (https://vsyslab.osu.edu/), an online database application designed to facilitate the generation of descriptions by character data matrices. The output is in the format of „character: state”.

Imaging

Specimen photographs were produced using a Leica DFC-450C camera on a Leica 205A stereomicroscope (with 0.63× video objective attached) and a Leica LED5000 HDI dome illuminator at the CERNESIM facility of the “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iaşi. Extended-focus images were produced with Zerene Stacker (PMax algorithm). Digital drawings were accomplished with Adobe Illustrator. Scanning electron micrographs were produced with a VEGA TESCAN SEM unit at the facility of the “Al. I. Cuza” University of Iaşi (Faculty of Biology) and with HITACHI SU3500 at the facility of the MNHN. The rendered images were postprocessed in Adobe Photoshop to enhance clarity.

Figures 1–14. 

Morphological structures: 1 F. gallica 2 F. communis 3 Fidiobia sp. 4 F. tripotini 5 F. nipponica 6, 14 F. roatai 7 F. pronotata 8, 11 F. hofferi 9, 10, 13 F. striatitergitis 12 F. rugosifrons.

Distribution maps

The distribution maps were produced using QGIS 3.22 (QGIS Development Team 2021). On each map, the red areas and points represent the distribution of the material presented in this paper and the blue areas represent the distribution of species from previously published data.

Figures 15–29. 

Morphological structures: 15, 17 F. nipponica 16, 19, 21, 25, 29 F. striatitergitis 18, 22 F. roatai 20, 27 F. hofferi 23, 28 F. synergorum 24 F. gallica 26 F. communis.

Terminology

Morphological terms follow Masner and Huggert (1989), Mikó et al. (2007) and Lahey et al. (2019). Morphological terms were matched to concepts in the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (Yoder et al. 2010). Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) in the format HAO_XXXXXXX represent concepts in the HAO and are provided to enable readers to confirm their understanding of the concepts being referenced. URI links for morphological terms are provided in Table 2.

Table 2.

Morphological terms used with abbreviations in parentheses, cross-referenced to an ontological (formal) definition (Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology; URI = Uniform Resource Identifier) and the figures where these structures are emphasized.

Terms definition URIs Fig.
HEAD
antennomere A1, .... A10 The anatomical structure that is delimited by the proximal and distal margins of the antennal sclerite. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000107 1
clypeus (cly) The area that corresponds to the site of origin of the clypeo-epipharyngeal muscle. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000212 2–3
malar sulcus (ms) The sulcus that extends between the ventral margin of the compound eye and the base of the mandible. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000504 4
occiput (occ) The area that is concave and surrounds the postocciput. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000658 8
OD The diameter of the ocellus. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0002107 5
ocular ocellar line (OOL) The anatomical line that is shortest and connects the compound eye and the lateral ocellus. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000662 5
paraocellar depressions (paro) The depressions that flank the lateral margins of the lateral ocelli. Lahey et al. 2019 https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.73.33876 5
preocellar depression (preo) The depression that flanks the anterior margin of the anterior ocellus. Lahey et al. 2019 https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.73.33876 5
epitorular carina (sc) The carina that dorsally surrounds the antennal foramen. Lahey et al. 2021 https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.87.59794 2–3
sensillar formula (ps) Distribution of papillary sensilla (ps) on the ventral clavomeres of the female. Lahey et al. 2019 https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.73.33876 1
torulus (tor) The foramen that is located on the head in which the radicle is positioned. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001022 3
ventral (inner) lamella on A1 (vl) (Semi)transparent sharp edge on the ventral side of the A1, usually on the apex, but sometimes on the entire length of A1, housing the A2 or A2-A6. Modified after Masner and Huggert 1989 1
MESOSOMA
antero-admedian line (aadl) The signum that is submedian and located on the anterior margin of the mesoscutum and corresponds to the site of origin of the longitudinal flight muscle http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000128 12
axilloaxillular carina (aaxc) Carina that connects the axillar carina to the axillular carina. Can be regarded as an extension of the axillar carina. Present study. 6–8
axillular carina (axc) The axillular line that is a carina. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000161 9–11
transverse pronotal sulcus (cps) The sulcus that corresponds to the anteromedian pronotal ridge. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001032 13
dorsal axillar area (daa) The area that is located medially on the axilla and is delimited laterally by the axillar carina and posteromedially by scutoscutellar sulcus. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000252 14
dorsal metapleural area (dma) The area that is delimited posterodorsally by the metapleural carina and anteroventrally by the metapleural sulcus. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000261 15
mesofemoral depression (fd) The scrobe that is located on the mesopleuron into which the mesofemur fits when pressed against the mesosoma. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000326 16
foamy structure (fs) Foamy structures are extensions of cuticle that usually emanate from carinae on the propodeum and metapleuron but may also occur on T1 and S1. Lahey et al. 2019 https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.73.33876 15, 17
internotaular area (ina) The area on the mesoscutum that is delimited laterally by notauli Mikó et al. 2010 https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.2708.1.1 18
lateral pronotal area (lpa) The area of the pronotum that is lateral and delimited medially by the epomial carina. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000483 19
lateral propodeal carina (lpc) The carina that is oblique and arises submedially from the anterior margin of the metapectal-propodeal complex and extends to the posterior propodeal projection. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000486 21–23
marginal setae of fore wing The row of setae that is located along the margin of the wing blade in the same plane as the wing blade. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000511
mesocutellum (mes) The scutellum that is located on the mesonotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000574 20
mesopleural carina (mplc – red arrow) The carina that crosses the mesopleuron and limits ventrally the mesofemoral depression. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000559 24
mesopleuron (mpl – marked with red dots) The area that is located lateral of the mesodiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000566 24
mesoscutum The scutum that is located on the mesonotum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000575
metapleural carina (mtpc) The carina that delimits the metapleuron dorsally from the propodeum, extends from just ventral of the metapleural arm to the metacoxal articulation and passes anteroventral to the propodeal spiracle. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000609 25, 50
metapleural sulcus (mtps – red arrow) The line that corresponds with the metapleural ridge. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000614 26
metapleuron (mtp – marked with red dots) The area of the metapectal-propodeal complex that is located laterally of the metadiscrimen. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000621 26
metascutellar carina (mtsc) The carina that delimits laterally the metascutellum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000624 27
metascutellum (mts) The area that is located posteromedially on the metanotum, is delimited laterally by the metanotal trough and corresponds to the reservoir of the dorsal vessel. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000625 27
metasomal depression (metd) The acetabulum that is concave, surrounds the nucha and accommodates the base of the metasoma. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000627 28–29
notauli (nt) The line that extends submedially along the mesoscutum and corresponds to the median border of the site of origin of the first mesopleuro-mesonotal muscle. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000647 22
parapsidal lines The signum that is located between the notaulus and the parascutal carina and corresponds to the site of origin of the dorsoventral indirect flight muscle. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000694
plica (pl) The carina that arises from the anterior margin of the abdominal tergum 1 medially of the propodeal spiracle extends to the posterior propodeal projection. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000735 30
posterior mesoscutellar sulcus (pms) The line that extends along the posterior margin of the mesoscutellum and corresponds to the posterior mesoscutellar ridge. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000757 31
prespecular sulcus The sulcus that delimits anteriorly the speculum and corresponds to the anterior margin of the speculum. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000816 42
pronotum (pr) The notum that is located in the prothorax. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000853 32
scuto-scutellar sulcus (sss) The sulcus that extends along the scutoscutellar suture. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0000919 33
transepisternal line (tspl) The line that is longitudinal, extends ventrolaterally on the mesopleuron and corresponds with the site of origin of the second and third mesopleuro-third axillary sclerite of fore wing muscle and the second mesopleuro-mesonotal muscle. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001205 34
transscutal articulation (tsa) The line of separation that extends along the transscutal line. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001204 35
METASOMA
metasomal tergite 1, 2, ... n. (T1–Tn) The abdominal tergum that is located in the metasoma. http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/HAO_0001349 36–37
anterior pits of T2 (apT2) Paired, oval or circular depressions situated anterolaterally on T2, often filled with dense pilosity. https://doi.org/10.4039/entm121147fv 36–37

The terminology of surface sculpturing is from Eady (1968) and Harris (1979).

Figures 30–37. 

Morphological structures: 30, 33, 36 F. striatitergitis 31 F. nipponica 32, 34 F. vladlubomiri 35 F. flaviabdominalis 37 Fidiobia sp.

Results

Here, we follow the generic concept of Fidiobia presented in Masner and Huggert (1989).

Males of many species of Fidiobia are unknown, rare, or morphologically similar to their female conspecifics. For this reason, we present a key to females; however, given the similarity between males and females of many species, the identification of males may be possible using this key.

Key to Palearctic Fidiobia (females)

1 Antenna 10-merous (Figs 232, 237); plica converging with lateral propodeal carina (Fig. 239); T1 subrectangular (Figs 36, 228) 2
Antenna 9-merous (Figs 199, 191, 219); plica converging with metapleural carina (Figs 285, 292); T1 usually trapezoidal (Fig. 37), in few cases subrectangular 7
2 Notauli present, incised; junction of T1 and T2 covered by a transverse row of long, strong setae (Fig. 228) 3
Notauli absent (Figs 125, 127, 259) or indicated only by change in sculpture or setation (Figs 90, 135); junction of T1 and T2 not covered by setae 5
3 Mesoscutellum with reticulate-rugose to longitudinally strigose microsculpture, smooth anteromedially (Figs 30, 33); T2 strigose (Figs 36a, 228, 282); lateral propodeal carina without foamy structures (Figs 30, 33); median carina present between lateral propodeal carinae; metapleural carina prolonged posterodorsally into a long and strong tooth (Fig. 240) F. striatitergitis (Szabó, 1962)
Mesoscutellum smooth throughout; T2 smooth; lateral propodeal carina with foamy structures; metasomal depression without median carina; metapleural carina prolonged posterodorsally into a very small tooth 4
4 OOL 5× diameter of lateral ocellus (Figs 142, 143); distance between notauli at least twice the maximum width of notaulus; posterior mesoscutellar sulcus present (Fig. 140); metascutellum visible; transepisternal line visible as a ridge on the anteroventral mesopleuron (Fig. 141); mesopleuron with a mesofemoral depression with a mesopleural carina along ventral margin (Fig. 141); dorsal metapleural area glabrous (Fig. 141) F. nipponica sp. nov.
OOL at most 3× diameter of posterior ocellus (Fig. 275); distance between notauli about equal to maximum width of notaulus (Fig. 279); posterior mesoscutellar sulcus absent; metascutellum hidden by posterior margin of mesoscutellum; transepisternal line present as a sinuate groove (Fig. 280); mesopleural carina absent; dorsal metapleural area covered with dense silvery setae (Fig. 280) F. vladlubomiri sp. nov.
5 Body flattened; marginal setae of fore wing long (Fig. 97); posterior side of hind coxa simple, without a setose furrow; transepisternal line absent; prespecular sulcus present F. hispanica Popovici & Buhl, 2010
Body not distinctly flattened; marginal setae of fore wing short; posterior side of hind coxa with one or two setose furrows; transepisternal line present; prespecular sulcus absent 6
6 Malar sulcus absent (Fig. 136); T2 wider than long; A9 longer than wide (Fig. 133); transverse pronotal sulcus covered by dense, short, silver setae; transepisternal line almost complete, straight (Fig. 136); notauli not incised, but visible as a change in setation (Fig. 135); hind coxa with a depression surrounded by two rows of setae, internal row higher than external one, forming a crease that continues to foamy structure of metapleural carina; anterior pits of T2 strongly transverse, medially very close to each other (Fig. 129), or merging together F. longiclava sp. nov.
Malar sulcus present (Fig. 257); T2 longer than wide (1.2 times as long as maximum width); A9 wider than long (Fig. 258); transverse pronotal sulcus with few, sparse, short setae; transepisternal line short (Fig. 260); notauli totally absent (Fig. 259); hind coxa with a depression surrounded by two rows of almost equal, short setae; anterior pits of T2 ovate, space between anterior pits of T2 larger than the transverse diameter of pits F. tripotini sp. nov.
7 Notauli present, incised 8
Notauli absent 23
8 Sculpture of frons areolate-rugulose (Figs 85, 174, 184, 185, 189, 218) 9
Sculpture of frons reticulate-coriaceous or alutaceous (Figs 51, 122, 149) 15
9 A1 strongly widened with lamella well developed along the entire ventral margin (Figs 85, 86); A3 long, at least 0.75 times as long as A2; lateral propodeal carinae converging and rising up posteriorly (Fig. 81b); disc of fore wing with reticulate sculpture (Fig. 87) F. gallica sp. nov.
A1 moderately widened with lamella present only in the apical third (Figs 175, 191, 199, 219); A3 short, at most 0.5 times as long as A2; lateral propodeal carinae usually parallel and not rising up posteriorly (Figs 181, 192); disc of fore wing without reticulate sculpture (Figs 176, 194, 222) 10
10 Brachypterous (Figs 170, 181, 197) 11
Macropterous (Figs 187, 195, 202, 213, 215) 13
11 Apex of fore wing tapering to a point (Fig. 176); dorsal pronotum well-developed, length along midline almost 0.5× length of mesoscutum (Figs 170, 172); median prominence of T1 setose (Fig. 170) F. pronotata Szabó, 1958
Apex of fore wing rounded (Figs 181, 197); dorsal pronotum weakly developed, hardly visible in dorsal view (Figs 181, 183, 197); median prominence of T1 glabrous (Fig. 181) 12
12 Apex of fore wing not reaching the middle of T2 (Fig. 181); area between notauli smooth in posterior half (Fig. 181); lateral pronotal area smooth in ventral half (Fig. 182); transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae absent (Fig. 181) F. pronotatoides sp. nov.
Apex of fore wing surpassing the middle of T2 (Fig. 197); area between notauli entirely sculptured (Fig. 197); lateral pronotal area entirely sculptured (Fig. 198); transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae present (Fig. 197) F. rugosifrons Crawford, 1916
13 Area between notauli entirely sculptured (Figs 195, 202, 213, 286); lateral pronotal area entirely sculptured (Fig. 196); scutoscutellar sulcus continuous with a large sulcus along the internal side of axillular carina (Figs 195, 197); dorsal axillar area large F. rugosifrons Crawford, 1916
Area between notauli smooth at least posteriorly (Figs 192, 285, 288, 289); lateral pronotal area smooth in ventral half (Figs 193, 221); narrow sulcus along the axillular carina (Figs 220, 285, 288, 289); dorsal axillar area very small 14
14 Area between notauli entirely smooth (Figs 192, 285); lateral margin of notaulus and axillular carina forming a continuous line; submarginal vein shorter than the length of tegula or absent (Fig. 194); dorsal propodeum with no foamy structures; epitorular carina absent (Fig. 189) F. roatai sp. nov.
Area between notauli smooth in posterior half (Figs 220, 288, 289); lateral margin of notaulus disjunct from axillular carina; apex of submarginal vein reaching the posterior margin of propodeum (Fig. 216); dorsal propodeum with foamy structures; epitorular carina present (Fig. 218) F. rugosifronsoides sp. nov.
15 Brachypterous species; fore wing reduced, hardly visible (Fig. 105), or extending to T2 (Figs 104) F. hofferi Kozlov, 1978
Macropterous species, fore wings extending to or surpassing apex of metasoma (Figs 103, 109) 6
16 Metascutellum not visible in dorsal view, covered by posterior margin of mesoscutellum (Figs 117, 153) 17
Metascutellum visible in dorsal view as a narrow strip bordered by metascutellar carinae (Figs 56, 123, 268, 291, 292) 8
17 Marginal setae of fore wings short (Fig. 55) F. brevinotaula Veenakumari et al., 2018
Marginal setae of fore wings long (Fig. 119) F. insoonae sp. nov.
18 Epitorular carina present on frons 19
Epitorular carina absent on frons 21
19 Metapleuron with posteroventral third entirely covered with short, dense, white setae (Fig. 59); fore wing with visible marginal fringe (Fig. 60) F. communis sp. nov.
Metapleuron with posteroventral third not entirely covered by setae (Figs 106, 112, 265); fore wings with short, hardly visible marginal fringe (Figs 107, 114, 267) 20
20 Metapleuron with a line of stout setae along the dorsal and posterior margins; fore wing dark medially; OOL equal to or less than OD F. vanharteni Buhl, 2010
Metapleuron with only sparse setae, not arranged in a continuous line; fore wings uniformly hyaline; OOL equal to about 2 OD F. hofferi Kozlov, 1978
21 Fore wings with long, visible marginal fringe; T1 with three pairs of sublateral setae (Fig. 38); metapleural carina with a broad flange of foamy structure; metapleural epicoxal area with a flange of foamy structure over the base of hind coxa F. bohemica sp. nov.
Fore wings with hardly visible marginal fringe; T1 with two pairs of sublateral setae; metapleural carina with a very narrow crease of foamy structure; metapleural epicoxal area without a flange of foamy structure over the base of hind coxa 22
22 T2 square or nearly so, at least 4 times as long as T1; notauli parallel; dorsal mesopleuron with numerous delicate, transverse and dense striae; lateral pronotal area sculptured in dorsal two thirds; tibia and scape dark brown F. platystasioides sp. nov.
T2 transverse, at most 3 times as long as T1; notauli diverging anteriorly; dorsal mesopleuron with two transverse striae bordering a smooth space; lateral pronotal area sculptured in dorsal third; tibia and scape yellow F. lisenchiae sp. nov.
23 Transscutal articulation incomplete (Fig. 293), visible only laterally; wings micropterous, only about twice as long as tegula F. sashai sp. nov.
Transscutal articulation complete; wings macropterous or brachypterous, extending posteriorly beyond propodeum 4
24 Lateral propodeal carinae not connected by a transverse carina (Figs 88a, 294, 295); metasomal depression square or longer than wide 25
Lateral propodeal carinae sometimes connected by a transverse carina (Figs 43, 66); metasomal depression strongly transverse 26
25 Body flat, strongly depressed dorsoventrally; width of mesosoma at least 2.7 times its height; metascutellum not visible dorsally, covered by posterior margin of mesoscutellum; mesopleuron without large circular depression; transepisternal line complete (Fig. 244); notaulus entirely absent; dorsal axillar area small, hardly visible F. synergorum (Kieffer, 1921)
Body not depressed dorsoventrally; width and height of mesosoma nearly equal; metascutellum visible dorsally; mesopleuron with a large circular depression (Fig. 91); transepisternal line absent; notauli indicated by the absence of setation; dorsal axillar area, large, conspicuous F. hirta sp. nov.
26 Transepisternal line present (Fig. 67); anterior pits of T2 strongly transverse, medially contiguous or nearly so; median carina present between lateral propodeal carinae F. filicornis Buhl, 2014
Transepisternal line absent; anterior pits of T2 ovate, distinct separated; median carina between lateral propodeal carinae variable 27
27 T2 distinctly longer than wide (Fig. 43); OOL around 2 times as long as OD 28
T2 about as long as wide (Fig. 165), or wider than long; OOL 0.8–1.2 times as long as OD 29
28 Apex of fore wing not extending beyond the middle of T2; ventral third of mesopleuron without longitudinal striae; metapleural sulcus present; metascutellum visible dorsally F. brevialis sp. nov.
Apex of fore wings surpassing end of metasoma; ventral third of mesopleuron longitudinally striate; metapleural sulcus absent; metascutellum not visible dorsally, covered by posterior margin of mesoscutellum F. flaviabdominalis Veenakumari et al., 2018
29 Fore wing with long marginal fringe (Figs 153, 158, 160) F. polita Buhl, 1998
Fore wing with short marginal fringe (Fig. 165, 169) F. politoides sp. nov.

