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Research Article
Review of the genus Plutothrix Förster, 1856 (Hymenoptera, Pteromalidae) with a key to Palaearctic species
expand article infoEkaterina V. Tselikh, Gergely Várkonyi§, Natalie Dale-Skey|
‡ Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia
§ Finnish Environment Institute, Biodiversity Centre, Kuhmo, Finland
| Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

The species of Plutothrix Förster, 1856 are reviewed. Plutothrix gribanovi, sp. nov., is described from Russia, P. longigaster, sp. nov., and P. zerovae, sp. nov., are described from Finland and Russia. The male of P. canariensis Hedqvist, 1974 is described for the first time. The species Plutothrix transdanuviana (Erdös, 1946), syn. nov., is synonymized under Seladerma antennatum (Walker, 1833). The following new records are reported: Plutothrix nudicoxa Graham, 1993 and P. perelegans Graham, 1993 from Finland, P. obtusiclava Graham, 1993 and P. zhangyieensis Yang, 1996 from Russia, and P. perelegans Graham, 1993 from Ukraine. An identification key to females of all Palaearctic species of Plutothrix is provided.

Keywords

Fauna, key, new species, parasitoids, Pteromalinae, taxonomy

Introduction

The pteromalid genus Plutothrix (type species Plutothrix foersteri Mayr, 1904) belongs to the family Pteromalidae, subfamily Pteromalinae. Up to now, it comprised twentyeight species worldwide (Noyes 2019). However, this figure also includes the species Plutothrix transdanuviana (Erdős, 1946), syn. nov.,which was examined in the present study and identified as Seladerma antennatum (Walker, 1833). Fifteen of the known species, P. bicolorata (Spinola), P. canariensis Hedqvist, P. coelius (Walker), P. kuboi Kamijo, P. kusigematii Kamijo, P. narendrani Kamijo, P. nudicoxa Graham, P. obtusiclava Graham, P. pallidiclava Graham, P. perelegans Graham, P. pilicoxa Graham, P. rugosa Kamijo, P. scrobicula Kamijo, P. trifasciata (Thomson) and P. zhangyieensis Yang, inhabit the Palaearctic region (Spinola 1811; Walker 1839; Thomson 1878; Graham 1969, 1993; Hedqvist 1974; Yang 1996; Kamijo 2004; Noyes 2019). Ten species, P. aerata Heydon, P. ascita Heydon, P. ceonotalis Heydon, P. glareosa Heydon, P. ligyptera Heydon, P. pilosiclava Heydon, P. recula Heydon, P. smithi Heydon, P. ungutta (Girault) and P. unguttella Heydon, are distributed in the Nearctic region (Heydon 1997; Noyes 2019). Only a single species, P. acuminata (Thomson), has a Holarctic distribution (Heydon 1997; Noyes 2019). One extinct species, Plutothrix minutissima Meunier, 1905 was described from Zanzibar copal (Meunier 1905).

Unfortunately, the biology is unknown for most of the species, but available records suggest they are mostly primary parasitoids of coleopterans in the families Anobiidae, Ciidae, Curculionidae and dipterans in the family Platypezidae (Graham 1969; Herting 1973; Yang 1996; Heydon 1997; Noyes 2019).

The aim of this work is to describe new species of Plutothrix from Finland and Russia. An identification key to females of all Palaearctic species of Plutothrix is also provided.

Material and methods

The material used in this review is deposited in the Hymenoptera collections of the Finnish Natural History Museum, Helsinki, Finland (ZMUH), Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (ZISP), Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (NHMUK), Zoological Museum of the Lund University, Lund, Sweden (LUZN), Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary (HNHM), Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands (NBC), Ehime University Museum, Matsuyama, Japan (EUM), Entomological Laboratory of Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (EIHU), Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South Korea (YNU), Northwestern College of Forestry, Yangling Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China (NWCF).

Morphological terminology, including sculpture and wing venation nomenclature, follows Bouček and Rasplus (1991) and Gibson (1997). The flagellum consists of two anelli, the funiculus composed of six funicular segments, and the clava. The following abbreviations are used: POL – posterior ocellar line, the minimum distance between the posterior ocelli; OOL – ocello–ocular line, the minimum distance between a posterior ocellus and compound eye; C1–C3 – claval segments; PST – parastigma; M – marginal vein; S – stigmal vein; PM – postmarginal vein; F1–F6 – funicular segments; Mt2–Mt8 – metasomal tergites (Mt1 – petiole). The scape is measured without the radicle; the pedicel is measured in lateral view. The distance between the clypeal lower margin and the toruli is measured from the lower margins of the toruli. Eye height is measured as maximum diameter, eye length as minimum diameter. The mesosoma and metasoma are measured in lateral view, the latter including the ovipositor sheaths.

Observations were made using MC-2 ZOOM and Leica MZ16 stereomicroscopes, and images were acquired using a combination of Olympus SZX 10 stereomicroscope and digital camera EOS 70D, Micromed 3 microscope and digital camera ToupCam UCMOS 5.1MP (ZISP specimens), and a Canon 5DsR camera + Mitutoyo 10× lens or Canon MPE ultra macro lens (65 mm), Canon MT-24ex flash and Cognysis Stackshot, and Helicon remote software (NHMUK specimens). The acquired images were then processed with Helicon Focus.

Taxonomy

Plutothrix Förster, 1856

Plutothrix Förster, 1856: 46. Type species by subsequent monotypy Plutothrix foersteri Mayr, 1904.

Anoglyphis Förster, 1878: 49. Type species by original designation Anoglyphis nubilosa Förster, 1878. Synonymy by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 296).

Diagnosis

Clypeal margin with angular median tooth (e.g., Figs 4, 37, 43, 75); tentorial pits indistinct; antennal formula 11263; male antennae with distinct adpressed setae (e.g., Figs 13, 27); pronotum with collar margin carinate; notauli complete (e.g., Figs 8, 15, 24, 29, 40, 72); prepectus bare and smooth or coriaceous sculpture (e.g., Figs 17, 45, 67); scutellum with distinct frenal area (e.g., Figs 8, 15, 24, 29, 40, 72); fore wing with speculum reaching cubital line (e.g., Figs 3, 5, 12, 16, 22, 31, 34, 39, 50, 58, 66, 73, 76, 82); petiole inconspicuous; (Graham 1969; Bouček and Rasplus 1991).

Distribution

Palaearctic, Nearctic.

