Research Article
Print
Research Article
Three new species and one new country record of velvet ants (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae) from Thailand
expand article infoNarit Thaochan, Kevin A. Williams§, Kodeeyah Thoawan, Tadsanai Jeenthong|, Wisut Sittichaya
‡ Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, Thailand
§ Plant Pest Diagnostics Center, California Department of Food & Agriculture, Sacramento, United States of America
| National Science Museum, Pathum Thani, Thailand
Open Access

Abstract

Three new species of velvet ants known from females are here described: Mickelomyrme leleji Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov., Nordeniella dokbua Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov., and Smicromyrme songkhwae Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov. One additional species is newly recorded from Thailand: Bischoffitilla selangorensis (Pagden). Synoptic list of Mutillidae in Thailand Natural History Museum with new records is given.

Keywords

Diversity, Mutillidae, new record, new species, Oriental region, taxonomy

Introduction

In Thailand, studies of velvet ants (Mutillidae) are rare and a systematic nation-wide survey is still crucial to study the diversity of these wasps in the country. Before 2019, Thai velvet ants were only discussed in catalogs or revisions of various genera in the Oriental Region (Lelej and Krombein 1999; Lelej 2005; Lelej et al. 2016, 2017; Okayasu et al. 2018, 2021a, b, c) and 33 species were recorded from Thailand (25 known from females). The first survey focused on Thailand was written by Williams et al. (2019) and treated female specimens in southern Thailand. The result of that project raised the number of Thai species from 33 to 61. Since then, three additional Thai species were recognized in the genus Andreimyrme Lelej, 2005 (Okayasu et al. 2021b), raising the count to 64 species. In the present paper, we examined 83 pinned specimens from the Thailand Natural History Museum, National Science Museum resulting from multiple collecting events mostly from Northern and Northeastern Thailand. Three species new to science and one new country record were recognized, raising the number of species recorded from Thailand to 68.

Material and methods

The specimens were collected from different localities in Thailand (Fig. 1) with hand collecting or honey baiting. Specimens were then observed with Leica S9-D, Leica S8 APO Leica, or Leica M165C stereomicroscopes (Leica Microsystems Pte Ltd, Germany). The habitus of specimens were photographed using Canon 6D digital camera with a Canon MP-E 65mm Macro Photo Lens, magnified with 2×-extender tube (Canon, Tokyo, Japan) and StackShot-Macrorail (Cognisys Inc, MichiganI, USA). The photos were then combined with Helicon Focus 6.8.0. (Helicon Soft, Ukraine), all photos were improved with Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Adobe Systems, California, USA). The terminology mostly follows Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (2013) and the taxonomic characters and type specimen measurements follow the methodology used in Williams et al. (2019).

Figure 1. 

Specimen collecting localities, the ordinal numbers in accordance with the sequence of locations in the text. N=Northern region, N-E=North-Eastern region, C=Central region; E=Eastern region, S=Southern region. Source: map modified from a Royal Forest Department of Thailand map.

Abbreviations

CSCA California State Collection of Arthropods, Sacramento, California, USA.

THNHM Natural History Museum of the National Science Museum, Pathum Thani, Thailand.

PSUC Prince of Songkhla University Collection, Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand.

Results

Taxonomic treatment

Family Mutillidae Latreille, 1802

Subfamily Myrmillinae Bischoff, 1920

Genus Bischoffitilla Lelej, 2002

Bischoffitilla selangorensis (Pagden, 1934)

Fig. 2

Squamuloltilla selangorensis Pagden, 1934: 452.

Bischoffitilla selangorensis (Padgen). Comb.n. Lelej, 2002: 127.

Material examined

Holotype : ♀, Malaysia, Selangor, Bukit Kutu, 31.I.1930 (BMNH).