Species descriptions

Fidiobia bohemica Popovici, Masner & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 38–42, 298

Description

Female.

Body length: 0.7 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 38, 39).

Head (Fig. 40). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter (OOL 1.1 times as long as ocellar diameter). Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture of the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 41). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: slightly darker than the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): unknown.

Figures 38–42. 

Fidiobia bohemica: 38 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 39 habitus, lateral view 40 head and toruli 41 antenna 42 head and mesosoma, lateral view.

Mesosoma (Figs 38, 42). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: almost totally sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 3–4 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: unknown. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: free, converging with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: short setae on a longitudinal row. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, short hairs on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a pit. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present. Wings. macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma. Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3 –T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

Named after the country where the type material was collected. Noun in apposition.

Material examined

2♀. Czech Republic: Holotype 1♀, Orlické Hory, Trčkov, Bukačka res., 50.336°N, 16.372°E, 28.vi–18.vii.1994, leg. Macek J. (MT) (CNCI). Paratype: 1♀, Orlické Hory, Trčkov, Bukačka res., 50.336°N, 16.372°E, 28.vi–18.vii.1994, leg. Macek J. (MT) (CNCI).

Distribution

Czech Republic (Fig. 298).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia bohemica is close to F. communis and F. hofferi because of the presence of notauli, the visible metascutellum and the reticulate-coriaceous to alutaceous sculpture of the frons. Fidiobia bohemica differs from these species by the presence of three pairs of sublateral setae on T1 (only two in F. communis and F. hofferi) and the absence of epitorular carinae on the frons (present in F. communis and F. hofferi).

Fidiobia brevialis Popovici, Masner & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 43–47, 299

Description

Female. Body length: 0.8 mm. Colour of body: xanthic (Figs 43, 44).

Head (Figs 45, 46). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 2 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture of the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 47). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: almost similar to rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): unknown.

Figures 43–47. 

Fidiobia brevialis: 43 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 44 habitus, lateral view 45 head, dorsal view 46 head, frontal view 47 antenna (♀).

Mesosoma (Figs 43, 44). Colour of mesosoma: light-brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present, complete. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae in 2–3 longitudinal rows. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings: brachypterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs: Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Figs 43, 44): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: light brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

The species name is derived from Latin words “brevis” and “alis”, meaning “short wings”.

Material examined

2♀. Japan: Holotype 1♀, Hokkaido Tomuraushi area, 43.45°N, 142.91°E, 13.viii.1996, leg. Masner L. (SS) (CNCI). Paratype: 1♀, Hokkaido, Sapporo Forest Reservation, 43.072°N, 141.202°E, 8.viii.1989, leg. Sharkey M. (SS) (CNCI).

Distribution

Japan (Fig. 299).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia brevialis and F. sashai are the only Palearctic species of the genus that are brachypterous and lack notauli. These species can be separated by the length of the fore wings (hardly longer than the tegula in F. sashai and surpassing the middle of T2 in F. brevialis) and the length of the transscutal articulation (incomplete in F. sashai and complete in F. brevialis).

Fidiobia brevinotaula Veenakumari, Popovici & Buhl, 2018

Figs 48–55, 300

Fidiobia brevinotaula Veenakumari, Popovici & Buhl, 2018: 557.

Description

Female (Figs 48, 49). Body length: 0.6 mm. Colour of body: melanic, T1 lighter than the rest of body (Fig. 48).

Head (Figs 50, 51). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: reticulate coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture of the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 52). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: slightly darker than the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 48–55. 

Fidiobia brevinotaula: 48 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0073) 49 habitus, lateral view 50 head, dorsal view 51 head, frontal view 52 antenna (♀) 53 mesosoma, dorsal view 54 head and mesosoma, lateral view 55a wings 55b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 53, 54). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth, almost absent in posterior half, imbricate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae surpassing the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of metapleuron: dense, long setae on 3–4 rows along the metapleural carina, covering the foamy structure of metapleural carina, anteriorly with triangular glabrous area. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: short, anteroventrally located near mesopleral carina. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: not visible. Wings (Fig. 55a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus.

Metasoma (Fig. 48): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: dark-brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

5♀. Russia: 1♀, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk District, Gornotayozhnoye, 44.1°N, 132.41°E, 4–10.viii.1999, leg. Michailovskaya MV. (YPT) (CNCI); 3♀, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk District, Gornotayozhnoye, 44.1°N, 132.41°E, 16–18.ix.1999, leg. Michailovskaya MV. (YPT) (CNCI).

South Korea: 1♀, Gyeongsan-si, Daehak-ro 280, Yeungnam University, 35.82119°N, 128.7634°E, 14.viii.2016, Fusu L. (YPT) (OPPC0073).

Distribution

India (Veenakumari et al. 2018), Russia, South Korea (Fig. 300).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia brevinotaula is a distinct species based on the abbreviated notauli; the transaxillar carina and horizontal part of the dorsal axillar area that are not visible; the presence of foamy structures on the lateral propodeal carinae; the long, strong, white, dense setae on the metapleuron; and the minute size of specimens. It is close habitually to F. insoonae, but these species can be separated by the marginal setae of fore wings (short in F. brevinotaula and long in F. insoonae) and by the setation of metapleuron (there are long, strong, dense setae in F. brevinotaula and short, tiny, sparse setae in F. insoonae).

Fidiobia communis Popovici, Masner & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 56–60, 301

Description

Female. Body length: 0.8–0.9 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 56a, 58).

Head (Fig. 56a). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 56b). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: slightly darker than the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 56–60. 

Fidiobia communis: 56a female, habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 56b antenna (♀) 57a male, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0578) 57b antenna (♂) 58 female, habitus, lateral view 59 female, mesosoma, lateral view 60a wings 60b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 56a, 59). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: free, converging with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae in 2–3 longitudinal rows. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, from incomplete to complete. Wings (Figs 60a,b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma. Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male (Fig. 57a): similar to the female, differing in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 57b).

Etymology

This species is named “communis” because of the absence of any peculiar or striking characters.

Material examined

6♀ and 1♂. Romania: Holotype 1♀, Suceava, Călimani Mts., road of Maria Teresa, 47.12346°N, 25.20249°E, 13–20.vii.2012, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0577).

Paratypes : Czech Republic: 1♀, Bohemia, Celákovice Lipovka Res., 50.177°N, 14.759°E, 2–19.vi.1994, leg. Macek J. (MT) (CNCI).

Estonia: 2♀, 1.5 km NE Sööru, 58.66111°N, 26.88531°E, 4–11.vii.2011, leg. Soon V. (SN) (OPPC0664, 0665).

Romania: 1♂, Suceava, Călimani Mts., road of Maria Teresa, 47.12346°N, 25.20249°E, 13–20.vii.2012, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0578).

Ukraine: 1♀, Transcarpathia, Svydovets, 2–3 km NW of Kvasy, 48.15247°N, 24.26621°E, 7.v–5.vi.2014, leg. Varga O. (TT) (OPPC0230); 1♀, Transcarpathia, Svydovets, 2–3 km NW of Kvasy, 48.15247°N, 24.26621°E, 5–29.vi.2014, leg. Varga O. (TT) (OPPC0146).

Distribution

Czech Republic, Estonia, Romania, Ukraine (Fig. 301).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia communis is close to F. hofferi because of its general habitus, the metascutellum that is visible in dorsal view and the presence of epitorular carinae. These two species differ mainly by the sculpture of the dorsal mesopleuron (reduced in F. hofferi and extending to the middle of the mesopleuron in F. communis), setation of the ventral metapleural area (few, sparse setae in F. hofferi and dense, long setae in F. communis) and the length of the marginal setae on the fore wings (very short, hardly visible in F. hofferi and clearly visible in F. communis).

Fidiobia filicornis Buhl, 2014

Figs 61–68, 296, 302

Fidiobia filicornis Buhl, 2014: 74.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7–08 mm. Colour of body: bicoloured, head and mesosoma dark brown to brown, metasoma brown to reddish brown with T1 and the apex of T6 lighter (Figs 61, 62).

Head (Figs 66, 67). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of occiput: reticulate rugose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 64). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: hardly differs from the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 61–68. 

Fidiobia filicornis: 61 female, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0074) 62 female, habitus, lateral view 63 male, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0045) 64 antenna (♀) (OPPC0517) 65 antenna (♂) (OPPC0818) 66 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 67 head and mesosoma, lateral view 68a wings (OPPC0517) 68b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 66, 67). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: present. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth reticulate. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present laterally. Mesoscutellum: convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, as a single flange. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: short setae uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, short hairs on the entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: complete, almost straight. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 68a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Fig. 61): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: unknown. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: strongly transverse almost fused medially. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2, but the apex of T6 is lighter.

Male (Figs 63, 69–72): Similar to female, but differing in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 65).

Material examined

86♀ and 39♂. Togo: Holotype ♂, (Figs 69–73), (ZMUC).

China: 1♀ and 2♂, Beijing Prov., Mentougo 39.987°N, 115.5246°E, dry meadow, 28.vii.2002, leg. Melika G. (CNCI).

Figures 69–73. 

Holotype of Fidiobia filicornis: 69, 70 habitus, dorsal view 71 habitus, lateral view 72 head and antenna 73 data labels.