Key to Palaearctic species of Plutothrix Förster based on females

1 Clava yellow (Fig. 62). Propodeum with costula (Fig. 61). Hind tibia with median white ring (Figs 60, 63) P. pallidiclava Graham
Clava brown or black (e.g., Figs 6, 11, 26, 32, 33, 41, 49, 55, 57, 65, 69, 80, 92). Propodeum without costula (e.g., Figs 2, 8, 15, 24, 46, 86, 88). Hind tibia without median white ring (e.g., Figs 1, 9, 19, 30, 36, 38, 48, 77, 84, 87) 2
2 Fore wing with three or four fuscous clouds (e.g., Figs 12, 22, 82) 3
Fore wing with two fuscous clouds (e.g., Figs 5, 50, 53, 66, 68), or with one fuscous cloud touching stigma (e.g., Figs 16, 31, 94), or hyaline (e.g., Figs 3, 34, 39, 58, 73, 76, 85) 5
3 M as long as PM (Fig. 12). Dorsellum reticulate. Basal cell setose (Fig. 12) P. canariensis Hedqvist
M 0.73–0.90× as long as PM (e.g., Figs 22, 82). Dorsellum alutaceous (e.g., Figs 24, 80). Basal cell bare (Fig. 22) or with some setae on upper part (Fig. 82) 4
4 Basal cell with some hairs on upper part (Fig. 82). Cubital vein setose (Fig. 82). Scutellum srtrongly convex (Fig. 81). Metasoma 3.70–3.80× as long as broad, basal part brown with metallic violet and coppery lustre, Mt8 1.72–1.80× as long as broad (Fig. 83) P. trifasciata (Thomson)
Basal cell bare (Fig. 22). Cubital vein bare (Fig. 22). Scutellum less convex (Fig. 23). Metasoma 4.47–5.15× as long as broad, basal part yellowish-brown, Mt8 1.90–2.10× as long as broad (Fig. 25) P. gribanovi sp. nov.
5 Fore wing with two fuscous clouds, one median and the other subapical (e.g., Figs 5, 50, 53, 66, 68) 6
Fore wing with one fuscous cloud touching stigma (e.g., Figs 16, 31, 94) or hyaline(e.g., Figs 3, 34, 39, 58, 73, 76, 85) 10
6 Combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.35–1.45× breadth of head. Clava with micropilosity on C3 or rarely C3 and small part of C2 (Fig. 6). Fore wing with S slightly curved (Fig. 5) P. bicolorata (Spinola)
Combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.20–1.30× breadth of head. Clava with micropilosity on C3, C2 and sometimes distal half C1 (e.g., Figs 49, 65). Fore wing with S straight (e.g., Figs 50, 53, 66, 68) 7
7 Hind coxa dorsally and ventrally thickly setose, (e.g., Fig. 67). Clava with micropilosity on C3, C2 and distal half C1 (e.g., Fig. 49) 8
Hind coxa with some setae dorsally but far less than ventrally (e.g., Fig. 54). Clava with micropilosity on C3 and C2 (e.g., Fig. 65) 9
8 Scutellum with deep median furrow (Fig. 51). Pedicel and anelli yellowish (Fig. 49). Stigma 1.50–1.55× as long as broad (Fig. 50) P. narendrani Kamijo
Scutellum without deep median furrow (Fig. 70). Pedicel and anelli brown (Figs 68, 70). Stigma 2.50–2.60× as long as broad (Fig. 68) P. pilicoxa Graham
9 Antenna with F1 2.30–2.80× as long as broad, F2 1.70–2.00× as long as broad (Fig. 65). Head dark metallic blue (Fig. 64). Mt2 and Mt3 yellowish-brown or red (Fig. 64) P. perelegans Graham
Antenna with F1 2.00–2.15× as long as broad, F2 1.50–1.60× as long as broad (Fig. 55). Head dark metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre (Figs 52, 53). Mt2 and Mt3 dark brown (Fig. 52) P. nudicoxa Graham
10 Fore wing with PST longer than M (Fig. 58). Antenna with clava obtuse apically, C3 short and thickly setose (Fig. 57) P. obtusiclava Graham
Fore wing with PST shorter than or as long as M (e.g., Figs 3, 16, 31, 34, 39, 73, 76, 85, 94). Antenna with clava acute, C3 not short and not thickly setose (e.g., Figs 32, 33, 41, 92) 11
11 Metapleuron alutaceous, upper mesepimeron with lower part alutaceous, upper part smooth (e.g., Fig. 45). Metasoma 1.65–1.97× as long as head plus mesosoma (e.g., Figs 36, 38, 40, 71). Mt8 2.90–5.25× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 35, 42, 71) 12
Metapleuron reticulate, upper mesepimeron reticulate or smooth, upper part smooth (e.g., Fig. 91). Metasoma 1.15–1.50× as long as head plus mesosoma (e.g., Figs 1, 14, 29, 78, 84, 87). Mt8 1.26–2.50× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 14, 29, 78, 93) 14
12 Combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.06–1.15× breadth of head. Scutellum irregular rugose (Fig. 72). Fore wing with PST 0.9–1.0× as long as M (Fig. 73) P. rugosa Kamijo
Combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.30–1.57× breadth of head. Scutellum reticulate (e.g., Figs 35, 46). Fore wing with PST 0.65–0.70× as long as M (e.g., Figs 34, 39) 13
13 Antenna with F1 2.50–2.80× as long as broad, with 4–5 rows of sensilla (Fig. 33). Fore wing with M 1.70–1.80× as long as S (Fig. 34). All coxae metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre, all femora dark (Fig. 36). Mt8 2.90–3.50× as long as broad (Fig. 35) P. kusigematii Kamijo
Antenna with F1 2.15–2.35× as long as broad, with 3 rows of sensilla (Fig. 41). Fore wing with M 2.00–2.30× as long as S (Fig. 39). All coxae yellowish-brown, all femora yellow (Fig. 38). Mt8 4.30–5.25× as long as broad (Fig. 42) P. longigaster sp. nov.
14 Antenna with F1 2.20–2.45× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 32, 92). Mt8 1.85–2.50× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 29, 93) 15
Antenna with F1 2.00–2.10× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 15, 75, 84). Mt8 1.26–1.75× as long as broad (e.g., Figs 14, 78) 16
15 Scutellum coarsely reticulate (Fig. 29). Fore wing with elongate stigma (Fig. 31). Clava rounded (Fig. 32). Metasoma 3.20–3.70× as long as broad (Fig. 29), Mt8 1.84–2.0× as long as broad (Fig. 29) P. kuboi Kamijo
Scutellum finely reticulate (Fig. 88). Stigma less elongate (Fig. 94). Clava acute (Fig. 92). Metasoma 4.30–6.25× as long as broad (Fig. 93), Mt8 2.20–2.50× as long as broad (Fig. 93) P. zerovae sp. nov.
16 Frenum of scutellum coarsely reticulate (Fig. 15). Metapleuron strongly reticulate (Fig. 17). Fore wing with one fuscous cloud touching stigma (Fig. 16) P. coelius (Walker)
Frenum of scutellum finely reticulate (e.g., Figs 2, 78, 86). Metapleuron weakly reticulate (e.g., Fig. 84). Fore wing immaculate (e.g., Figs 3, 76, 85) 17
17 Head black (Fig. 75). Clypeus with blunt tooth (Fig. 75). Basal cell of fore wing with dense pubescence (Fig. 76). Propodeum alutaceous P. scrobicula Kamijo
Head metallic green or dark green with diffuse coppery lustre (e.g., Figs 4, 84). Clypeus with sharp tooth (e.g., Fig. 4). Basal cell of fore wing with sparse pubescence (e.g., Figs 3, 85). Propodeum smooth (e.g., Figs 2, 86) 18
18 Fore wing with M 1.55–1.60× as long as S (Fig. 3). Eye height 3.00–3.10× as long as malar space. Scutellum finely reticulate, dorsellum smooth (Fig. 2) P. acuminata (Thomson)
Fore wing with M 1.80–1.85× as long as S (Fig. 85). Eye height 2.10–2.16× as long as malar space. Scutellum coarsely reticulate, dorsellum alutaceous (Fig. 86) P. zhangyieensis Yang

Plutothrix acuminata (Thomson, 1878)

Figs 1–4

Trigonoderus acuminatus Thomson, 1878: 13. Lectotype female (LUZN, not examined) designated by Kerrich and Graham 1957: 297.

Plutothrix cisae Hedqvist, 1966: 194. Holotype female missing (Forshage et al. 2016). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 117).