South Korea: 2♀, Jirisan, Hamyang-gun, Macheon-myon, Samjeong-li, 35.3486°N, 127.6392°E, 24.viii–15.ix.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 9♀ and 5♂, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0044, 0506, 0048, 0052, 0051, 0509, 0043, 0046, 0505 and OPPC0503, 0508, 0507, 0045, 0504); 15♀ and 4♂, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.vii–21.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0520, 0518, 0513, 0512, 0517, 0514, 0511, 0510, 0515, 0074, 0333, 0312, 0311, 0523, 0522 and OPPC0516, 0521, 0519, 0071); 5♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 12.vi–11.vii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC 0736, 0740, 0739, 0737, 0646); 32♀ and 17♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 11.vii–7.viii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0772, 0771, 0762, 0763, 0794, 0769, 0770, 0639, 0642, 0797, 0796, 0779, 0780, 0758, 0745, 0746, 0747, 0753, 0754, 0756, 0777, 0776, 0775, 0774, 0773, 0751, 0767, 0766, 0761, 0641, 0644, 0750 and OPPC0819, 0818, 0757, 0759, 0760, 0479, 0478, 0480, 0481, 0795, 0065, 0748, 0778, 0765, 0768, 0066, 0752); 3♀ and 2♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 14.vii–7.viii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0411, 0409, 0410 and OPPC0407, 0408); 8♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 7.viii–14.ix.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0419, 0414, 0415, 0413, 0412, 0416, 0742, 0476); 4♀ and 2♂, Jirisan, Hamyang, Songjeon-li, Munsu-sa, 35.41232°N, 127.7303°E, 28.vii–16.viii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0498, 0497, 0495, 0494 and OPPC0496, 0501); 4♀ and 1♂, Jirisan, Hamyang, Songjeon-li, Munsu-sa, 35.41232°N, 127.7303°E, 16.viii–5.ix.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0683, 0063, 0062, 0684 and OPPC0689); 2♀, Jirisan, Hamyang, Songjeon-li, Munsu-sa, 35.41232°N, 127.7303°E, 17.viii–5.ix.2005, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0744, 0743); 1♀ and 2♂, Chungnam, Keum-san, Nami-myeon, Seokdong, Pohyeonsa, 36.05823°N, 127.4537°E, 31.vii–28.viii.2005, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0589 and OPPC0070, 0588); 2♂, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun, Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.16594°N, 127.6124°E, 8–23.vii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0488, 0489); 1♂, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun, Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.16594°N, 127.6124°E, 28.vi–8.vii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0488, 0489); 1♂, Gyeongsan-si, Daehak-ro 280, Yeungnam University, 35.82119°N, 128.7634°E, 14–15.viii.2016, Fusu L. (YPT) (OPPC0072).

Distribution

Togo (Buhl 2014), China, South Korea (Fig. 302).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia filicornis is the only known Palearctic species with 9-merous antenna in the female and 10-merous antenna in the male. As is typical for Fidiobia, the female antenna is clavate and the male antenna is clubbed, but in the male of F. filicornis the antenna is almost filiform as in F. longiclava or F. vladlubomiri (both species with 10-merous antenna in male and female). Another distinctive character among the Palearctic species with 9-merous antennae is the presence of the transepisternal line, which is narrow, deeply incised, transverse and nearly complete in F. filicornis. This species is not known from the Oriental region (Veenakumari et al. 2018), but a new species, Fidiobia setosa was recently described from India and is considered a close relative of F. filicornis. These two species can be easily separated because of the presence of a hyperoccipital carina and 10-merous antennae in F. setosa.

Comments

Fidiobia filicornis was described from the Afrotropical region (Togo) by Buhl (2014). It was described from a singleton male specimen with distinctive filiform antenna with 10-antennomeres and without notauli. At the moment, there are no data concerning the distribution or the abundance of this species in the Afrotropical region, but it is one of the best represented species in our Palearctic material. The specimens from China are from the Sino-Japanese region but do not differ morphologically from South Korean specimens. The difference between our material and the type specimen is in the sculpture of mesoscutum, which is smoother in the latter.

Fidiobia flaviabdominalis Veenakumari, Popovici & Buhl, 2018

Figs 74–79, 303

Fidiobia flaviabdominalis Veenakumari, Popovici & Buhl, 2018: 556, 568.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.5 mm. Colour of body: xanthic, head and mesosoma brown, metasoma light brown to yellow (Figs 74, 75).

Head (Figs 77, 78). Colour of head: light brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 2 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture on the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 76). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: strongly differs from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 74–79. 

Fidiobia flaviabdominalis: 74 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0405) 75 habitus, lateral view (OPPC0786) 76 antenna (♀) (OPPC0647) 77 mesosoma, dorsal view 78 mesosoma, lateral view 79a wings (OPPC0647) 79b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 77, 78). Colour of mesosoma: light brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth to coriaceous. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: free, converging with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: sparse, long setae on the entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings (Fig. 79a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Fig. 74): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: light brown apically and darker basally. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: darker than T2.

Material examined

36♀ and 1♂. Japan: 2♀, Kyushu, Fukuoka Mt. Hiko, 33.1259°N, 130.7876°E, 21–29.vii.1989, leg. Takeno K. and Sharkey M. (MT) (CNCI); 1♂, Aichi Pref, Mt Sanage-yama, 35.182°N, 137.133°E, 25–31.vii.1989, leg. Takano A. (MT) (CNCI).

South Korea: 25♀, Jeollabuk-do, Buan-gun Samae-myeon Yuyu village, 35.4191°N, 127.2755°E, 5.vii–14.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0785, 0786, 0787, 0788, 0793, 0792, 0789, 0784, 0790, 0791, 0805, 0809, 0810, 0811, 0806, 0405, 0406, 0647, 0783, 0807, 0404, 0808, 0782, 0477, 0369); 1♀, Jeollabuk-do, Buan-gun Samae-myeon, Yuyu village, 35.4191°N, 127.2755°E, 21.iv–27.v.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0418); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 20.v–19.vi.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC485); 2♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0056 – no head, 0054); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 21.viii–25.ix.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0545); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 25.ix–17.xi.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0542); 1♀, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.2764°N, 127.6131°E, 8–23.vii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0728); 2♀, Jirisan, Hamyang, Songjeon-li, Munsu-sa, 35.41232°N, 127.7303°E, 28.vii–16.viii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0499, 0500).

Distribution

India (Veenakumari et al. 2018), Japan, South Korea (Fig. 303).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia flaviabdominalis is superficially similar in size and general habitus to F. insoonae, F. polita and F. politoides. It differs from F. insoonae mainly by of the absence of notauli (present in F. insoonae) and to F. polita and F. politoides because of the length of T2 (T2 is longer than wide in F. flaviabdominalis and wider than long in F. polita and F. politoides).

Comments

Fidiobia flaviabdominalis is one of the smallest species of the genus in the Palearctic region. It is peculiar among Palearctic Fidiobia because of its reduced size and the light color. Our specimens differ from the original description by the presence of longitudinal striae on the lower third of the mesopleuron and A4 longer than A3 in females.

Fidiobia gallica Masner, Popovici & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 80–87, 304

Description

Female. Body length: 1.1 mm. Colour of body: bicoloured, head and mesosoma black, metasoma brown with T1 lighter (T1 light brown to reddish) (Figs 80–82).

Head (Figs 83–85). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: reticulate-rugose. Sculpture of occiput: reticulate-rugose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: reticulate rugose. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Figs 85, 86). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: striking differs by the colour of the rest of antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: strongly compressed laterally. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present along the ventral side of A1, at most as wide as A1. Length of A3 of female: subequal to length of A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): unknown.

Figures 80–87. 

Fidiobia gallica: 80, 81a habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 81b mesosoma, dorsal view 82 habitus, lateral view 83 head, dorsal view 84 mesosoma, lateral view 85 head and antenna 86 antenna 87 wings.

Mesosoma (Figs 81b, 84). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a wide groove along the anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half the length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: smaller than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: NA. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: only present posteriorly. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae in 3–4 longitudinal rows. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on posterior half, a glabrous triangular area anteriorly. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present, extending ventrally to the transepisternal line. Transepisternal line: visible as a groove on the anteroventral mesopleuron intersecting ventrally with mesopleural carina and dorsally with a pit. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 87): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: as short as tegula. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with reticulate sculpture. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus.

Metasoma (Figs 81a, 82): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: reddish brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named “gallica”, meaning “French”, for the country where the specimen was collected. This species was named after the ancient name of France.

Material examined

1♀. France: Holotype 1♀, Montpellier, 43.73°N, 3.74°E, 12–18.vii.1981, leg. Vayssières JF. (CNCI).

Distribution

France (Fig. 304).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia gallica is one of the most peculiar species of the genus because of the lamellate scape, elongate A3, reticulate pattern on the disc of the fore wing and a narrow metasomal depression (width of metasomal depression is less than the length of the lateral propodeal carina) bordered by lateral propodeal carinae that are nearly parallel and are elevated posteriorly. The combination of these four characters differentiates this species from the remainder of the Palearctic fauna.

Comments

The development of the ventral lamella of A1 is found in other Palearctic platygastrids, including Iphitrachelus Walker and Amblyaspis Förster. In other regions, this can be found in Sacespalus Kieffer, Platygastoides Dodd, Plutomerus Masner and Huggert, and Pulchrisolia Szabó. The reticulate fore wing can also be found an undescribed species from Madagascar (Z. Lahey, unpublished data).

Fidiobia hirta Popovici, Masner & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 88–91, 305

Description

Female. Body length: 1.1 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 88a, 89).

Head (Fig. 90). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: present. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 88b). Colour of A1: brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 88–91. 

Fidiobia hirta: 88a habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 88b antenna 89 habitus, lateral view 90 head, dorsal view 91 head and mesosoma, lateral view.

Mesosoma (Figs 88a, 91). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: cylindrical, not compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth, almost absent in posterior half, imbricate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present as a change in sculpture or pilosity. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: shorter than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present only laterally. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present on the entire length of scutelo-scutellar sulcus. Mesoscutellum: convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae not abutting posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: present. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: NA. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: divergent posteriorly. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: short setae on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: short setae uniformly distributed on the entire surface. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a pit. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 89): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: brown, with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown with darker pretarsus.

Metasoma (Fig. 88a): posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named for the Latin term for hairy, “hirta”.

Material examined

5♀. Russia: Holotype 1♀, Primorsky Krai, Ussuriysk District, Gornotayozhnoye, 44.1000°N, 132.4167°E, 4–10.viii.1999, leg. Michailovskaya M.V. (YPT) (CNCI).

Paratypes : South Korea: 2♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, in forest, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 25.v–14.vi.2003, leg Tripotin P. (MT); 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 25.v–14.vi.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0067), 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 17.viii–5.ix.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0069).

Distribution

This species was encountered only in Far East Russia and South Korea (Fig. 305).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia hirta differs from other species in the genus because the body is not flattened dorsoventrally, the mesoscutum and mesoscutellum are convex in lateral view, the metasomal depression is large, the lateral propodeal carinae diverge posteriorly, and T3 is at least as long as its maximum width.

Fidiobia hispanica Popovici & Buhl, 2010

Figs 92–98, 99–102, 306

Fidiobia hispanica Popovici & Buhl, 2010: 1149; Notton et al. 2014: 2.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7–0.9 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Fig. 92).

Head (Figs 93, 94). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 3 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: absent. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: absent. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 95a). Colour of A1: brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): 1:1:1 (Fig. 95b).

Figures 92–98. 

Fidiobia hispanica: 92 habitus, dorsal view (BMNH_01) 93 head, dorsal view 94 head, frontal view 95a antenna (♀) 95b sensillar formula 96 antenna (♂) 97a wings 97b WIP 98 gall of Andricus lignicola.

Mesosoma (Fig. 92). Colour of mesosoma: light brown. Mesosoma: strongly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: flat. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: flat. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: the same with the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: hardly divergent anteriorly. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina, or only in posterior half. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: absent. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Figs 97a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: brown. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: brown. Colour of middle tibiae: brown. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: brown. Colour of hind tibiae: brown. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Fig. 92): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: T3–T5 the same as T2, T6 lighter than T2.

Male (Fig. 101): Similar to female, differing in the structure of the antenna and in some metasomal characters (see Popovici and Buhl 2010).

Material examined

22♀ and 3♂. Spain: Holotype (Fig. 99): 1♀, Pina de Ebro, Pine / Juniper forest, leg. J. Blasco Zumeta (Fig. 77) (ZMUC). Paratypes: 1♀, Pina de Ebro, UTM30TYL2894 (41.5207°N, -0.5055°E), 9.iii.1991, leg. Zumeta B. (OPPC 0801); 1♀, Pina de Ebro, UTM30TYL2894 (41.5207°N, -0.5055°E), 9.iii.1991, leg. Zumeta B. (Fig. 75) (ZMUC); 1♂, Pina de Ebro, UTM30TYL2894 (41.5207°N, -0.5055°E), 9.iii.1991, leg. Zumeta B. (Fig. 101) (ZMUC).

Figures 99–102. 

Types of Fidiobia hispanica: 99 Holotype ♀ 100 Paratype ♀ 101 Paratype ♂ 102 labels of the holotype.

Non-type material

England: 16♀ and 3♂, London, Greenwich, Vanbrugh Pits, reared from a batch of beetle eggs in vacated Andricus lignicola (Hartig, 1840) gall on Quercus robur Linnaeus, 1753, (gall collected 17.i.2010, Notton D.G.) (BMNH); 5♀, London, Greenwich, Vanbrugh Pits, TQ397771 (51.4758°N, 0.0111°E), reared from a batch of beetle eggs in a vacated cell of Synergus umbraculus (Olivier, 1791) in an old Andricus kollari (Hartig, 1843) gall on Quercus robur, (gall collected 14.iii.2010, Notton D.G.) (BMNH).

Distribution

Spain, Ireland, England (Popovici and Buhl 2010; Notton et al. 2014) (Fig. 306).

Biology

Popovici and Buhl (2010) reported Andricus lignicola (Hartig) (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Quercus as the host of F. hispanica, as it was in O’Connor et al. (2004). Notton et al. (2014) observed that, in fact, F. hispanica, was reared from beetle eggs found in a vacated gall of Andricus lignicola (Fig. 98) on Quercus robur and from beetle eggs found in a vacated Synergus umbraculus (Olivier) cell in a vacated Andricus kollari (Hartig) gall. For this reason, we consider it likely that the true host is a beetle and not a cynipoid as mentioned in Popovici and Buhl (2010).