Material examined

Paratype female (ZMUH): “Suomi [Finland], EH, Luopioinen, 7.8.1963, E. Kangas”, “Paratypus Plutothrix cisae Hedqvist, 1966”. Other material: Finland (in ZMUH): 1 female, Ta [biogeographical province Tavastia australis], Aitolahti, 22.VII.1932, coll. V. Saarinen, Plutothrix acuminata (Thom.) det. Koponen 2009. Russia (all in ZISP): Belgorod Prov., 1 female, 1 male, 10 km S Novy Oskol City, 50°40.683'N, 37°48.551'E, 15.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij and O. Kosheleva.

Distribution

Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Hungary, Netherlands, Russia (European part), Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom (Noyes 2019; Tselikh 2019).

Biology

Primary parasitoid of Cis boleti (Scopoli, 1763) (Coleoptera, Ciidae) in tree fungus Graham (1969), and Platypeza sp. (Diptera, Platypezidae) (Heydon 1997).

Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola, 1808)

Figs 5–8

Diplolepis bicolorata Spinola, 1808: 221–222. Type specimens probably lost (Graham 1993: 117).

Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola, 1808) new combination in Graham 1993: 116–117.

Pteromalus invenustus Walker, 1836: 11. Lectotype male (NHMUK, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 294). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 116).

Pteromalus praepileus Walker, 1836: 12. Lectotype female (NHMUK, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 295). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 116).

Pteromalus scenicus Walker, 1836: 10. Lectotype female (NHMUK, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 294). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 116–117).

Trigonoderus apicalis Thomson, 1878: 12–13. Lectotype female (LUZN, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 294). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 116).

Trigonoderus vittiger Thomson, 1878: 12. Lectotype female (LUZN, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 294). Synonymy by Graham (1993: 116).

Material examined

Other material : Finland (all in ZMUH): A [Alandia], 1 female, “Lemland, Nordman, 5375, coll. Nordman”, “Plutothrix scenicus (Walk.) det. Hedqvist, 1973”; Ab [Regio aboënsis], 1 female, “Finland, 669:25, Sauvo, Karuna, 23.VII–9.VIII.2000, Malaise trap, coll. R. Jussila”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola) det. Tselikh 2021”; 1 female, “Finland, 669370:323763, V, Parainen, Malaise 1A, 19.07–02.08.2020, coll. S. Väänänen, J. Paukkunen”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola) det. Tselikh 2021”; 1 female, 1 male, “Äppelö, E. Ölund”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola) det. Tselikh 2021”; N [Nylandia], 1 female, “Borgå, Fennia, Hellén”, “P. scenicus Thom. Det. Kerrich 1956”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spin.) det. Koponen 09”. Russia (all in ZISP): Smolensk Prov., 1 female, 1 male, near Smolensk City, 54°49'10"N, 32°05'09"E, 23.VIII.2020, coll. E. Tselikh; Belgorod Prov., 13 females, 17 males, Roven’skii Distr., Roven’ki Vill., “Roven’ki Nature Park,” “Aydar,” 49°59'01"N, 38°53'23"E, 12–13.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij, K. Fadeev and E. Tselikh; 8 females, 5 males, Novooskolskii Distr., 10 km S of Novy Oskol City, “Belogorie” Reserve, “Stenki Izgor’ya,” 50°40'41"N, 37°48'33"E, 15.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij and O. Kosheleva; 15 females, 32 males, Borisovskii Distr., Borisovka Vill., “Belogorie” Reserve, “Les na Vorskle,” 50°36'34"N, 35°58'55"E, 17.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij, K. Fadeev and O. Kosheleva; 16 females, 45 males, Borisovka Vill., “Melkiy les”, 55°39'20"N, 36°00.38'E, coll. S. Belokobylskij, K. Fadeev, O. Kosheleva and E. Tselikh; Voronezh Prov., 20 females, 24 males, Bogucharskii Distr., 20 km SW of Boguchar City, “Khripunskaya Steppe,” 49°35'58"N, 40°23'56"E, 8–9.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij, O. Kosheleva, E. Tselikh; 6 females, Kantemirovskii Distr., 20 km SW of Rossosh’ City, Zhilino Vill., 49°49'58"N, 39°19'48"E, 10–11.VIII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij, O. Kosheleva and E. Tselikh; Krasnodar Reg., 4 females, Sochi City, Lazarevskoe, 27.V.1979, 18.VI.1979 coll. V. Tobias; 3 females, 1 male, Sochi City, Soloniki Vill., 20.X.1980, coll. V. Tobias; 1 female, Goryachij kluch City, Kesukh River, 44°26'19"N, 39°01'52"E, 25.VIII.2015, coll. D. Rachin and E. Tselikh; 4 females, 1 male, Sochi City, “Mamedova Shchel”, 43°57'20"N, 39°18'39"E, 28.VII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij, K. Fadeev and E. Tselikh; 3 females, 4 males, 5 km SEE Aderbeevka Vill., 44°37'30"N, 38°09'16"E, 26.VII.2020, coll. E. Tselikh; 3 females, 1 male, Sochi City, Kalezh Vill., 44°00'25"N, 39°22'03"E, 30.VII.2020, coll. O. Kosheleva and E. Tselikh; Adygea Rep., 1 female, Guzeripl’ Vill., Kavkazsky Reserve, 21.VI.1976, coll. D. Kasparyan; Karachay-Cherkess Rep., 1 female, 1 male, Teberda, 8.VI.1976, coll. D. Kasparyan; Ingushetia Rep., 1 female, 14 km E Verkhny Alkun Vill., 10.VI.1972, coll. D. Kasparyan.

Figures 1–8. 

Plutothrix acuminata (Thomson, 1878), non-type female (1–4) 1 body, lateral view 2 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 3 fore wing 4 head, frontal view. Plutothrix bicolorata (Spinola, 1808), non-type female (5–8) 5 fore wing 6 antenna 7 body, dorsal view 8 head, mesosoma and part of metasoma, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.8 mm (1); 2.1 mm (7).

Distribution

Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Netherlands, Romania, Russia (European part), Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom (Noyes 2019; Tselikh 2019).

Biology

Primary parasitoid of Anobium punctatum (De Geer, 1774) and Ernobius abietis (Fabricius, 1792) (Coleoptera, Anobiidae) (Graham 1969).

Plutothrix canariensis Hedqvist, 1974

Figs 9–13

Plutothrix canariensis Hedqvist, 1974: 26–28. Holotype female (NHMUK, examined).

Description

Male. Body length 2.60 mm. Fore wing length 2.40 mm.

Head, mesosoma, metasoma Mt2 metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre, Mt3–Mt6 yellowish-brown, Mt7–Mt8 brown. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown, pedicel and flagellum brown. Fore and hind coxa basally metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre, apically yellowish-brown, mid coxa yellowish-brown; all femora, tibiae, and tarsi yellowish-brown. Fore wing with brownish tint and fuscous cloud touching stigma, venation yellowish-brown.

Head in dorsal view 2.20× as broad as long and 1.36× as broad as mesoscutum; in frontal view 1.40× as broad as high. POL as long as OOL. Eye height 1.25× eye length and 2.35× as long as malar space. Distance between antennal toruli and lower margin of clypeus 0.92× distance between antennal toruli and median ocellus. Antenna with scape 0.80× as long as eye height and as long as eye length; pedicel 1.80× as long as broad and 0.37× as long as F1; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 2.36× breadth of head; F1 4.80× as long as broad, F3–F6 longer than broad; clava 4.50× as long as broad.