Diagnosis

The small size and delicate exoskeleton of F. hispanica make this species unmistakable among the Palearctic species with 10-merous antennae. The habitus is somewhat similar to that of F. synergorum and these species have been previously confused (Buhl 1999b; O’Connor et al. 2004). The main differences between them are the number of antennomeres (10 in F. hispanica and 9 in F. synergorum) and the ratio between the width and height of the mesosoma in females (1.6 in F. hispanica and 2.7 in F. synergorum), the transverse carina between the lateral propodeal carinae (present in F. hispanica and absent in F. synergorum) and the structure of the metasoma in males (presented in Popovici and Buhl 2010). The 1:1:1 sensillar formula (Fig. 95b) is unique among the Palearctic species of Fidiobia in which this character has been observed.

Fidiobia hofferi Kozlov, 1978

Figs 103–108, 109–114, 290–292, 307

Fidiobia hofferi Kozlov, 1978: 656; Koponen and Huggert 1982: 53; Vlug 1995: 24; Buhl 1999a: 18; Evans and Peña 2005: 62; Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1159; Asadi-Farfar et al. 2020: 128.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.5–0.6 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 103a, 104a, 105, 106).

Head. Colour of head: light brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 2 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons, but smoother. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Figs 103b, 104b). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 103–108. 

Fidiobia hofferi: 103a fully winged specimen, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0635) 103b antenna in fully winged specimen (♀) (OPPC0638) 104a brachypterous specimen, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0826) 104b antenna in brachypterous specimen (♀) 105 specimen with extremely brachiptery (OPPC0823) 106 brachypterous specimen, lateral view 107a fully developed wings 107b WIP in fully developed wings 108a brachypterous wings (OPPC0656) 108b WIP in brachypterous wings..

Mesosoma. Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost colliniar with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 3–4 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: few, sparse setae. Setation of ventral metapleural area: few, sparse setae. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings (Figs 107, 108): fully winged, brachypterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma. Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

19♀. Czech Republic: 2♀, (paralectotypes), Moravia, Bzenec, 48.967°N, 17.253°E, 1.vii.1958, leg. Lemarie J., (ex. larva ichneumonid) [OPPC0814 (Figs 109–114), 0802].

Figures 109–114. 

Fidiobia hofferi, paralectotype: 109 habitus, dorsal view 110 antenna (♀) 111 habitus, lateral view 112 head and mesosoma, lateral view 113 data labels 114a wings 114b WIP.

Romania: 8♀ (brachypterous) and 8♀ (full winged), Iași, Bârnova forest near Slobozia, 47.01139°N, 27.60306°E, 4.vii.2011, leg. Noyes JS. (SS) (OPPC0660, 0659, 0658, 0657, 0662, 0656, 0826, 0661 and OPPC0635, 0636, 0637, 0655, 0633, 0663, 0638, 0634).

Ukraine: 1♀, Transcarpathia reg., Svydovets, 2–3 km NW of Kvasy, 48.1524°N, 24.2662°E, 5–29.vi.2014, beech forest, leg. Varga O. (TT) (OPPC0823).

Distribution

Finland, Sweden, Iran (Koponen and Huggert 1982; Asadi-Farfar et al. 2020), Czech Republic, Romania, Ukraine (Fig. 307).

Biology

The host is unknown, but Lemarie (1958, 1959, 1960, 1961) reported that the specimens from the type series were reared from an ichneumonid parasitoid of Exoteleia dodecella (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). We consider this assumption to have no support. The habitat of this species in Romania is represented by glades with shrubby vegetation.

Diagnosis

This species can be diagnosed by the visible metascutellum and nearly glabrous metapleuron. It is relatively close to F. vanharteni and F. polita based on its general habitus. Fidiobia hofferi is most likely to be confused with F. polita, a species with which it is sympatric. The main difference is the presence of notauli in F. hofferi and the absence of these structures in F. polita. Another difference between these two species is the OOL:OD ratio (OOL is 2 times as long as OD in F. hofferi and OOL is equal to OD in F. polita).

Fidiobia hofferi can be separated from F. vanharteni because the fore wings are uniformly hyaline in F. hofferi and dark medially in F. vanharteni. Also, the OOL is equal to about 2 OD in F. hofferi and the OOL is equal to or less than OD in F. vanharteni. Fidiobia hofferi is a polymorphic species and contains brachypterous females among the Romanian material.

Comments

In specimens from the type series, the median prominence of T1 is smooth and without carinae. In the Romanian material, the median prominence of T1 has two carinae. Also, the specimens from Romania are more gracile than the specimens from the type series. The specimen from Ukraine has the wings more reduced than the brachypterous specimens from Romania, which are about half the length of the notauli, and the medial prominence of T1 with three carinae. The Ukrainian specimen otherwise matches our concept of F. hofferi.

Fidiobia insoonae Popovici, Talamas & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 115–119, 308

Description

Female. Body length: 0.5 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 115a, 116).

Head. Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 115b). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: variable. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 115–119. 

Fidiobia insoonae: 115a habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 115b antenna (♀) (OPPC0064) 116 habitus, lateral view 117 mesosoma, dorsal view 118 head and mesosoma, lateral view 119a wings (OPPC0064) 119b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 117, 118). Colour of mesosoma: light brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth in posterior half, reticulate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of metapleuron: setae on one or two rows along of metapleural carina; foamy structure of metapleural carina not covered by these setae, anteriorly with a large glabrous area. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: present, anteroventrally as a short and superficial depression. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings (Fig. 119a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: present. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: light-brown. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: light-brown. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma. Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named in honor of Insoon Tripotin.

Material examined

8♀. South Korea: Holotype 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0058).

Paratypes : South Korea: 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 20.v–19.vi.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0064); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0057); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 21.viii–25.ix.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0546); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 25.ix–17.xi.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0544); 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 11.vii–7.viii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0643); 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 26.ix–31.x.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0816); 1♀, Jirisan, Hamyang, Songjeon-li, Munsu-sa, 35.41232°N, 127.7303°E, 6–27.vi.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0493).

Distribution

South Korea (Fig. 308).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia insoonae is superficially similar to F. polita, F. politoides, F. flaviabdominalis, and F. hofferi because of the almost similar size and the general habitus. It most obviously differs from F. polita, F. politoides, and F. flaviabdominalis (it is sympatric with the latter two) by the presence of notauli. Fidiobia insoonae and F. hofferi are allopatric and differ from each other mainly by the metascutellum, which is covered by the posterior margin of mesoscutellum and not visible in F. insoonae, and because of the setation of the metapleuron is sparse in F. hofferi and dense in F. insoonae. Also, the marginal fringe of the fore wing is short and barely noticable in F. hofferi but it is long in F. insoonae.

Fidiobia lisenchiae Popovici, Lahey & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 120–124, 309

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Fig. 120).

Head (Figs 121, 122, 124). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 122). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: striking differs from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 120–124. 

Fidiobia lisenchiae: 120 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 121 head, dorsal view 122 head (frontal view) and antenna 123 mesosoma, dorsal view 124 head and mesosoma, lateral view.

Mesosoma (Figs 123, 124). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 3–4 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae surpassing the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: short setae on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: short setae uniformly distribuited on the entire surface. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: absent. Transepisternal line: visible as a ridge on the anteroventral mesopleuron. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings. macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: brown, with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Fig. 120): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named after Camelia Lisenchi because of her great support during a collecting trip in Cyprus.

Material examined

1♀. Cyprus: Holotype 1♀, 6 km N of Lemessos, 34.727°N, 33.05°E, 24.v.2009, leg. Popovici O. and Fusu L. (SN) (OPPC0813).

Distribution

Cyprus (Fig. 309).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia lisenchiae is similar to F. platystasioides because of the absence of epitorular carinae, the fore wings with very short marginal setae and the notauli slightly dilated posteriorly. These two species are easily separated because the mesosoma is slightly flattened in F. lisenchiae and visibly flattened in F. platystasioides. Also, T2 is transverse in F. lisenchiae and square or nearly so in F. platystasioides. The difference between these two states of T2 is reflected in the ratio of T2:T1. T2 is at most 3 times as long as T1 in F. lisenchiae and at least 4 times as long as T1 in F. platystasioides. The submarginal vein is shorter in F. lisenchiae than in F. platystasioides, with the apex of the submarginal vein hardly surpassing the posterior edge of the propodeum in F. lisenchiae and surpassing the middle of T1 in F. platystasioides. Other subtle differences between these species are the color of the scape and tibia (yellow in F. lisenchiae and dark brown in F. platystasioides), the sculpture of the dorsal mesopleuron (with few striae and a smooth area in F. lisenchiae and with numerous, dense striae in F. platystasiodes) and in the sculpture of the lateral pronotal area (sculptured only in dorsal third in F. lisenchiae and in dorsal two thirds in F. platystasioides).

Fidiobia longiclava Popovici, Masner & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 125–130, 131–137, 310

Description

Female. Body length: 0.8–1.0 mm. Colour of body: Variable, melanic specimens are brown with hardly lighter T1; xanthic specimens are light brown to yellow with darker head (Figs 125–128).

Head (Figs 131, 132, 136). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture on the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: six setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 133a, b). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): 2:2:1.

Figures 125–130. 

Fidiobia longiclava: 125 melanic ♀, habitus, dorsal view (CNC-02) 126 melanic ♀, habitus, lateral view 127 xanthic ♀, habitus, dorsal view (CNC-01) 128 xanthic ♀, habitus, lateral view 129 ♂, habitus, dorsal view (CNC-03) 130 ♂, habitus, lateral view.

Mesosoma (Figs 135, 136). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: present. Mesoscutum: flat. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present as a change in sculpture or pilosity. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: shorter than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present only laterad. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present on the entire length of scutelo-scutellar sulcus. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae not abutting posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: the same with the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from lateral propodeal carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Pilosity of dorsal metapleural area: short hairs on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Pilosity of ventral metapleural area: short hairs uniformly distributed on the entire surface. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: absent. Transepisternal line: complete, straight. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 137a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Figs 126, 127): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: numerous. Colour of T2: reddish- brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: merging together in a deep and transverse anterior depression. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male (Figs 129, 130). Similar to the female, but differing in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 134).

Figures 131–137. 

Fidiobia longiclava: 131 head, frontal view 132 head, dorsal view 133a antenna (♀), 133b sensillar formula 134 antenna (♂) 135 mesosoma, dorsal view 136 mesosoma, lateral view 137a wings 137b WIP.

Etymology

This species is named for the elongate shape of the clavomeres.

Material examined

8♀ and 1♂. South Korea: Holotype 1♀, Jirisan, Hamyang-gun, Macheon-myon, Samjeong-li, 35.3486°N, 127.6392°E, 24.viii–15.ix.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI).

Paratypes : South Korea, 4♀, Jirisan, Hamyang-gun, Macheon-myon, Samjeong-li, 35.3486°N, 127.6392°E, 24.viii–15.ix.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 2♀, Chungbuk, Yeongdong-gun, Sangchon-myeon, Mulhangyegong-ro, 36.1165°N, 127.8949°E, 4.viii–24.ix.2002, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 1♂, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 31.vii–16.viii.2003, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 1♀, Jirisan, Hamyang-gun, Macheon-myon, Samjeong-li, 35.3486°N, 127.6392°E, 15.ix–13.x.2002, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 31.vii–30.ix.2006, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 2♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 26.vi–30.vii.2006, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI).

Distribution

South Korea (Fig. 310).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

The most diagnostic feature is the elongated shape of the clavomeres, which are unique among the Palearctic species of Fidiobia with 10-merous antennae. Non-sexually dimorphic characters that can be used to identify males are the notaular lines that are visible as a change in the setation of the mesoscutum and the nearly straight transepisternal line. The transverse anterior pits of T2 that nearly merge medially is unique among Palearctic Fidiobia that have a 10-merous antenna, lack notauli and have the junction of T1–T2 not covered by a row of setae. The color of the body in this species is highly variable, ranging from almost entirely yellow to completely brown.

Fidiobia nipponica Popovici, Masner & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 138–144, 311

Description

Females. Length of body: 1.1 mm. Colour of body: melanic species (Figs 138, 139).

Head (Figs 142–144). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: the same as the sculpture of head. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 3 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: alutaceous. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: four setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 144b). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: similar to or slightly darker than the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): unknown.

Figures 138–144. 

Fidiobia nipponica: 138 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 139 habitus, lateral view 140 mesosoma, dorsal view 141 mesosoma, lateral view 142 head, dorsal view 143 head, frontal view 144a head and antenna (♀) 144b antenna (♀).

Mesosoma (Figs 140, 141). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: cylindrical, not compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: not visible. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: NA. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: alutaceous. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present, complete. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present laterally. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: present. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: not visible, covered with foamy structure. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: NA. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: present. Lateral propodeal carinae: divergent posteriorly. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: free, converging with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, as a single flange. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present, only posteriorly. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: absent. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, short setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a ridge on the anteroventral mesopleuron, meeting mesopleural carina ventrally (Fig. 141). Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings. macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Figs 138, 139): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: reddish-brown. Lateral setae of T1: absent. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: merging together in a deep and transverse anterior depression. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: substrigulate on 1/2 of T2 length. Colour of T3–T6: T3 the same with T2, T4–T6 lighter than T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named after the country where the type material was collected.

Material examined

1♀. Japan: Holotype 1♀, Tochigi, Hikinuma, Shiobara, 21.viii.1985, leg. Takahaghi K. (TT) (CNCI).

Distribution

Japan (Fig. 311).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

We consider F. nipponica to be close to F. striatitergitis based on the presence of a metascutellar carina with a tooth, a posterior mesoscutellar sulcus and the very short marginal fringe of the fore wing. Although most of T2 in this species is smooth and shining, some very fine longitudinal striae can be observed laterally, but this sculpture is distinctly different than the extensive striation on T2 that is found in F. striatitergitis. The metasomal depression is completely covered with foamy structures and the large distance between the posterior ocellus and compound eye make this species easy to recognize among the Palearctic species of Fidiobia with 10-merous antennae.

Fidiobia platystasioides Masner, Popovici & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 145–152, 312

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 145, 146).

Figures 145–152. 

Fidiobia platystasioides: 145 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 146 habitus, lateral view 147 antenna (♀) 148 head, dorsal view 149 head, frontal view 150 head and antenna 151 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 152 head and mesosoma, lateral view.

Head (Figs 148–152). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same with the sculpture from the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Figs 147, 150). Colour of A1: brown with lighter ends. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): unknown.

Mesosoma (Figs 151, 152). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: compressed. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 3–4 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, short setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae not abutting posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posterodorsal half. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings. macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus.

Metasoma (Fig. 145): posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: dark brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: dark brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named for its similarity with species of Platystasius Nixon, 1937.

Material examined

1♀. China: Holotype 1♀, Beijing Prov., Mentougo, 39.987°N, 115.5246°E, 28.vii.2002, leg. Melika G. (CNCI).

Distribution

China (Fig. 312).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia platystasioides is similar to F. lisenchiae because of the absence of epitorular carinae, the fore wings with very short marginal setae and notauli slightly dilated posteriorly. The main differences between these two species is the ratio T2:T1 (in F. platystasioides T2 is at least 4 times as long as T1 and in F. lisenchiae T2 is at most 3 times as long as T1) and the length of the submarginal vein (the apex of the submarginal vein surpassing the middle of T1 in F. platystasioides and hardly surpassing the propodeum in F. lisenchiae). Other subtle differences between these species are the color of the scape and tibia (dark brown in F. platystasioides and yellow in F. lisenchiae), the sculpture of the dorsal mesopleuron (with numerous dense striae in F. platystasiodes and with few striae and a smooth area in F. lisenchiae) and the sculpture of the lateral pronotal area (sculptured in dorsal two thirds in F. platystasioides and only in dorsal third in F. lisenchiae).

Comments

Fidiobia platystasioides is a distinct species because the notauli are slightly dilated posteriorly and almost parallel, and the body is flattened. These characteristics closely resemble those seen in the genus Platystasius Nixon.

Fidiobia polita Buhl, 1998

Figs 153–158, 159–164, 297, 313

Fidiobia polita Buhl, 1998: 298; Buhl 1999a: 18; Evans and Peña 2005: 62; Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1154.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.5–0.6 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 153, 154, 159).

Figures 153–158. 

Fidiobia polita: 153 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0738) 154 habitus, lateral view 155 head and mesosoma, lateral view 156 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 157 antenna (♀) (OPPC0738) 158a wings (OPPC0738) 158b WIP.

Head (Figs 155, 156, 163). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: smooth, reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture on the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 157). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Mesosoma (Figs 155; 156). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: present. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: sparse, long setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings (Fig. 158a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: brown, with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Figs 153; 159): posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

14♀. Estonia: 1♀, 1,5 km NE Sööru, 58.65063°N, 26.88531°E, 3–10.vi.2011, leg. Soon V. (OPPC0547).

Greece: 1♀, Kerkini lake Natural Park, Kerkini Mts., 41.28642°N, 23.20147°E, 4.v.2010, leg. Popovici O. and Fusu L. (SN) (OPPC0580).

Hungary: 5♀, Örseg, Nemzeti Park, Lugosy Valley, 46.9°N, 16.45°E, 28.vi.2010, leg. Noyes JS. (SS) (OPPC0817, 0584, 0585, 0587, 0586).

Romania: 1♀, Iași, Ciric, 47.24333°N, 27.57927°E, 20.v.2006, leg. Popovici O. and Moglan I. (SN) (OPPC0798).

Sweden: Holotype ♀, (Figs 159–164) (ZMUC).

Figures 159–164. 

Holotype of Fidiobia polita: 159 habitus, dorsal view 160 habitus, lateral view 161 mesosoma, dorsal view 162 mesosoma, lateral view 163 head and antenna 164 labels.

Non-type materia

2♀, Småland, Asa, 57.16667°N, 14.78333°E, 5–6.vii.2007, leg. Shevtsova E. (OPPC0738, 0732).

Ukraine: 2♀, Mochary reg., 5 km NE of Bogorodchany, 48.84755°N, 24.59081°E, 16.vi–14.vii.2014, leg. Varga O. (OPPC0055, 0140); 1♀, Mochary reg., 5 km NE of Bogorodchany, 48.84755°N, 24.59081°E, 8–14.vi.2015, leg. Varga O. (OPPC0186).

Distribution

Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Romania, Sweden, Ukraine (Fig. 313).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia polita is distinct among the Palearctic species of this genus with 9-merous antennae and without notauli because T2 is transverse or about as long as wide and the OOL is about as long as an OD (OOL 0.8–1.2 times as long as OD). Of the Palearctic fauna, F. polita is most similar to F. politoides and differs in the length of the fore wing marginal setae (long marginal setae in F. polita and very short marginal setae in F. politoides). According to the studied material these species are allopatric.

In the European fauna, F. polita is similar to F. hofferi but differs by the notauli (which are present in F. hofferi and absent in F. polita) and by the ratio OOL:OD (OOL = 2OD in F. hofferi and OOL = OD in F. polita). Because of the small size of both species, and because in some specimens of F. hofferi the notauli are superficial, the presence of notauli can be difficult to observe. Minor differences can also be observed in the structure of the antenna: A3 is shorter than A4 and the junction between A2 and A3 is narrow in F. polita, but in F. hofferi A3 is almost as long as A4 and the junction between A2 and A3 is large. In F. polita, A5 has the same shape as A4 (globular or moniliform), but in F. hofferi A5 it is more transverse than A4. The study of these characters requires examination of the antenna on a microscopic slide.

Comments

In our material, the specimens from Sweden (type locality) are very similar to the specimen from Estonia. The specimen from Greece is the smallest, relatively weakly sclerotized and, in connection with this, the color of body is lighter than in the rest of the specimens. However, there are no characters to reliably separate it. Also, the Romanian specimen is slightly larger than the rest of the specimens examined.

Fidiobia politoides Popovici, Talamas & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 165–169, 314

Description

Female. Body length: 0.5 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 165–166).

Head (Fig. 167). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 168). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: similar to or slightly darker than the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 165–169. 

Fidiobia politoides: 165 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0475) 166 habitus, lateral view 167 head (frontal view) and antenna 168 antenna (♀) 169a wings 169b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 165, 166). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present, weakly developed. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: not visible. Posterior end of plica: NA. Foamy structure on plica: NA. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: few, sparse setae. Setation of ventral metapleural area: absent. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, incomplete. Wings (Fig. 169a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: present. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: very short, almost absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Figs 165, 166): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named for its similarity to F. polita.

Material examined

2♀. South Korea: Holotype 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.iv–20.v.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0653).

Paratype : South Korea: 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 25.v–14.vi.2003, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0475).

Distribution

South Korea (Fig. 314).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia politoides is close to F. polita because T2 is transverse or about as long as wide and the OOL is about as long as an OD (OOL 0.8–1.2 times as long as OD) and they differ in the length of the fore wing marginal setae (long marginal setae in F. polita and very short marginal setae in F. politoides). In the structure of antenna, the clava in F. politoides is larger than in F. polita, and A5 and A6 are more transverse in F. politoides than in F. polita. According to the studied material these species are allopatric.

Fidiobia pronotata Szabó, 1958

Figs 170–176, 177–180, 284, 315

Fidiobia pronotata Szabó, 1958: 459; Kozlov 1978: 656; Kozlov 1987: 1199; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69. Evans and Peña 2005: 62; Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1155.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.9–1.0 mm. Colour of body: bicoloured, head and mesosoma black, metasoma brown (Figs 170, 171).

Head (Figs 172–174). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: areolate-rugulose. Sculpture of occiput: areolate-rugulose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: areolate-rugulose, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 175a). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1 (Fig. 175b).

Figures 170–176. 

Fidiobia pronotata: 170 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0693) 171 habitus, lateral view 172 head, dorsal view 173 head, frontal view 174 head and antenna 175a antenna (♀) (OPPC0692) 175b sensillar formula 176 fore wing (OPPC0692).

Mesosoma (Figs 170, 171, 178). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: cervical pronotal area broader than lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: more than half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: dense, long setae on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on the entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a superficial depression on the anteroventral mesopleuron. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings. brachypterous. Apex of fore wing (Fig. 176): acuminate. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: absent. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: unknown. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Figs 170, 178): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: reddish brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

11♀. France: 1♀, Côte-d’Or, Esbarres, 47.102°N, 5.229°E, 1.ix.1948, leg. Barbier J. (MNHP); 1♀, Côte-d’Or, Esbarres, 47.102°N, 5.229°E, 22.ix.1955, leg. Barbier J. (MNHP); 1♀, Côte-d’Or, Gevrolles, 47.985°N, 4.772°E, 4.ix.1957, leg. Barbier J. (MNHP); 1♀, Côte-d’Or, Esbarres, 47.102°N, 5.229°E, 16.vii.1958, leg. Barbier J. (CNCI); 1♀, Côte-d’Or, Esbarres, 47.102°N, 5.229°E, 27.viii.1959, leg. Barbier J. (CNCI).

Hungary: Holotype: ♀, Pesta, Szentendrei-sziget, 47.643°N, 19.099°E, 2.vii.1957, leg. Szabó JB. (HNHM) (Figs 177–180); Paratype: 1♀, Siófok, Zamárdi, 46.861°N, 17.953°E, 29.x.1953, leg. Balogh J. (HNHM).

Figures 177–180. 

Holotype of Fidiobia pronotata. 177, 178 habitus, dorsal view 179 habitus, lateral view 180 data labels.

Romania: 1♀, Iași, Botanical Garden, 47.186°N, 27.5512°E, 17.ix.2003, leg. Popovici O. (sweep net) (OPPC0692); 1♀, Constanța, Vadu, 44.47265°N, 28.8064°E, 26.viii.2004, leg. Popovici O. (sweep net) (OPPC0693); 1♀, Iași, Ciric lake, 47.18778°N, 27.60139°E, 30.vii.2010, leg. Popovici O. (YPT) (OPPC0482); 1♀, Iași, Botanical Garden, 47.1875°N, 27.54889°E, 30.vi.2011, leg. Noyes JS. (SS) (OPPC0755).

Distribution

Germany (Buhl et al. 2016); Republic of Moldova (Kozlov 1987); France, Hungary, Romania (Fig. 315).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia pronotata can be easily identified by the elongate pronotum, shortened wings and large, non-foveate mesoscutal humeral and suprahumeral sulci. The epomial carina is absent, or very short and weakly indicated. This combination of characters is unique among Palearctic Fidiobia.

Comments

In the original description of this species, Szabó (1958) designated the holotype and one paratype. Both specimens were located in HNHM. In the case of the holotype, near the original labels there is one label that indicates the specimen as the lectotype (Fig. 180). We do not understand the significance of this label.

It is a relatively rare species not often collected with sweep nets or Malaise traps.

Fidiobia pronotatoides Popovici, Lahey & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 181–185, 316

Description

Female. Body length: 0.84 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 181, 182).

Head (Figs 183–185). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of occiput: areolate rugulose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: areolate rugulose. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 186). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: different from the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): unknown.

Figures 181–186. 

Fidiobia pronotatoides: 181 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 182 habitus, lateral view 183 head, dorsal view 184 head, frontal view 185 head and antenna 186 antenna (♀).

Mesosoma (Figs 181, 182). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a wide groove along the anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: present. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: more than half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: shorter than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: dense, long setae on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on the entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings (Figs 181, 182): brachypterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus.

Metasoma (Figs 181, 182): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: dark brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: black. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named for its similarity to F. pronotata.

Material examined

1♀. Romania: Holotype 1♀, Iași, Valea lui David, 47.1939°N, 27.4697°E, 30.v.2018, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0001).

Distribution

Romania (Fig. 316).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

There are three brachypterous species of Fidiobia with notauli and areolate-rugulose sculpture on the frons: F. pronotanoides, F. pronotata, and F. rugosifrons. Between these species, brachyptery is always observed in F. pronotata and F. pronotatoides, but it is a rarity for F. rugosifrons.

Fidiobia pronotatoides is very close to F. pronotata, differing by the pronotum of typical length, the narrow mesoscutal humeral and suprahumeral sulci, the well developed epomial carina (longer than half the length of the pronotum measured along midline), fore wings apically rounded (acuminate in F. pronotata), legs light brown with brown coxae (legs entirely yellow in F. pronotata) and a glabrous median prominence of T1 (setose in F. pronotata). Fidiobia pronotatoides can be separated from F. rugosifrons by the length of the fore wing (not reaching the middle of T2), the internotaular sculpture (smooth in posterior half), and the lateral pronotal area (smooth in ventral half).

Fidiobia roatai Popovici, Talamas & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 187–194, 285, 317

Description

Female. Body length: 0.9–1.0 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 187, 188).

Head (Figs 189, 190). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of occiput: areolate rugulose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 191). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 187–194. 

Fidiobia roatai: 187. habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 188 habitus, lateral view 189 head, frontal view 190 head, dorsal view 191 antenna (♀) (OPPC0548) 192 mesosoma, dorsal view 193 mesosoma, lateral view 194a wings (OPPC0548) 194b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 192, 193). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along of anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: more than half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: at most 1.9 times as long as maximum width. Distance between notauli: almost equal with the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae surpassing the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: dense, long setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a sulcus on the anteroventral mesopleuron connected with a pit. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 194a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present; absent. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: as short as tegula. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Fig. 187): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

7♀. Romania: Holotype 1♀, Iași, Mârzești, 47.242716°N, 27.471497°E, 19.vi.2016, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0827). Paratypes: 2♀, Iași, Mârzești, 47.24417°N, 27.48278°E, 5.vii.2011, leg. Mitroiu M. (SN) (OPPC0567, 0568); 3♀, Iași, Mârzești, 47.242716°N, 27.471497°E, 19.vi.2016, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0550, 0540, 0548).

Non-type material

1♀, Iași, Ciric, 26.vi.2006, 47.24333°N, 27.57927°E, leg. Popovici O. (SN) (OPPC0696).

Etymology

This species is named after Dr. Cristian Roată, a well-known surgeon from Iași (Romania).

Distribution

Romania (Fig. 317).

Biology

The host is unknown. The specimens were collected from a typically steppic habitat.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia roatai is distinct among species with an areolate-rugulose frons because of its dark body, absence of sculpture between the notauli, absence of foamy structures on the propodeum, the ratio between A2 and A3 (A2 1.3–1.5 times as long as A3 in F. roatai and 2.4–2.6 times as long as A3 in F. rugosifronsoides), the ratio between A3 and A4 (A3 1.8–2.0 times as long as A4 in F. roatai and 1.2–1.3 times as long as A4 in F. rugosifronsoides) and the rudimentary or absent submarginal vein of fore wing. Also, the fore wings in F. roatai have a peculiar pattern in color and in the distribution of setae. The basal 1/5 of the fore wing is light brown and the setae are absent or punctiform on this area. The apical 3/5 of fore wing is also light brown but covered with short setae. Between basal and apical brown areas of the fore wing there is a lighter almost triangular area. The anterior margin of the fore wings is also peculiar with an expanded costal lobe.