Mesosoma 1.87× as long as broad. Scutellum finely reticulate, 1.2× as long as broad. Propodeum without nucha, 0.65× as long as scutellum; median carina present. Metapleuron alutaceous, upper mesepimeron smooth. Fore wing 2.40× as long as maximum width; basal cell, cubital vein, basal vein setose; speculum closed; PST 0.43× as long as M, M 0.97× as long as PM and 2.30× as long as S.

Metasoma 2.60× as long as broad, 1.15× as long as mesosoma and 0.89× as long as mesosoma and head.

Material examined

Holotype female (NHMUK): “Tenerife IV 1967 leg. T. Palm”, “HOLOTYPUS Plutothrix canariensis ♀ sp.n. K.J. Hedqvist det. 1970”, “Hedqvist coll. BMNH(E) 2011-27”, “HOLOTYPE”, “B.M. TYPE HYM 5.4754”, NHMUK 013457290. Other material: Spain, Canary Islands (all in ZMUH): 1 female, 1 male, Tenerife, Los Silos Monte del Aqua, 16.XI.2000, coll. M. Koponen.

Figures 9–17. 

Plutothrix canariensis Hedqvist, 1974, holotype female (9–12), non-type male (13) 9 body, dorsal view 10 mesosoma and metasoma, lateral view 11 antenna 12 wings 13 body, lateral view. Plutothrix coelius (Walker, 1839), non-type female (14–17) 14 body, dorsal view 15 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 16 wings 17 mesosoma, lateral view. Scale bars: 1.05 mm (9); 0.85 mm (13); 1.3 mm (14).

Distribution

Canary Islands.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix coelius (Walker, 1839)

Figs 14–17

Anoglyphis nubilosa Förster, 1878: 49. Type female (possibly in Berlin University Museum, not examined). Synonymy by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 296).

Pteromalus britannicus Morley, 1910: 47 (n.n. pro coeliusWalker 1848non 1839). Lectotype female (not located in NHMUK collection). Designated by Graham (1969:105). Synonymy by Graham (1969: 105).

Pteromalus coelius Walker, 1839: 272. Lectotype female (NHMUK, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 297).

Pteromalus eleuthera Walker, 1848: 193. Lectotype female (NHMUK, not examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 298). Synonymy by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 296).

Material examined

Other material : Finland (all in ZMUH): Ab, 1 female, Nystad, M. Hellén, 1841, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen 2009; 1 female, Suomi, V, Karjalohja, 16.07.1964, coll. Jonny Perkiömäki, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen 1982; 1 female, Nystad, M. Hellén, 609, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. Tselikh, 2021; Ka [Karelia australis], 1 female, Fennia, Virolahti, 671:53, 16–21.07.1974, coll. V.J. Karvonen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Fennia, Vehkalahti, 01.07.1961, leg. E. Valkeila, Plutothrix scenicus (Walker) det. E. Valkeila, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. Tselikh 2021; St [Satakunta], 1 female, Suomi, Suoniemi, 28.06.1947, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. Tselikh 2021; Ta, 1 female, Tampere, Grönblom, 15.05.57, coll. Th. Grönblom, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Pirkkala, Grönblom, coll. Th. Grönblom, Trigonoderus acuminatus Thomson det. Hellén, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Fennia, Hämeenlinna, 67736, 26.06.1970, coll. Erkki Valkeila, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen 1982; 1 female, Fennia, Hämeenlinna, 67736, 27.06.1971, coll. Erkki Valkeila, Plutothrix coelius (Walk.) det. Valkeila; 1 female, Fennia, Pälkäne, 680:35, e.l.1976, leg. Esko Saarela, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; Sa [Savonia australis], 1 female, Suomi, Mikkelin mlk., 6830:501, 22.06.1979, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Suomi, Mikkelin mlk., 6830:501, 10.07.1981, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Suomi, ES, Ristiina, 6826:502, 06.07.1947, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Suomi, Mikkelin mlk, 6830:501, 12.07.1981, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 2 females, Finland, Sa, Mikkeli, 6835:3503, 12.06.2011, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen 2011; 1 female, Suomi, Mikkelin mlk, 6830:501, 17.08.1976, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Finland, Ristiina, 6826:502, 25.07.1985, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Suomi, Mikkelin mlk, 6830:501, 30.06.1975, leg. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 1 female, Suomi, ES, Ristiina, 6826:502, 24.06.1976, leg. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; 2 females, Finland, 6826:502, Ristiina, 22.07.1996, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. Tselikh 2021; Oa [Ostrobottnia australis], 1 female, Helsinki, Nordman, 427, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen; Kb [Karelia borealis], 1 female, Suomi, PK, Tohmajärvi, 6908:660, 22.07.1982, leg. M. Koponen, Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen, 1982. Russia (all in ZISP): Novgorod Prov., 2 females, Tychkino, 20 km NW Pestovo Vill., 25.VI.1991, coll. V. Tobias; Altai Rep., 1 female, 20 km SE Onguday Vill., 16.VII.2007, coll. S. Belokobylskij; Kamchatka Reg., 1 female, 8 km S Kozyrevsk Vill., 16.VIII.1985, coll. D. Kasparyan; 1 male, Kozyrevsk Vill., 17.VIII.1985, coll. S. Belokobylskij.

Distribution

Belgium, Croatia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Netherlands, Norway, Russia (European part of Russia, Western Siberia, Russian Far East), Romania, Sweden, United Kingdom (Noyes 2019; Tselikh 2019).

Biology

Primary parasitoid of coleopterans Anobium punctatum (De Geer, 1774) (Anobiidae) Graham (1969) and Xylechinus pilosus (Ratzeburg, 1837) (Curculionidae) (Herting 1973).

Plutothrix gribanovi Tselikh, Várkonyi & Dale-Skey, sp. nov.

Figs 18–28

Comparison

Plutothrix gribanovi is similar to P. canariensis Hedqvist and P. trifasciata (Thomson); the differences between these species are given in the key.

Description

Female. Body length 4.90–7.20 mm. Fore wing length 3.00–3.90 mm.

Head dark metallic blue; mesosoma metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre; metasoma with Mt2 basally metallic bluish-green, apically yellowish-brown, Mt3, Mt4, sometimes Mt5 yellowish-brown, Mt6–Mt8 dark brown; ovipositor sheath black. Antenna with scape and pedicel yellow, flagellum brown. All coxae metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre; all femora, tibiae and tarsi yellow except last segment yellowish-brown. Fore wing with three or four fuscous clouds, venation yellowish-brown.

Head in dorsal view 2.10–2.20× as broad as long and 1.25–1.35× as broad as mesoscutum; in frontal view 1.30–1.40× as broad as high. POL 0.96–1.00× OOL. Eye height 1.42–1.45× eye length and 2.60–2.70× as long as malar space. Distance between antennal toruli and lower margin of clypeus 0.75–0.76× distance between antennal toruli and median ocellus. Antenna with scape 0.80–0.85× as long as eye height and 1.15–1.20× as long as eye length; pedicel 2.00–2.16× as long as broad and 0.46–0.52× as long as F1; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.33× breadth of head; F1 2.85–3.10× as long as broad, F3–F6 longer than broad; clava 2.35–2.44× as long as broad.

Mesosoma 1.65–1.70× as long as broad. Scutellum finely reticulate, 1.0–1.05× as long as broad. Propodeum without nucha, 0.86–0.90× as long as scutellum; median carina present; sculpture alutaceous. Metapleuron alutaceous, upper mesepimeron smooth. Fore wing 2.67–2.85× as long as maximum width; basal cell bare; cubital vein bare; basal vein setose; speculum partly open; PST 0.53–0.66× as long as M, M 0.78–0.80× as long as PM and 1.68–1.70× as long as S.

Figures 18–28. 

Plutothrix gribanovi sp. nov., holotype female (18–26), paratype male (27, 28) 18 body, dorsal view 19 body, lateral view 20 head, dorsal view 21 head, frontal view 22 wings 23 head and mesosoma, dorso-lateral view 24 mesosoma, dorsal view 25 metasoma, dorsal view 26 antenna 27 body, lateral view 28 fore wing. Scale bars: 2.1 mm (18), 1.1 mm (27).

Metasoma 4.47–5.15× as long as broad, 1.90–2.02× as long as mesosoma and 1.45–1.48× as long as mesosoma and head; Mt2 deeply emarginate medially, Mt8 1.90–2.10× as long as broad. Ovipositor sheath projecting beyond apex of metasoma.

Male. Body length 3.1–4.0 mm. Fore wing length 2.7–3.1 mm.

Head metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre; metasoma brown with diffuse coppery or metallic green lustre. Fore wing with four fuscous clouds, venation yellowish-brown.

Head in dorsal view 1.20–1.31× as broad as mesoscutum. Eye height 1.50–1.60× eye length and 2.10–2.30× as long as malar space. Distance between antennal toruli and lower margin of clypeus 1.28–1.40× distance between antennal toruli and median ocellus. Pedicel 1.60–1.63× as long as broad and 0.30–0.32× as long as F1; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 2.34× breadth of head; F1 5.60–7.00× as long as broad; clava 4.66× as long as broad.

Metasoma 4.60–5.30× as long as broad, 1.12–1.16× as long as mesosoma and 0.86–0.87× as long as mesosoma and head. Otherwise, similar to female.

Etymology

The species is named in honour of the senior author’s brother, Sergej Gribanov.

Material examined

Holotype female (deposited in ZISP): “RUSSIA, Altai Rep., 30 km S Kuray, 31.VII.2007, coll. A. Khalaim”.

Paratypes (ZISP): Russia: Krasnodar Reg., 1 male, Sochi City, Lazarevskoe, 28.V.1974, coll. Tobias; 1 female, same locality, 3–6.VI.1974, coll. V. Tobias; 3 females, same locality, 14–26.VI.1979, coll. Tobias; 1 female, Sochi City, Golovinka, 9.IV.1975, coll. V. Tobias; 1 female, Sochi City, Lazarevskoe, Polkovnich’ya balka, 43°53'48"N, 39°21'18"E, 31.VII.2020, coll. Tselikh; 1 male, Sochi City, Mamedova shchel’, 43°57'11"N, 39°18'27"E, 29.VII.2020, coll. K. Fadeev.

Distribution

Russia (European part, Western Siberia).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix kuboi Kamijo, 2004

Figs 29–32

Plutothrix kuboi Kamijo, 2004: 297–299. Holotype female (EIHU, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (EIHU): Japan: Kanagawa Pref., “Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Honshu, 19.iii.1995, coll. K. Kubo”, “Holotype Plutothrix kuboi Kamijo”. Paratype female (EIHU): Kanagawa Pref., “Nishi tanzawa, 16.V.1993, coll. K. Kubo”, “Paratype Plutothrix kuboi Kamijo”. Other material: Japan (EUM): Shimane Pref., 1 female, Honshu, Hirose Town, Nogi-gun, 8.IV.1980, coll. Seiyama. Russia (ZISP): Kamchatka Reg., 1 female, Mil’kovo Town, 7.VIII.1985, coll. S. Belokobylskij.

Distribution

Russia (Far East), Japan.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix kusigematii Kamijo, 2004

Figs 33–37

Plutothrix kusigematii Kamijo, 2004: 299–300. Holotype female (EIHU, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (EIHU): Japan: Hokkaido Pref., “Sapporo, Hokkaido, 13.ix.1968, coll. K. Kusigemati”, “Holotype Plutothrix kusigematii Kamijo”. Paratype female (EIHU): Kanagawa Pref., “Japan: Ishikawa, Fujisawa, 11.V.2001, coll. I. Waki”, “Paratype Plutothrix kusigematii Kamijo”. Other material: Russia (all in ZISP): Sakhalin Prov., 1 female, Kunashir, Severyanka River, 24–28.IX.2013, coll. Yu. Sundukov; Tyumenskaya Prov., 2 females, Tyumen’ City, Andreevskoe Lake, 57°01'13"N, 65°46'16"E, 9.VII.2021, coll. S Belokobylskij and E. Tselikh.

Distribution

Russia (Eastern Siberia, Far East), Japan.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix longigaster Tselikh, Várkonyi & Dale-Skey, sp. nov.

Figs 38–46

Comparison

Plutothrix longigaster is similar to P. kusigematii Kamijo and P. rugosa Kamijo; the differences between these species are given in the key.

Description

Female. Body length 5.10–6.70 mm. Fore wing length 3.20–3.80 mm.

Head, mesosoma and Mt2–Mt4 metallic bluish-green with diffuse coppery lustre; Mt5–Mt8 brown; ovipositor sheath black. Antenna with scape yellowish-brown, pedicel and flagellum brown. Fore and hind coxae yellowish-brown, mid coxa yellow; all femora, tibiae and tarsi yellow except last segment yellowish-brown. Fore wing with light brownish tint, venation yellowish-brown.

Head in dorsal view 2.10–2.17× as broad as long and 1.25–1.30× as broad as mesoscutum; in frontal view 1.05–1.20× as broad as high. POL 0.89–1.05× OOL. Eye height 1.38–1.47× eye length and 2.80–3.00× as long as malar space. Distance between antennal toruli and lower margin of clypeus 0.6× distance between antennal toruli and median ocellus. Antenna with scape 0.80–0.85× as long as eye height and 1.15–1.20× as long as eye length; pedicel 1.70–1.95× as long as broad and 0.55–0.65× as long as F1; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.40–1.57× breadth of head; F1 2.15–2.35× as long as broad, F3–F6 longer than broad; clava 2.70–2.90× as long as broad.

Mesosoma 1.65–1.70× as long as broad. Scutellum weakly and finely reticulate, 1.00–1.05× as long as broad. Propodeum without nucha, 0.40–0.55× as long as scutellum; median carina present; sculpture smooth. Metapleuron alutaceous, upper mesepimeron with lower part alutaceous, upper part smooth. Fore wing 2.95–3.25× as long as maximum width; basal cell, cubital vein and basal vein setose; speculum closed; PST 0.66–0.68× as long as M, M 0.75–0.80× as long as PM and 2.0–2.2× as long as S.

Metasoma 8.50–9.00× as long as broad, 2.50–2.70× as long as mesosoma and 1.84–1.94× as long as mesosoma and head; Mt2 deeply emarginate medially, Mt8 4.40–5.25× as long as broad. Ovipositor sheath projecting beyond apex of metasoma.

Figures 29–37. 

Plutothrix kuboi Kamijo, 2004, paratype female (29–32) 29 body, dorsal view 30 body, lateral view 31 fore wing 32 antenna. Plutothrix kusigematii Kamijo, 2004, paratype female (33–37) 33 antenna 34 fore wing 35 metasoma, dorsal view 36 body, lateral view 37 head, frontal view. Scale bars: 1.25 mm (29); 2.5 mm (36).

Figures 38–46. 

Plutothrix longigaster sp. nov., holotype female (38–46) 38 body, lateral view 39 fore wing 40 body, dorsal view 41 antenna 42 metasoma, dorsal view 43 head, frontal view 44 head, dorsal view 45 mesosoma, lateral view 46 mesosoma, dorsal view. Scale bar: 1.7 mm (38).