Fidiobia rugosifrons Crawford, 1916

Figs 195–201, 202–214, 286, 287, 318

Fidiobia rugosifrons: Crawford 1916: 141; Fouts 1924: 8; Kieffer 1926: 700, 701; Masner and Muesebeck 1968: 76; Fabritius 1974: 294; Kozlov 1978: 656; Kozlov 1987: 1199; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69; Buhl 1999a: 18; Evans and Peña 2005: 62; Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1157.

Fidiobia tatrae: Szelényi 1941: 167; Jansson 1956: 89; Szabó 1958: 462; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69.

Rosneta phryne: Debauche 1947: 280; Jansson 1956: 88; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69.

Fidiobia phryne: Ghesquière 1948: 45; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7–1.0 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 195–198).

Head. Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: areolate-rugulose. Sculpture of occiput: areolate-rugulose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: areolate-rugulose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: areolate-rugulose. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 199). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 195–201. 

Fidiobia rugosifrons: 195 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0703) 196 habitus, lateral view 197 habitus, dorsal view (brachypterous form OPPC0474) 198 habitus, lateral view (brachypterous form) 199 antenna (♀) (OPPC0699) 200 antenna (♂) (OPPC0691) 201a wings (OPPC0576) 201b WIP.

Mesosoma. Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: present. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: reticulate rugose. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: almost collinear with axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae abutting the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: visible, partially covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present, only posteriorly. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: dense, long hairs on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long hairs on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a ridge on the anteroventral mesopleuron connected with a pit. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 201a, b): macropterous, brachypterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma. Tergites posterior to T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: dark brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: dark brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Male. similar to the female, but differs in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 200).

Material examined

29♀ and 3♂. USA: Holotype of F. rugosifrons Crawford (Figs 202–205): ♀, Montoursville, Pennsylvania, 15.iv.1916 (USNM).

Figures 202–214. 

Fidiobia rugosifrons, type specimens: 202–205 Holotype of F. rugosifrons Crawford 206–208 Holotype of F. tatrae Szelényi 209–211 Holotype of Rosneta phryne Debauche 212–214 Paratype of Rosneta phryne Debauche.

Belgium: Holotype of Rosneta phryne Debauche (Figs 209–211): 1♀, Heverlé, 1.vi.1941. Paratypes of Rosneta phryne Debauche (Figs 212–214): 3♀ the same data as the holotype; 1♀, Heverlé, 9.vii.1942; 1♀, Kessel-Loo, 27.viii.1945.

Hungary: Type of F. tatrae Szelényi (Figs 206–208): ♀ Magas Tátra, 22.viii.1934 (HNHM).

Non-type material

Hungary: 2♀, Örseg, Nemzeti Park, Lugosy Valley, 46.9°N, 16.45°E, 28.vi.2010, leg. Noyes JS. (SS) (OPPC0582, 0583); 7♀, Vas Co, Köseg, 47.36633°N, 16.52173°E, 26.vi.2010, leg. Hansson C. (SS) (OPPC0707, 0700, 0698, 0708, 0701, 0702, 0699); 1♀, Vas Co, Köseg, 47.36633°N, 16.52173°E, 26.vi.2010, leg. Popovici O. (SN) (OPPC0703); 1♀, Vas Co, Bárkás Lake, 46.86982°N, 16.42605°E, 28.vi.2010, leg. Hansson C. (SS) (OPPC0706).

Estonia: 1♀, 1.5 km NE Sööru, 58.66111°N, 26.88531°E, 21.iv–11.v.2011, leg. Soon V. (SN) (OPPC0590).

France: 1♂, Puy de Dôme, Gergovie Plant., 45.71°N, 3.01°E, 16.vii.1977, leg. de V. Graham MWR (BMNH).

Germany: 2♀, Kiel, leg. Boness M. (BMNH).

Romania: 1♀, Iași, Breazu, 47.2187°N, 27.5270°E, 30.vi.2002, leg. Popovici O. (SN) (OPPC0695); 1♀, Suceava, Todirescu, 47.4455°N, 25.6138°E, 24.vii.2004, leg. Popovici O. and Fusu L. (SN) (OPPC0803); 1♀, Tulcea, Măcin, 45.2358°N, 28.1995°E, 10.vii.2004, leg. Mitroiu M. (SN) (OPPC0694); 1♂, Botoșani, Roma, 1.v.2005, 47.8362°N, 26.5806°E, leg. Popovici M. (SN) (OPPC0691); 1♀, Iași, Botanical Garden, 47.1859°N, 27.5511°E, 21.vi.2005, leg. Popovici O. (SN) (OPPC0812); 1♀, Iași, Bârnova, 46.9938°N, 27.5906°E, 8.vii.2008, leg. Popovici M. (SN) (OPPC0697); 1♀, Iași, Bârnova, 46.9863°N, 27.5855°E, 11.vii.2009, leg. Popovici O. and Popovici M. (SN) (OPPC0490); 1♀, Bacău, Comănești, 46.4288°N, 26.4368°E, 26–31.iv.2013, leg. Pintilioaie A. (SN) (OPPC0576); 1♀, Suceava, Gura Humorului, 47.5563°N, 25.8588°E, 12.v.2013, leg. Bârsan I, (MT) (OPPC0005); 1♀, Tulcea, Periprava, 46.99897°N, 25.94753°E, 8.vii.2015, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0829); 1♀ (brachypterous specimen), Suceava, Neagra Șarului, 47.26056°N, 25.35278°E, 3.vii.2011, leg. Noyes JS. (SS) (OPPC0474); 1♀, Iași, Bârnova, 46.9865°N, 27.5839°E, 26.vi.2016, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0006); 2♀, Botoșani, Popeni, 47.836832°N, 26.495561°E, 29.vii.2016 leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC007, 0566); 1♂ and 1♀, Harghita, Sovata, 46.569175°N, 25.081698°E, 27.v.2018, leg. Popovici O. (SS) (OPPC0002 and OPPC0003).

Distribution

Asia: Central Altai, Kazakhstan, Central Asia (Kozlov 1978); Mongolia (Buhl 2004); North America: Canada (Evans and Peña 2005); USA [Pennsylvania (Crawford 1916); Indianapolis (Evans and Peña 2005)]; Central America: Panama (Evans and Peña 2005); Europe: Sweden, Norway (Buhl 1999a); Romania (Fabritius 1974); Moldavia (Kozlov 1978); Spain (Buhl 2000); Slovacia, Czech Republic (Popovici and Buhl 2010). In our material we identify F. rugosifrons from: Belgium, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary and Romania (Fig. 318).

Biology

reared from the eggs of Hypera punctata (F) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on Triticum sp. (Vlug 1995). This species prefers grassland habitats, e.g., meadows and glades.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia rugosifrons is very close to F. rugosifronsoides and F. roatai because of the general habitus and the sculpture of the head, espeacially the frons. Based on this revision, the main characteristics of F. rugosifrons are the totally sculptured internotaular area (unsculptured in F. roatai, or partially sculptured in F. rugosifronsoides), totally sculptured lateral pronotal area (sculptured only on the dorsal half in F. rugosifronsoides and only in the dorsal third in F. roatai) and A3 1.5 times as long as A4 (A3 1.8–2.0 times as long as A4 in F. roatai and 1.2–1.3 times in F. rugosifronsoides).

Comments

The sculptured internotaular area was mentioned by Crawford (1916) in the original description, “the head completely covered with sculpture as is mesonotum except for broad furrows”, and also by Kozlov (1978, 1987), Buhl (1999a) and Popovici and Buhl (2010). Fouts (1924) added to the sculpture of mesonotum a new character, the ratio of A3/A4, mentioning “fourth antennal joint distinctly shorter than the third”. This antennal character was used later by Kieffer (1926) and Evans and Peña (2005). Fabritius (1974) considered that in F. rugosifrons A3 is two times as long as A4, but in his drawing (p. 294, Abb. 2) A3 appears to be longer. Szelényi (1941) described his new Fidiobia tatrae and separated it from F. rugosifrons based on the shape of antennomeres, but without details concerning this difference. Regarding the sculpture of the mesoscutum from the description of Szelényi, it is clear that the type of sculpture is the same as that of F. rugosifrons, but it is not clear if the internotaular space is entirely sculptured.

We located the type of F. tatrae in HNHM, but the specimen is essentially lost. On the card remain only the right antenna, clava of the left antenna, legs on the right side, and middle and hind legs from the left side (Figs 206, 207). Studying the antenna on the card and the drawing of Szelényi (1941), it can be observed that A3 is longer than A4, so we find no reason to consider F. tatrae different from F. rugosifrons. Based on this, we agree with Jansson (1956) who treated these two species as synonyms.

Debauche (1947), apparently unaware of F. rugosifrons, described a new species, Rosneta phyrine. Jansson (1956) presented informative drawings of the habitus and antenna (here can be observed the ratio between A3 and A4) in Rosneta phryne and considered it a junior synonym of F. rugosifrons. By studying the type material of Rosneta phryne stored in Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bruxelles, we observed that the holotype was destroyed; on the points remain only the femora, tibiae and the tarsi from the middle and hind legs (left side), and from the middle leg (right side) and hind wing from the right side. The paratypes (some of them topotypic with the holotype) perfectly match our concept of F. rugosifrons.

Prior to this study, we believe that the name “rugosifrons” was used for a complex of species including F. rugosifrons, F. rugosifronsoides and F. roatai. Although F. rugosifrons was considered as a species with a wide distribution (Fig. 318), we found it only in Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary and Romania. For the first time, a specimen in the Romanian material was identified as a female with reduced wings and this reduction appears not to be a teratology, as it otherwise conforms to our concept of F. rugosifrons.

Fidiobia rugosifronsoides Popovici, Lahey & Talamas, sp. nov.

Figs 215–222, 288, 289, 319

Description

Female. Body length: 0.9–1.0 mm. Colour of body (Figs 215, 216): bicoloured, head and mesosoma black to dark brown, metasoma brown with T1 and sometimes the proximal half of T2 lighter, almost pale in the Asian material.

Figures 215–222. 

Fidiobia rugosifronsoides: 215 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0681) 216 habitus, lateral view (OPPC0593) 217 head, dorsal view 218 head, frontal view 219 antenna (♀) (OPPC0040) 220 mesosoma, dorsal view 221 mesosoma, lateral view 222a wings (OPPC0040) 222b WIP.

Head (Figs 217, 218, 221). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of occiput: areolate rugulose. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: areolate rugulose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: areolate rugulose. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 219). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Mesosoma (Figs 220, 221). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: present. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent in posterior half, reticulate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: the same with the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: dense, long setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, long setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: visible as a ridge on the anteroventral mesopleuron connected with a pit. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings (Fig. 222a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: light brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: light brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Figs 215, 216): Tergites posterior of T2 may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 3 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Etymology

This species is named for its similarity to F. rugosifrons.

Material examined

8♀. Finland: Holotype 1♀, Lkor, Sodankylä, Jeesiö, Nurmiharju, 67.508°N, 26.035°E, 11–18.vii.2014, leg. Flinck J. and Aaltio J. (MT) (OOPC0042).

Paratypes : Estonia: 1♀, 1.5 km NE Sööru, 58.66111°N, 26.88531°E, 4–11.vii.2011, leg. Soon V. (SN) (OPPC0593); 2♀, 1.5 km NE Sööru, 58.66111°N, 26.88531°E, 21.vii–13.viii.2011, leg. Soon V. (SN) (OPPC0681, 0652).

Finland: 1♀, Lkor, Sodankylä, Jeesiö, Nurmiharju, 67.508°N, 26.035°E, 11–18.vii.2014, leg. Flinck J. and Aaltio J. (MT) (OOPC0041); 1♀, Lkor, Sodankylä, Jeesiö, Nurmiharju, 67.508°N, 26.035°E, 18–25.vii.2014, leg. Flinck J. and Aaltio J. (MT) (OOPC0040).

Sweden: 1♀, Småland, Asa, 57.16667°N, 14.78333°E, 6.vi.2007, leg. Shevtsova E. (OPPC0731); 1♀, Skåne, Häckeberga, 55.58333°N, 13.41667°E, 5.vii.2006, leg. Hansson C. and Shevtsova E. (OPPC0730).

Non-type material

China: 1♀, Beijing Prov. Mentougo, 39.987°N, 115.5246°E, 28.vii.2002, leg. Melika G. (CNCI).

South Korea: 8♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Magog-li, Hongchen river, 37.72977°N, 127.5765°E, 7.viii–14.ix.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0764, 0741, 0723, 0781, 0749, 0640, 0828, 0487); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.iv.–20.v.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0654); 3♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0049, 0050, 0004).

Distribution

Estonia, Finland, Sweden, China, South Korea (Fig. 319).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia rugosifronsoides is close to F. rugosifrons. The main differences between these two species consist of the sculpture of the area between the notauli (smooth in the posterior half in F. rugosifronsoides and totally sculptured in F. rugosifrons), in the ratio of A3 to A4 (A3 1.2 times as long as A4 in F. rugosifronsoides and A3 1.5 times as long as A4 in rugosifrons) and in the sculpture of the lateral pronotal area (entirely sculptured in F. rugosifrons and sculptured only in the dorsal half in F. rugosifronsoides).

Comments

In our material we found this species in Europe in Estonia (here, it is sympatric with F. rugosifrons), Finland and Sweden and in Asia in China and South Korea. Striation below the tegula and longitudinal sculpture below the mesofemoral depression are more evident in specimens from Europe than in the Asian material; the striae of T1 are longer and coarser in the European material; T1 and sometimes the proximal half of T2 is lighter, almost pale in the Asian material and brown in the European material; notauli are broader, and the distance between the medial margin of the notaulus near the transscutal articulation is greater in the European material than in the Asian material.

Fidiobia sashai Popovici, Talamas & Lahey, sp. nov.

Figs 223–227, 293, 320

Description

Female. Body length: 0.6 mm. Colour of body: xanthic, brown head and light brown mesosoma and metasoma (Figs 223, 224).

Head (Figs 225, 226). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse imbricate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 2 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons, but smoother. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 227). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 223–227. 

Fidiobia sashai: 223 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 224 habitus, lateral view 225 antenna and head, frontal view 226 head, dorsal view 227 antenna (♀).

Mesosoma. Colour of mesosoma: light brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: cervical pronotal area broader than lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: flat. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: incomplete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: flat. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: present. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: absent. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings. micropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: NA. Transverse brown band on fore wing: NA. Submarginal vein in fore wing: not visible. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: NA. Spectral veins on fore wing: NA. Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with no setae. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma. posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: light brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Etymology

This species is named after Oleksandr “Sasha” Varga, who collected the holotype specimen.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

1♀. Ukraine: Holotype 1♀, Reg. Mochary, 5 km NE of Bogorodchany, 48.84755°N, 24.59081°E, 16.vi–4.vii.2014, mixed forest, leg. Varga O. (MT) (OPPC0822).

Distribution

Ukraine (Fig. 320).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia sashai is the only Palearctic species of the genus with an incomplete transscutal articulation, which is visible only laterally. It is superficially similar to some brachypterous specimens of F. hofferi, but it differs by the incomplete transscutal articulation and the absence of notauli. In F. hofferi the transscutal articulation is complete and the notauli are present.

Fidiobia striatitergitis (Szabó, 1962)

Figs 9, 10, 13, 16, 19, 21, 25, 29, 30, 33, 36, 228–234, 235–240, 282, 321

Isolia striatitergitis Szabó, 1962: 239; Kozlov 1971: 61; Kozlov 1978: 657; Alekseyev 1979: 764; Kozlov 1987: 1200; Masner and Huggert 1989: 79; Vlug 1995: 34.

Fidiobia gordoni Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1137.

Fidiobia striatitergitis: Kamalanathan et al. 2019: 471, 472 (type information, generic transfer)

Description

Females (Figs 228, 229). Length of body: 1.1–1.3 mm. Colour of body: bicoloured, head and mesosoma dark brown, T1 light brown, T2–T5 brown, T6 brown becoming lighter brown at apex (Fig. 228).

Head (Figs 230, 231, 233, 235, 236). Colour of head: dark brown. Sculpture of head: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of occiput: reticulate rugose. Ocellar prominence: present. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 3 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly convergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the sculpture on the rest of frons. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: equal to the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: six setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Figs 232, 237, 238). Colour of A1: brown. Colour of clava: the same as the color of scapus. Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): 2:2:1 (Figs 232b, 238).

Figures 228–234. 

Fidiobia striatitergitis: 228 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0710) 229 habitus, lateral view 230 head, frontal view 231 head, dorsal view 232a antenna 232b sensillar formula 233 head and mesosoma, lateral view 234a wings (OPPC0725) 234b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 228, 233, 239, 240). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: large, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: present. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth, almost absent at least in posterior half, reticulate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and rounded anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: at most 0.3 times as long as length of mesoscutellum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 3–4 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present, complete. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present laterally. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae not abutting posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: reticulate rugose to longitudinally strigose. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: present. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present only on the posterior half of the vertical part. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: free, converging with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, as a single flange. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present, only posteriorly. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae in 3–4 longitudinal rows. Setation of ventral metapleural area: rare, long setae on the entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: present, visible as a ridge originated in the anteroventral mesopleuron, curving dorsally at anterior end. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings (Fig. 234a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: present (medial – M+Cu). Marginal setae of fore wing: absent. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: light brown. Colour of middle femora: brown. Colour of middle tibiae: light brown. Colour of middle tarsus: light brown. Colour of hind femora: brown. Colour of hind tibiae: light brown. Colour of hind tarsus: light brown.

Metasoma (Figs 36a, b, 228): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: reddish-brown. Lateral setae of T1: absent. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse or at most as long as wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated (Fig. 36a). Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: strigose on /most the length of T2. Colour of T3–T6: T3-T5 the same as T2, apex of T6 lighter.

Male. We did not study the male of this species, the only known male being the type of this species described under the name of Isolia striatitergitis Szabó. High quality photos of the male are presented in Veenakumari et al. (2019). It is similar to the female, except the antenna is almost filiform.

Material examined

12♀. Greece: Paratypes of F. gordoni Popovici & Buhl, 2010: 3♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Bistritza river, marsh, 41.3783°N, 23.3663°E, alt. 80 m, 21.vi.2008, leg. Popovici O., Fusu L. and Ramel G. (YPT), (OPPC); 2♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Lithotopos, Ecotourism site, 41.3043°N, 23.217°E, 19.vi.2008, leg. Popovici O. and Fusu L. (SN) (OPPC).

Non-type material

1♀, Neo Petritsi, 41.3138°N, 23.2765°E, 30.vi–6.vii.2008, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0581); 1♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Procom site, 41.3772°N, 23.3663°E, 19–25.ix.2007, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0704); 1♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Procom site, 41.3772°N, 23.3663°E, 23–29.v.2007, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0705); 1♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Procom site, 41.3772°N, 23.3663°E, 27.vi–3.vii.2007, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0724); 1♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, near Neo Petritsi, 41.3138°N, 23.2765°E, 16–22.vi.2008, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0710); 2♀, Kerkini Lake Nat. Park, Pumping station site, 41.2135°N, 23.1033°E, 23–29.v.2007, leg. Ramel G. (MT) (OPPC 0709, OPPC 0725).

Distribution

Hungary (Szabó 1962), Greece (Fig. 321).

Biology

The host is unknown. Based on the collection data, this species prefers wet habitats with lush vegetation beside rivers.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia striatitergis may be recognized by the reticulate-rugose mesoscutellar disc, strigose T2, metapleural carina posterodorsally prolonged into a strong tooth, lateral propodeal carina and metasomal depression with no foamy structures.

Comments

Fidiobia striatitergitis was originally described in Isolia Förster based on a single male specimen (Szabó 1962). Veenakumari et al. (2019) transferred Isolia striatitergitis to Fidiobia. Popovici and Buhl (2010) described this species as F. gordoni, which we here recognize as a junior synonym of F. striatitergitis. Although Szabó’s material is represented by a single male and the material of Popovici and Buhl (2010) consists only of females, the main apomorphies of this species (reticulate-rugose mesoscutellar disc, substrigulate T2, metapleural carina posterodorsally prolonged into a strong tooth, lateral propodeal carina and metasomal depression with no foamy structure) are not sexually dimorphic. Therefore, we have confidence that these specimens are conspecific.

Fidiobia synergorum (Kieffer, 1921)

Figs 241–247, 248–252, 294, 295, 322

Fahringeria synergorum Kieffer, 1921: 69; Kieffer 1926: 844; Maneval 1940: 117; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69.

Platyllotropa gallicola Szelényi, 1938: 126; Maneval 1940: 115; Oglobin 1944: 156; Kozlov 1971: 61; Masner and Huggert 1989: 69.

Fidiobia synergorum: Masner and Huggert 1989: 67, 69; Buhl 1999a: 18; Buhl 1999b: 12; Evans and Peña 2005: 62; Popovici and Buhl 2010: 1151.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.8–0.9 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 241, 242).

Head (Fig. 243). Colour of head: brown. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: present. Preocellar depression: absent. Paraocellar depressions: absent. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL around 2 times ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons, but more transverse. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 245). Colour of A1: brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: absent. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 235–240. 

Fidiobia striatitergitis (SEM): 235 head, frontal view 236 head, lateral view 237 antenna (♀) 238 papillary sensillum 239 mesosoma, dorsal view 240 mesosoma, lateral view.

Mesosoma (Figs 241, 243, 244). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: strongly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along of anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: entirely sculptured. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: flat. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: flat. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae not abutting posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: divergent posteriorly. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: absent. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: converging with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: absent. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: absent. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: absent. Setation of ventral metapleural area: absent. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: complete, straight (Fig. 244). Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 247a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: present, well visible. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: brown, with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow with darker pretarsus.

Figures 241–247. 

Fidiobia synergorum: 241 habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0217) 242 habitus, lateral view 243 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 244 mesosoma, lateral view 245 antenna (♀) (OPPC0800) 246 antenna (♂) (OPPC0798) 247 wings (OPPC0824) 247b WIP.

Metasoma (Figs 241, 251): posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: T3–T5 the same as T2, T6 lighter.

Male. similar to female, but different in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 246).

Material examined

73♀ and 20♂. Greece: 1♀, Kerkini Mts., near Neo Petritsi, 41.3251°N, 23.2500°E, 26.v–1.vi.2008, leg. Ramel G. (MT), (OPPC0825).

Hungary: 1♀, Hym. Typ. No. 3373. Mus. Budapest, holotype of Platyllotropa gallicola Szelènyi, Szentendre, Izbég, 47.682°N, 19.043°E, ?.vii.1931, leg. Szelènyi G. (ex. Aphelonyx cerricola Gir.) (Figs 248–252).

Figures 248–252. 

Holotype of Platyllotropa gallicola Szelényi: 248 habitus, dorsal view 249 habitus, lateral view 250 head and mesosoma, dorsal viev 251 body without wings 252 data labels.

Norway: 1♀, Buskerud, Rollag, Bråtåsen, 60.0188°N, 9.2493°E, 1–31.viii.1994, leg. Hansen L.O. (MT).

Slovakia: 54♀, 19♂, Banská Štiavnica, 48.44°N, 18.89°E, 18.vii.1955 (leg. Capek M.) (reared from Aphelonyx cerricola) (NMPC); 2♀ and 1♂, Banská Štiavnica, 48.44°N, 18.89°E, 18.vii.1955, reared from Aphelonyx cerricola, leg. Capek M., (OPPC0799; OPPC0800 and OPPC0798).

Ukraine: 8♀, Transcarpathia reg., Tyachiv distr., 6.5 km N of Mala Ugolka, 48.2609°N, 23.6169°E, 12–31.v.2015, beech forest, leg. Varga O. (MT), (OPPC0163, OPPC0164, OPPC0159, OPPC0160, OPPC0178, OPPC0217, OPPC0218, OPPC0824); 2♀, Transcarpathia reg., Svydovets, 2–3 km NW of Kvasy, 48.1524°N, 24.2662°E, 7.v–5.vi.2014, beech forest, leg Varga O. (TT) (OPPC0229, OPPC0231); 3♀, Transcarpathia reg., Svydovets, 2–3 km NW of Kvasy, 48.1524°N, 24.2662°E, 5–29.vi.2014, beech forest, leg Varga O. (TT) (OPPC0143, OPPC0147, OPPC0187); 1♀, Mochary reg., 5 km NE of Bogorodchany, 48.8475°N, 24.5908°E, 8–22.v.2015, mixed forest, leg. Varga O. (MT) (OPPC0162).

Distribution

Austria (Kieffer 1926), Greece, Hungary, Norway, Slovakia, Ukraine (Fig. 322).

Biology

This species was reportedly reared from Synergus gallaepomiformis Fonscolombe (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Quercus sp., Biorhiza pallida Olivier (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) on Quercus sp., and Aphelonyx cerricola Gir. (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) (Vlug 1995), but a direct connection among F. synergorum and these cynipids was not established through dissections. This species seems to prefer forested habitats rather than grassland. In Ukraine it was collected in beech and mixed forests and the most effective methods were the trunk mounted trap and Malaise trap.

Diagnosis

Fidiobia synergorum is conspicuous because the body is strongly depressed dorsoventrally, the transepisternal line is straight and almost complete (Fig. 244), T1 is strongly transverse, almost rectangular and the median carina between the lateral propodeal carinae is absent (Fig. 295). Fidiobia synergorum may be confused with F. hispanica but can be easily separated from that species by the different number of antennomeres (nine in F. synergorum and ten in F. hispanica), transepisternal line (absent, or at most as a trace in F. hispanica) and by the median carina between the lateral propodeal carinae (present in F. hispanica).

Comments

In most Fidiobia with a 9-merous antenna, T1 is trapezoidal, whereas a transverse and almost rectangular T1 is characteristic for species of Fidiobia with 10-merous antennae. The knob of the submarginal vein of the fore wing is visibly curved downward as in species of Acerotella Masner. Specimens belong to this species were observed with the 8-merous teratological antennae (symphysis – A3–A4) (Popovici and Buhl 2010). In the Palearctic region, a similarly depressed body can be found in Allotropa helenae (Kozlov).

Fidiobia tripotini Popovici & Masner, sp. nov.

Figs 253–261, 323

Description

Female. Body length: 0.9–1.1 mm. Colour of body: bicoloured, head and mesosoma medium to dark brown, metasoma light to medium brown with T1 and sometimes apex of T6 lighter (Figs 253–255).

Head (Figs 256, 257). Colour of head: dark brown with lighter lower frons. Sculpture of head: alutaceous. Sculpture of occiput: alutaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: almost parallel. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: transverse alutaceous. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: toruli touch each other. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: present (Fig. 257). Antenna (Fig. 258a). Colour of A1: yellow. Colour of clava: striking different from the rest of the antenna (clava brown, rest of antenna yellow). Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: absent. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): 2:2:1 (Fig. 258b).

Figures 253–261. 

Fidiobia tripotini: 253, 254 habitus, dorsal view (Holotype) 255 habitus, lateral view 256 head, dorsal view 257 head, lateroventral view 258a antenna (♀) (OPPC0735) 258b sensillar formula 259 mesosoma, dorsal view 260 mesosoma, lateral view 261a wings (OPPC0735) 261b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 259, 260). Colour of mesosoma: dark brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: not dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal half. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: absent. Shape of notauli: NA. Outer edge of notauli: NA. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: NA. Length of notauli: NA. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: NA. Distance between notauli: NA. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: absent. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from lateral propodeal carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present, only posteriorly. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, short setae on posterodorsal half. Setation of ventral metapleural area: dense, short setae on posteroventral half. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: complete, straight. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 261a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: present (median and subdiscoidal). Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Metasoma (Figs 253, 254): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: light brown. Lateral setae of T1: absent. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2, sometimes apex of T6 lighter.

Etymology

This species is named after Pierre Tripotin, collector of the holotype specimen and a tremendous friend of Popovici OA. Noun in the genitive case.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

8♀. South Korea: Holotype 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 31.vii–16.viii.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI).

Paratypes : 2♀, South Korea, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 6–31.vii.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 2♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 31.vii–16.viii.2003, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (CNCI); 3♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 17.viii–5.ix.2003, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0417; OPPC0733; OPPC0735).

Distribution

South Korea (Fig. 323).

Biology

unknown.

Diagnosis

This species can be recognized by the presence of a malar sulcus, the short transepisternal line and T2 which is elongate and longer than wide. All other Palearctic Fidiobia with 10-merous antennae have T2 wider than long and the malar sulcus absent.

Comments

Fidiobia tripotini is the only known species of the genus with a malar sulcus. The malar sulcus is not flanked by striation, a state that is found only in Orwellium Johnson, Masner and Musetti among extant Platygastridae. Other extant platygastrids with a malar sulcus, e.g. Metaclisis Förster, have facial and malar striae.

Fidiobia vanharteni Buhl, 2010

Figs 262–267, 268–272, 324

Fidiobia vanharteni Buhl, 2010b: 306.

Description

Female. Body length: 0.7–0.8 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Figs 262–264, 268, 269).