Male unknown.

Etymology

The name of the species refers to its long gaster (metasoma); noun in apposition.

Material examined

Holotype female (deposited in ZISP): Russia: Altai Rep., Chemal Vill., 20.VII.2007, coll. S Belokobylskij. Paratypes 1 female, (ZISP): Russia: Amur Reg., 10 km E Arkhary, Arkhara River, 24.VII.2003, coll. S Belokobylskij; 1 female (ZMUH): Finland: Kb, Ilomantsi, 20.VII.1865, on Populus tremula, coll. Woldstedt, 2466.

Distribution

Finland (single West Palaearctic record of this species), Russia (Western Siberia, Far East).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo, 2004

Figs 47–51

Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo, 2004: 300–302. Holotype female, (EIHU, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (EIHU): Japan: Hokkaido Pref., “Jozankei, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 20.vi.1967, coll. K. Kusigemati”, “Holotype Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo”. Paratype female (EIHU): “JAPAN: Hokkaido Pref., Jozankei, 20.VI.1967, coll. K. Kusigemati”, “Paratype Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo”; male (EIHU): “Hokkaido Pref., Sapporo, 21.V.1967, coll. K. Kusigemati”, “Paratype Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo”. Other material: Russia (all in ZISP): Sakhalin Prov., 1 female, Kunashir, Alekhino Vill., 11–13.VI.1973, coll. D. Kasparyan; 1 male, Kunashir, Tret’yakovo Vill., 29.VII.2011, coll. D. Rachin and E. Tselikh; 1 female, Kunashir, Stolbchatiy, 01.VIII.2011, coll. D. Rachin and E. Tselikh; 1 female, Kunashir, Ivanovskiy Cape, 17–20.IX.2013, coll. Yu. Sundukov.

Distribution

Russia (Far East), Japan.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix nudicoxa Graham, 1993

Figs 52–55

Plutothrix nudicoxa Graham, 1993: 115. Holotype female (NHMUK, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (NHMUK): “CROATIA: Krapina. Prunus 22.7.1909 Hensch”, “Holotype”, “Plutothrix nudicoxa sp. n. M. de V. Graham det. 1993”, “B.M. TYPE HYM 5.3682”, “NHMUK 013457265”. Other material: Finland (ZMUH): 1 female, “Ab, Nystad, Hellén, 13”, “P. scenicus vittiger Thom. Det. Kerrich 1956”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spin.) det. Koponen 09”, “Plutothrix nudicoxa Graham det. Tselikh, 2021”.

Figures 47–55. 

Plutothrix narendrani Kamijo, 2004, paratype female (47–51) 47 body, dorsal view 48 body, lateral view 49 antenna 50 fore wing 51 scutellum, dorsal view. Plutothrix nudicoxa Graham, 1993, holotype female (52–55) 52 body, lateral view 53 body, dorsal view 54 hind coxa 55 antenna. Scale bars: 1.4 mm (47); 1.8 mm (53).

Distribution

Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland (new record), United Kingdom (Graham 1993; Noyes 2019).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix obtusiclava Graham, 1993

Figs 56–59

Plutothrix obtusiclava Graham, 1993: 116. Holotype female (NHMUK, not examined).

Material examined

Other material : Russia (ZISP): Voronezh Prov., 1 female, Khopersky Reserve, VI.1969, coll. T. Gur’yanova.

Distribution

England, Switzerland, Russia (new record) (Graham 1993; Noyes 2019).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix pallidiclava Graham, 1993

Figs 60–63

Plutothrix pallidiclava Graham, 1993: 112–114. Holotype female, (NBC, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (NBC): Greece: “Ellàs Lésvos A.C. & W. N. Ellis”, “3 km NW Ayia Paraskevi, 7.XI.1973”, “Plutothrix pallidiclava sp.n. M. de V. Graham det. 1993 HOLOTYPE”, “collective Zoölogisch Museum Amsterdam”, “ZMA.INS. 5107052”.

Distribution

Greece.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix perelegans Graham, 1993

Figs 64–66

Plutothrix perelegans Graham, 1993: 112–114. Holotype female (NHMUK, not examined).

Material examined

Other material : Finland (all in ZMUH): A, 1 female, “Föglö, Hellén, 2123”, “P. scenicus vittiger Thom. Det. Kerrich 1956”, “Plutothrix bicolorata (Spin.) det. Koponen 09”; “Plutothrix perelegans Graham det. Tselikh 2021”; N, 1 female, “Suomi, U, Espoo, 6684:363, 8.8.1965, leg. M. Koponen”, “Plutothrix scenicus (Walk.) det. M. Koponen 1975”; “Plutothrix perelegans Graham det. Tselikh 2021”. Ukraine (ZISP): Khar’kov Prov., 1 female, Kupyansk City, 5.VIII.1897, coll. Yaroshevsky.

Figures 56–63. 

Plutothrix obtusiclava Graham, 1993, non-type female (56–59) 56 body, lateral view 57 antennal clava 58 fore wing 59 antenna. Plutothrix pallidiclava Graham, 1993, holotype female (60–63) 60 body, dorsal view 61 mesosoma, dorsal view 62 antenna 63 body, lateral view. Scale bars: 1.9 mm (56); 1.0 mm (60).

Distribution

Austria, Croatia, Finland (new record), France, Sweden, Ukraine (new record) (Graham 1993; Noyes 2019).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix pilicoxa Graham, 1993

Figs 67–70

Plutothrix pilicoxa Graham, 1993: 115–116. Holotype female (NHMUK, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (NHMUK): “FRANCE: Vaucluse nr. Bédoin (1), 29.5.1985, M. de V. Graham”, “Plutothrix pilicoxa sp. n. Graham det. 1993 HOLOTYPE”, “Holotype”, “B.M. TYPE HYM 5.3683”, “NHMUK 013457266”. Other material: Russia (all in ZISP): Belgorod Prov., 1 female, 1 male, Borisovskii Distr., Borisovka Vill., “Belogorie” Reserve, “Les na Vorskle,” 50°36'34"N, 35°58'55"E, 17.VIII.2020, coll. K. Fadeev; Krasnodar Reg., 1 female, Sochi City, Lazarevskoe, 18.VI.1979, coll. Tobias; 3 females, 2 males, Sochi City, “Mamedova Shchel”, 43°57'20"N, 39°18'39"E, 28.VII.2020, coll. S. Belokobylskij and E. Tselikh; 2 females, 2 males, Kalezh Vill., Ashe River, 44°01'25"N, 39°22'03"E, 30.VII.2020, coll. O. Kosheleva and E. Tselikh.

Distribution

France, Russia.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix rugosa Kamijo, 2004

Figs 71–73

Plutothrix rugosa Kamijo, 2004: 303–304. Holotype female (EIHU, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (EIHU): “JAPAN: Tokyo, Higashiyamato”, “3.VI.1994, K. Kamijo”, “Holotype Plutothrix rugosa Kamijo”. Other material: Japan (EUM): Ehime, 1 female, Shikoku, Sugitate, 25.IV.1959, coll. M. Sato. Russia (all in ZISP): Primorskii Reg., 1 female, 20 km SE Spassk-Dal’ny, Evseevka Vill., 09.VI.1989, coll. S Belokobylskij; 1 female, 1 male, 40 km NE, Dukhovskoe Vill., 01.VIII.1996, coll. S Belokobylskij.

Distribution

Russia (Far East), Japan.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix scrobicula Kamijo, 2004

Figs 74–78

Plutothrix scrobicula Kamijo, 2004: 306–307. Holotype female (EIHU, examined).