Head (Figs 263, 265, 270, 271). Colour of head: dark brown with lighter lower frons. Sculpture of head: reticulate-coriaceous. Sculpture of occiput: transverse reticulate coriaceous. Ocellar prominence: absent. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL shorter than ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: alutaceous. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: the same as the rest of frons, but smoother. Epitorular carina: present. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: two setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 266, 271). Colour of A1: light brown. Colour of clava: similar to or slightly darker than the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: nine. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A7:A8:A9): 2:2:1.

Figures 262–267. 

Fidiobia vanharteni: 262, 263 habitus, dorsal view (262 – CNC-05 263 – CNC-04) 264 habitus, lateral view 265 mesosoma, lateral view 266 antenna (♀) (CNC-06) 267 WIP (CNC-06).

Mesosoma (Figs 263, 265, 268, 271). Colour of mesosoma: brown. Mesosoma: weakly compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: narrow, collarlike. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: present. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: weakly convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: smooth in poststerior half, reticulate coriaceous anteriorly. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: greater than the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: absent. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: NA. Mesoscutellum: weakly convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: subrectangular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae surpassing the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: unknown. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: entirely visible. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: greater than the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with metapleural carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from metapleural carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: present. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: sparse, long setae in one longitudinal row. Setation of ventral metapleural area: sparse, long setae in one longitudinal row. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: absent. Mesopleural carina: present. Metapleural sulcus: absent. Wings (Fig. 267): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: transparent. Transverse brown band on fore wing: present. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: not surpassing basal 1/4 of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: absent. Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: yellow. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: yellow. Colour of middle tibiae: yellow. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: yellow. Colour of hind tibiae: yellow. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Figures 268–272. 

Holotype of Fidiobia vanharteni: 268 habitus, dorsal view 269 habitus, lateral view 270 head, dorsal view 271 antenna, head and mesosoma 272 data labels.

Metasoma (Figs 262–264, 268): Posterior of T2 some or all tergites may be retracted under T2. Shape of T1: trapezoidal. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: 2 pairs. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: longer than wide. Anterior pits of T2: distinctly separated. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T5: the same as T2.

Male. unknown.

Material examined

18♀. UAE: Holotype ♀, (Figs 263–267) (ZMUC).

Non-type material

1♀, UAE, al-Ajban, N24.6, E55.016, 3.i–18.ii.2007, leg. van Harten A. (LT), (CNCI); 6♀, Sharjah, Khor Kalba, N24.59, E56.09, 4–11.iv.2006, leg. van Harten A. (LT) (CNCI); 8♀, Khor, al-Khwair, N25.57, E56.03, 9–16.vii.2007, leg. van Harten A. (LT) (CNCI); 1♀, Khor, al-Khwair, N25.57, E56.03, 2–13.v.2007, leg. van Harten A. (LT) (CNCI).

Yemen: 1♀, Ghail Ba Wazir, N14.77, E49.37, ?.xi–xii.2002, van Harten A. and Hubaishan M. (MT) (CNCI).

Distribution

Yemen, UAE (Fig. 324).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia vanharteni is relative morphologically similar to F. hofferi because of fore wings with short, hardly visible marginal fringe, presence of epitorular carina and metascutellum visible in dorsal view, but it can be recognized by its light coloration, faintly banded fore wing (uniformly hyaline in F. hofferi), and OOL slightly shorter or equal to the ocellar diameter (OOL is equal to about 2 OD in F. hofferi).

Fidiobia vladlubomiri Popovici & Masner, sp. nov.

Figs 273–281, 283, 325

Description

Female. Body length: 0.8–1.0 mm. Colour of body: melanic (Fig. 273).

Head (Figs 275, 276). Colour of head: black. Sculpture of head: reticulate-rugose. Sculpture of occiput: the same as the sculpture of head. Ocellar prominence: present. Preocellar depression: present. Paraocellar depressions: present. OOL / ocellar diameter: OOL equal with ocellar diameter. Orientation of lower half of inner orbits: visibly divergent. Sculpture of frons immediately anterior to ocellus: reticulate rugose. Sculpture of frons immediately dorsal to toruli: reticulate rugose. Epitorular carina: absent. Distance between toruli: smaller than the transverse diameter of torulus. Setation of clypeus: four setae. Malar sulcus: absent. Antenna (Fig. 277a, b). Colour of A1: brown. Colour of clava: almost similar to the rest of the antenna. Number of antennomeres: ten. Shape of A1: more or less cylindrical. Ventral (inner) lamella on A1: present as a trace in the apical part of A1. Length of A3 of female: distinctly shorter than A2. Sensillar formula (A8:A9:A10): 2:2:1 (Fig. 277b).

Figures 273–281. 

Fidiobia vladlubomiri: 273 ♀, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0331) 274 ♂, habitus, dorsal view (OPPC0502) 275 head, dorsal view 276 head, frontal view 277a antenna (♀) (OPPC0313) 277b sensillar formula 278 antenna (♂) (OPPC0502) 279 mesosoma, dorsal view 280 mesosoma, lateral view 281a wings (OPPC0313) 281b WIP.

Mesosoma (Figs 279, 280). Colour of mesosoma: black. Mesosoma: cylindrical, not compressed dorsoventrally. Pronotum in dorsal view: present mostly as lateral shoulders. Transverse pronotal sulcus: present as a narrow groove along anterior rim of pronotum. Posteroventral end of transverse pronotal sulcus: dilated. Lateral pronotal area: sculptured only on the dorsal third. Antero-admedian line: absent. Mesoscutum: convex. Parapsidal lines: absent. Sculpture of internotaular area: absent. Notauli: present, incised. Shape of notauli: dilated posteriorly and acute anteriorly. Outer edge of notauli: medial to axillular carina, meet the scutoscutellar sulcus. Orientation of inner edge of notauli: not converging posteriorly. Length of notauli: half of length of mesoscutum, measured along midline. Length of notaulus / maximum width of notaulus: 2.0–2.9 times as long as wide. Distance between notauli: almost equal with the broadest part of notaulus. Transscutal articulation: complete. Scuto-scutellar sulcus: present only laterad. Fovea on scuto-scutellar sulcus: present on the entire length of scutelo-scutellar sulcus. Mesoscutellum: convex. Shape of mesoscutellum: semicircular. Axillular carina: posterior apex of axillular carinae touching the posterior edge of mesoscutellum. Axilloaxillular carina: absent. Sculpture of mesoscutellum: absent. Posterior mesoscutellar sulcus: absent. Metascutellum: not visible, covered by mesoscutellum. Metascutellar carina: present. Width of metasomal depression: the same with the length of lateral propodeal carina. Median carina between lateral propodeal carinae: absent. Transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on transverse carina between lateral propodeal carinae: present. Foamy structure on metasomal depression: absent. Lateral propodeal carinae: parallel. Foamy structure on lateral propodeal carina: present on the entire carina. Plica: visible. Posterior end of plica: fused with lateral propodeal carina. Foamy structure on plica: present, fused with foamy structure from lateral propodeal carinae. Foamy structure on metapleural carina: present on the entire carina. Foamy structure on ventral metapleural area: absent. Setation of dorsal metapleural area: long and dense on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Setation of ventral metapleural area: long and dense on entire surface, uniformly distributed. Longitudinal striation on dorsal mesopleuron: present. Transepisternal line: complete, sigmoid. Mesopleural carina: absent. Metapleural sulcus: present, complete. Wings (Fig. 281a, b): macropterous. Apex of fore wing: rounded. Colour of fore wing: infuscate. Transverse brown band on fore wing: absent. Submarginal vein in fore wing: present. Length of submarginal vein in fore wing: surpassing 1/3 the length of fore wing. Spectral veins on fore wing: present (medial and basal). Marginal setae of fore wing: faintly indicated. Disc of fore wing: with spinulose microtrichia. Legs. Colour of fore tibia: light brown. Colour of fore tarsus: yellow. Colour of middle femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of middle tarsus: yellow. Colour of hind femora: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tibiae: brown with lighter basal and apical ends. Colour of hind tarsus: yellow.

Figures 282–289. 

SEM of Fidiobia spp.: 282 F. striatitergitis 283 F. vladlubomiri 284 F. pronotata 285 F. roatai 286, 287 F. rugosifrons 288 F. flaviabdominalis 289 F. rugosifronsoides.

Metasoma (Fig. 273): Tergites posterior of T2 exposed and clearly visible. Shape of T1: subrectangular. Colour of T1: brown. Lateral setae of T1: numerous. Colour of T2: brown. Shape of T2: transverse. Anterior pits of T2: merging together in a deep and transverse anterior depression. Sculpture of T2, lateral to anterior pits of T2: absent. Colour of T3–T6: the same as T2.

Figures 290–297. 

SEM o Fidiobia spp.: 290, 291, 292 F. hofferi 293 F. sashai 294, 295 F. synergorum 296 F. filicornis 297 F. flaviabdominalis.

Male (Fig. 274). Similar to female; differing in the structure of the antenna (Fig. 278).

Figures 298–300. 

Geographical distribution of: 298 F. bohemica 299 F. brevialis 300 F. brevinotaula (Blue area–data from Veenakumari et al. 2018. Red area–our data).

Etymology

Patronym, named for the son of Ovidiu Popovici – Vlad Lubomir.

Figures 301–303. 

Geographical distribution of: 301 F. communis 302 F. filicornis (Blue area–data from Buhl 2014. Red area–our data) 303 F. flaviabdominalis (Blue area–data from Veenakumari et al. 2018. Red area–our data).

Material examined

13♀ and 1♂. South Korea: Holotype 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 19.vi–24.vii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0047).

Figures 304–306. 

Geographical distribution of: 304 F. gallica 305 F. hirta 306 F. hispanica.

Paratypes : South Korea: 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.vii–21.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0524); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.vii–21.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0331); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.vii–21.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0313); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 24.vii–21.viii.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0332); 1♀, Chungnam, Daejeon-si, Wadong, 36.3601°N, 127.2345°E, 25.ix–17.xi.2007, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0543); 1♀, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon Nam-myeon, Hudong-ri, 34.6422°N, 127.6285°E, 17.viii–5.ix.2003, leg Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0734); 1♀, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.2764°N, 127.6131°E, 8–23.vii.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0729); 1♀, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.2764°N, 127.6131°E, 19–28.vi.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0061); 1♀, Kangwon, Chuncheon, Nam-myeon, Hudong-li, 6–31.vii.2008, leg. Tripotin P., pastured area, trail close to forest edge (MT) (CNCI); 1♂, Chungbuk, Okcheon-gun Dongi-myeon, Soesan-li, 36.2764°N, 127.6131°E, 19–28.vi.2004, leg. Tripotin P. (MT) (OPPC0502).

Figures 307–309. 

Geographical distribution of: 307 F. hofferi (Blue area–data from Asadi-Farfar et al. 2020 Koponen and Huggert 1982 Red area–our data) 308 F. insoonae 309 F. lisenchiae.

Laos: 1♀, Houa Phan, Phou Pane Mt., 1480–1510 m, 20°13'09"N, 103°59'54"E, 1–16.vi.2009, primary forest, leg. Kubáň V., (FIT), (CNCI).

Figures 310–312. 

Geographical distribution of: 310 F. longiclava 311 F. nipponica 312 F. platystasioides.

Japan: 1♀, Aichi, Shitara, Uradani, 18–24.vii.1994, leg. Yamagishi K., (YPT, beech forest) (CNCI); 1♀, Aichi, Shitara, Uradani, 900 m, 18–24.vii.1994, leg. Yamagishi K., (emergence trap, beech forest) (CNCI).

Figures 313–315. 

Geographical distribution of: 313 F. polita 314 F. politoides 315 F. pronotata (Blue area–data from Buhl et al. 2016 and Kozlov 1987. Red area: our data).

Distribution

Japan, Laos, South Korea (Fig. 325).

Figures 316–318. 

Geographical distribution of: 316 F. pronotatoides 317 F. roatai 318 F. rugosifrons (Blue area–data from Buhl 1999a, 2000, 2004 Kozlov 1978 Popovici and Buhl 2010. Red area–our data).

Biology

unknown.

Figures 319–321. 

Geographical distribution of: 319 F. rugosifronsoides 320 F. sashai 321 F. striatitergitis (Blue area–data from Szabó 1962. Red area–our data).

Diagnosis

Fidiobia vladlubomiri is a distinct species that can be recognized by wide, deeply incised notauli with the lateral margins located medial to the axillular carina, meeting the scutoscutellar sulcus. The transepisternal line is nearly complete and sigmoid in shape. The dorsal mesopleural area has some transverse striae, and between these striae and the transepisternal line there is a large unsculptured area (in F. striatitergitis and F. nipponica this area is transversely striate). The dorsal metapleural area is covered with dense silvery setae that easily distinguish F. vladlubomiri from F. striatitergitis and F. nipponica. The papillary sensillum located at the apex of the distal clavomere (Fig. 277b) makes F. vladlubomiri unique among the known Palaearctic species of Fidiobia.

Figures 322–324. 

Geographical distribution of: 322 F. synergorum (Blue area–data from Kieffer 1926. Red area–our data) 323 F. tripotini 324 F. vanharteni.

Figure 325. 

Geographic distribution of F. vladlubomiri.

Acknowledgements

We thank Dr. Lars Vilhelmsen (ZMUC), Dr. Zoltán Vas (HNHM), Dr. David Notton (NHMUK), Dr. Claire Villement (MNHN), Dr. Rune Bygebjerg (NHRS) and Dr. Yvonnick Gerard (ISNB) for the loan of type material. Our gratitude to Mr. Pierre Tripotin, Dr. John Noyes, Mr Gordon Ramel, Dr. Oleksandr Varga, Dr. Fusu Lucian and Dr. Christer Hansson for donation of invaluable material. Géraldine Toutirais and Ștefan Olaru are further acknowledged for their help with SEM images and Gabi Bălan for his suggestions concerning the maps.

Also, we wish to thank to Dr. Norman Johnson and Dr. Luciana Musetti for the access to vSysLab platform and for the maintaining the internet site “Hymenoptera Online Database” (https://mbd-p.asc.ohio-state.edu/hol/), a very valuable resource for any Platygastroidea student and to Cristina Vasilița and Jessica Awad for their invaluable comments on the manuscript.

This research received support partially from the SYNTHESYS Project (GB-TAF-1303; HU-TAF-6368 and FR-TAF-6379) http://www.synthesys.info/ which is financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Program.

Authors are thankful to Romanian Ministry of Research, Innovation and Digitization, within Program 1 – Development of the national RD system, Subprogram 1.2 – Institutional Performance – RDI excellence funding projects, Contract no.11PFE/30.12.2021, for financial support”. Elijah Talamas was supported by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry.

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