Material examined

Holotype female (EIHU): “JAPAN: Ehime Pref., Koya-yama, Oda-miyama, Oda-cho, Shikoku, 2.viii.1994, E. Yamamoto”, “Holotype Plutothrix scrobicula Kamijo”. Paratype female (EIHU): “JAPAN: Kyushu, Mt. Hikosan Soeda, Fukuoka, 5.VIII.1992, E. Ikeda leg.”, “Paratype Plutothrix scrobicula Kamijo”. Other material: Russia (all in ZISP): Primorskii Reg., 1 female, Spassk-Dal’ny Town, 17.VIII.1993, coll. S Belokobylskij; 1 male, same locality, 08.VIII.1996, coll. S Belokobylskij. South Korea (YNU): GW, 1 female, Wonju-si, Socho-myeon, Hakgongri, Mt. Chiak, 37°22'18"N, 128°03'02"E, 20.VI–19.VII.2013, coll. J.W. Lee.

Figures 64–70. 

Plutothrix perelegans Graham, 1993, non-type female (64–66) 64 body, lateral view 65 antenna 66 fore wing. Plutothrix pilicoxa Graham, 1993, holotype female (67–70) 67 hind coxa 68 body, lateral view 69 antennal clava 70 body, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1.4 mm (64); 1.2 mm (68).

Figures 71–78. 

Plutothrix rugosa Kamijo, 2004, holotype female (71–73) 71 body, dorsal view 72 mesosoma, dorsal view 73 wings. Plutothrix scrobicula Kamijo, 2004, paratype female (74–78) 74 mesosoma, dorsal view 75 head, frontal view 76 fore wing 77 body, lateral view 78 body, dorsal view. Scale bars: 2.7 mm (71); 1.0 mm (78).

Distribution

Russia (Far East), South Korea, Japan.

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix transdanuviana (Erdős, 1946), syn. nov.

Figs 95–97

Anoglyphis transdanuviana Erdős, 1946: 158. Lectotype female (HNHM, examined).

Material examined

Lectotype female (HNHM): Hungary: “Kőszegi h. 1944.V.22. dr. Erdős”, “Hym. Typ. No. 5742 Mus. Budapest”, “Cotypus”, “♀”, “Alnus glutinosa L.”, “Lectotypus Anoglyphis transdanuviana Erd. 946”, “Seladerma antennatum (Walk.)”; “Kőszegi h 1944.VI.26. dr. Erdős”, “Hym. Typ. No. 5743 Mus. Budapest”, “Cotypus”, “♂”, “rét”, “Paralectotypus Anoglyphis transdanuviana Erd. 946”.

Distribution

Hungary.

Biology

Unknown.

Remarks

Erdős (1946) described the species Anoglyphis transdanuviana Erdős from the Kőszegi Hills, West Hungary. Kerrich et Graham (1957) synonymized the genus Anoglyphis Förster, 1878 with Plutothrix Förster, 1856. As a result, A. transdanuviana was transferred to the genus Plutothrix. Subsequently, Graham (1969) suggested that A. transdanuviana might belong to Seladerma Walker, 1834. Examination of the types showed they belong to the species Seladerma antennatum (Walker) based on the following character states. Head 2.05× as long as broad. Clypeal margin with asymmetric teeth. Funicular segments of antenna with one row of sensilla. Mesosoma with complete notauli. Fore wing with speculum, basal vein incomplete, PM longer than M. Propodeum 0.37× as long as scutellum. Petiole transverse. Metasoma longer than mesosoma and head, 2.33× as long as broad. Plutothrix transdanuviana (Erdős, 1946) is thus hereby synonymized under Seladerma antennatum (Walker, 1833).

Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson, 1878)

Figs 79–83

Plutothrix foersteri Mayr, 1904: 586. Male type, lost. Synonymy by Ferrière and Novitzky (1955: 31).

Trigonoderus trifasciatus Thomson, 1878: 11. Lectotype female (LUZN, examined). Designated by Kerrich and Graham (1957: 293).

Material examined

Lectotype female (LUZN): Sweden: “Fardhem 3.Jli 41”, “Trigonoderus trifasciatus Thoms. LECTOTYPE G.J. Kerrich & M.W. Graham 1955”, “Type”, “TYPE NO. 134:1 Pteromalidae Zool. Mus. Lund Sweden”. Other material: Finland (all in ZMUH): 1 female, Ab, “669370:323763, V, Parainen, Malaise 1A, 19.07–02.08.2020, leg. S. Väänänen, J. Paukkunen”, “Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson) det. Tselikh 2021”; Ta, 1 female, “Fennia, Ta, Vanaja, 25.07.1957, leg. Valkeila”, “Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson) det. Valkeila”; Sa, 1 female, “Fennia, ES, Joutseno, Marttila raidat, 676950: 58854, 05.08.2012, leg. M. Raekunnas”, “Plutothrix trifasciatus det. M. Koponen”; 1 female, “Finland, 669370:323763, V, Parainen, Malaise 1A, 19.07–02.08.2020, leg. S. Väänänen, J. Paukkunen”, “Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson) det. Tselikh 2021»;1 female, “154, Fennia, Snappert., 15.07.1933, Klingstedt, coll. Klingstedt”, “Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson) det. Tselikh 2021”; Om [Ostrobottnia media], 1 female, “Fennia, Pyhäjärvi, 27.07.1957, leg. V. Vikberg”, “Plutothrix trifasciatus Ths, det. V. Vikberg”. Moldova (all in ZISP): 2 females, “Bendery City, 08.VI.1974, coll. D. Kasparyan”. Russia (all in ZISP): Voronezh Prov., 1 female, Saval’skoe forestry, 08.VI.1954, coll. V. Stark; 1 female, 20 km SW of Rossosh’ City, Zhilino Vill., 49°49'58"N, 39°19'48"E, 11.VIII.2020, coll. Tselikh; Kostroma Prov., 1 female, Vasil’evskoe Vill., 21.VII.1935, coll. V. Gussakovsky; Samara Prov., 1 female, Krasny Yar Vill., 53°31'23"N, 50°22'28"E, 23.VIII.2020, coll. K. Samartsev; Krasnodar Reg., 1 female, Kubanskaya Vill. 20.VI.1933, coll. Shestakov; Orenburg Prov., 2 females, Kondurovka Vill., 07.VIII.2021, coll. K. Fadeev; Primorskii Reg., 1 female, Novokachalinsk Vill., Khanka Lake, 04–07.VIII.2006, coll. S Belokobylskij. Tajikistan (ZISP): 1 female, “Kondara, 30.V.1939, coll. V. Gussakovsky”. South Korea (all in YNU): GB [Gyeongsangbuk-do], 1 female, Dalseo-gu, Daegok-dong, Daegu Arboretum, 35°48'3.26"N, 128°31'15.3"E, 12.IX.–4.X.2012, coll. S.G. Gang; 1 male, Gyeongsan-si, Daehak-ro 280, Yeungnam Univ., 35°49'30"N, 128°45'39"E, 30.VII.–25.X.2013, coll. J.W. Lee; 1 female, Cheongdo-gun, Gakbuk-myeon, Namsan-ri, 15.IX.–21.X.2013, J.W. Lee; GN [Gyeongsangnam-do], 1 female, Jinju-si, Ibanseong-myeon, Daecheon-ri, Gyeongsangnam-do, For. Env. Res. Inst., 35°9'39.7"N, 128°17'41.3"E, 16.IX.–1.X.2013, coll. J.H. Hwang; GW [Gangwon-do], 1 female, Wonju-si, Heungeop-myeon, Maeji-ri 234, Yonsei University, 5–26.IX.2014, coll. H.Y. Han; 1 female, Seoul, Dongdaemun-gu, Cheongnyangni-dong, 29.VIII.–05.IX.2005, coll. W.L. Choi.

Figures 79–86. 

Plutothrix trifasciata (Thomson, 1878), non-type female (79–83) 79 body, dorsal view 80 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 81 head and mesosoma, lateral view 82 fore wing 83 metasoma, dorsal view. Plutothrix zhangyieensis Yang, 1996, non-type female (84–86) 84 body, lateral view 85 fore wing 86 mesosoma, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1.6 mm (79); 1.0 mm (84).

Distribution

Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Korea, South, Lithuania, Moldova, Netherlands, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom (Noyes 2019; Tselikh 2019).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix zerovae Tselikh, Várkonyi & Dale-Skey, sp. nov.

Figs 87–94

Comparison

Plutothrix zerovae is similar to P. kuboi Kamijo, 2004; the differences between these species are given in the key.

Description

Female. Body length 5.60–6.50 mm. Fore wing length 4.10–4.50 mm.

Head, mesosoma and Mt2–Mt6 metallic bluish-green with diffuse coppery lustre, Mt8 brown; ovipositor sheath black. Antenna with scape yellow, pedicel yellowish-brown, flagellum brown. All coxae metallic green with diffuse coppery lustre; all femora, tibiae and tarsi yellow except last segment yellowish-brown. Fore wing hyaline with one fuscous cloud touching stigma, venation yellowish-brown.

Head in dorsal view 2.10–2.26× as broad as long and 1.16–1.19× as broad as mesoscutum; in frontal view 1.24–1.26× as broad as high. POL 0.90–1.00× OOL. Eye height 1.43–1.46× eye length and 2.10–2.22× as long as malar space. Distance between antennal toruli and lower margin of clypeus 0.58–0.65× distance between antennal toruli and median ocellus. Antenna with scape 0.85–0.89× as long as eye height and 1.20–1.30× as long as eye length; pedicel 2.00–2.07× as long as broad and 0.72–0.80× as long as F1; combined length of pedicel and flagellum 1.12–1.18× breadth of head; F1 2.20–2.35× as long as broad, F3–F6 longer than broad; clava 2.45–2.60× as long as broad.

Mesosoma 1.55–1.60× as long as broad. Scutellum finely reticulate, 1.18–1.20× as long as broad. Propodeum without nucha, 0.86–0.90× as long as scutellum; median carina present; sculpture weakly reticulate. Metapleuron reticulate, upper mesepimeron alutaceous. Fore wing 2.50–2.70× as long as maximum width; basal cell, cubital vein, basal vein setose; speculum closed; PST 0.75–0.86× as long as M, M 0.74–0.76× as long as PM and 1.80–1.93× as long as S.

Metasoma 4.30–4.40× as long as broad, 1.80–1.95× as long as mesosoma and 1.45–1.56× as long as mesosoma and head; Mt2 emarginate medially, Mt8 2.20–2.50× as long as broad. Ovipositor sheath projecting beyond apex of metasoma.

Male unknown.

Etymology

The species is named in honour of the prominent entomologist, Dr M.D. Zerova (1934–2021), an expert on Eurytomidae, Torymidae and Ormyridae (Hymenoptera).

Material examined

Holotype female (ZMUH): Finland: “Suomi, ES, Mikkelin mlk., 6830:501, 05.07.1987, leg. M. Koponen”, “Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen”, “Holotype Plutothrix zerovae sp.n. Tselikh”. Paratypes. Finland (all in ZMUH): N, 1 female, “Suomi, Kauniainen, 09.07.1946, leg. A. Saarinen”; Ta, 1 female, “Suomi, EH, Luopioinen, 07.08.1976, leg. E. Kangas”; 1 female, “Suomi, EH, Luopioinen, 21.07.1956, leg. E. Kangas”, “Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen”; 1 female, “Finland, Loppi, 03.07.1937, leg. C. Ahnger”; Sa, 1 female, “Finland, Ristiina, 6826:502, 28.06.1992, leg. M. Koponen”, “Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen”; 1 female, “Suomi, ES, Ristiina, 6826:502, 08.07.1978, leg. M. Koponen”, “Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen”; 1 female, “Suomi, ES, Mikkelin mlk, 6830:501, 03.09.1974, leg. M. Koponen”, “Plutothrix coelius (Walker) det. M. Koponen”; 1 female, “Finland, Ristiina, 6826:502, 03.07.1995, leg. M. Koponen”; Tb, 1 female, “Jyväskylä, Hellén, 208”; Kb, 1 female, “Suomi, PK, Tohmajärvi, 6908:660, 18.07.1982, leg. M. Koponen”. Russia: (ZMUH) Leningrad Prov., 1 female, “Viipuri, Linnaniemi, 610, MUS., ZOOL. UNIV. TURKU”; (ZISP) Smolensk Prov., 1 female, near Smolensk City, 54°49'01"N, 32°04'50"E, 22.VIII.2020, coll. S Belokobylskij.

Figures 87–94. 

Plutothrix zerovae sp. nov., holotype female (87–94) 87 body, lateral view 88 head and mesosoma, dorsal view 89 head, frontal view 90 head, dorsal view 91 mesosoma, lateral view 92 antenna 93 body, dorsal view 94 wings. Scale bar: 2.1 mm (87).

Figures 95–97. 

Plutothrix transdanuviana (Erdős, 1946) syn. nov. to Seladerma antennatum (Walker, 1833), holotype female (95–97) 95 body, dorsal view 96 head and antenna, dorsal view 94 fore wing. Scale bar: 0.75 mm (95).

Distribution

Finland, Russia (European part of Russia).

Biology

Unknown.

Plutothrix zhangyieensis Yang, 1996

Figs 84–86

Plutothrix zhangyieensis Yang, 1996: 125–127. Holotype female (NWCF, not examined).

Material examined

Other material : Russia (all in ZISP): Primorskii Reg., Vladivostok City, Okeanskaya, 30.VII.2001, coll. S. Belokobylskij; 1 female, Lazovsky Reserve, Proselochny, 11.VII.2008, coll. A. Khalaim; Kuril Islands, Kunashir, Alekhino Vill., 30–31.VII.1981, coll. S. Belokobylskij.

Distribution

People’s Republic of China (Gansu), Russia (Far East) (new record) (Yang 1996).

Biology

Primary parasitoid of Polygraphus poligraphus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) (Yang 1996).

Conclusion

The present study considerably supplements our knowledge of the genus Plutothrix Förster. After the inclusion of the three new species (Plutothrix gribanovi, sp. nov., P. longigaster, sp. nov., and P. zerovae, sp. nov.) from the Palaearctic region described in this paper, and the exclusion of P. transdanuviana, syn. nov., the genus Plutothrix now consists of thirty valid species.

Acknowledgements

The authors are very thankful to Frederique Bakker (NBC for checking and imaging the holotype of Plutothrix pallidiclava Graham for this study, and Dr Masahiro Ohara (EIHU) and Dr Christer Hansson (LUZN) for providing type material for this study. The authors are grateful to employees of the Belogor’e Nature Reserve for their help in organising scientific research on the Reserve’s territory.

This work was supported by funding from the Ministry of the Environment of Finland (to the Finnish Expert Group on Hymenoptera) and of the Russian state: research project No. 122031100272-3 (to E. Tselikh).

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