Other material

New to Thailand, Lampang Province, Ngao District, Tham Pha Thai NP., 20. XII.2001, S. Hasin leg., (1♀, THNHM); Loei Province, Phu Ruea District, Waranya Resort 17.460 –101.355, 25–26.III.2019, K. Williams, S. Puttasok, K. Thoawan, R. Malee and N. Thaochan leg., (4♀ CSCA); 19.I.1999, W. Jaitrong leg. (1♀ THNHM); Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Wang Nam Khiao District, 09.V.2001, W. Jaitrong and T. Jeentong leg. (1♀, THNHM).

Diagnosis

Female. This species can be separated from other Thai species by having the posterior propodeal surface with uniformly dense small punctures. The following combination of characters are also useful for diagnosis: genal carina short with weak anterior tooth; mesopleural lamella longer than flagellar width, apically rounded; lateral margins of mesosomal dorsum margined with wavy multidentate carina; dorsoposterior propodeal row with median tooth distinct, larger than lateral teeth; T3–5 with brown or black appressed setae and interspersed sparse erect blackish and white to yellowish setae. Body length 5.0–6.2 mm.

Male. Unknown.

Variation

The head and metasoma cuticle colors vary from reddish-brown to black. The appressed metasomal setae vary from brown to black. The cuticle beneath the whitish setal markings of T1 and T2 vary from mostly brown or black to entirely bright whitish-yellow. The size and number of apparent teeth along the dorso-lateral pronotal and mesonotal margins vary. The height of the spines on the dorsoposterior propodeal row varies and the number of spines varies from three to five on each side. The leg color varies from entirely pale orange-brown to mostly dark brown.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Malaysia (Selangor); Thailand (Loei, Lampang, Nakhon Ratchasima).

Remarks

This species is newly recorded from Thailand. In the key to Thai females from Williams et al. (2019), B. selangorensis terminates at couplet 4. It can be differentiated from B. lamellata and the other species by having T3 without a distinct band or mesal patch of whitish setae; rather, T3 has sparse interspersed blackish and pale yellow or whitish setae. Unlike the other Thai species, the posterior propodeal surface has uniformly dense small punctures; the other Thai species have the posterior propodeal surface widely areolate, becoming smooth ventrally.

Figure 2. 

Bischoffitilla selangorensis, ♀, Thailand A dorsal view B mesosoma dorsum C pygidium D lateral view E metasomal terga F vertex G frons and clypeus.

Subfamily Mutillinae Latreille, 1802

Tribe Smicromyrmini Bischoff, 1920

Genus Mickelomyrme Lelej, 1995

Mickelomyrme leleji Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov.

Fig. 3

Material examined

Holotype : ♀, Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Khong Chiam District, Khao Phan Bok, Mekong river, 140 msl., N152708.33 E1053545.96, 09.ii.2016. W. Jaitrong leg. (THNHM). Paratype: ♀, Thailand, Loei Province, Phu Ruea District, Waranya Resort 17.460–101.355, 25–26.III.2019, K. Williams, S. Puttasok, K. Thoawan, R. Malee and N. Thaochan leg. (1♀ CSCA).

Diagnosis

Female. This species can be separated from other Mickelomyrme by the unique metasomal setal pattern: the T2 posterior fringe is has a mesal patch of white setae and T3–5 have the setae mostly whitish. The following characters are also diagnostic: the vertex has sparse whitish setae; the mesosoma is uniformly orange-brown without distinct whitish setal patches; the scutellar scale is transversely arcuate, ~6 punctures wide, with transverse wavy carinae anterior and posterior to the scale; the T2 disc is convex and the cuticle is uniformly blackish beneath the white setal spots; and the pygidium is elongate triangular with most striae continuous nearly to the apical margin. Body length 3.5–4.5 mm. Male. Unknown.

Description

Female. Body length 3.5 mm. Coloration. Head dark brown except antennal tubercle, malar space, clypeus, mandibular bases, scape and pedicel bases apparently paler brown. Mesosoma orange-brown. Legs brown except pro-, meso- and metacoxae paler. Metasoma dark brown except T1 orange-brown, S1–6 paler brown. Body setae generally sparse except T3–4 apically. Setal color generally whitish, except mesosoma dorsum and T2 aside from setal patches covered with dark-brown appressed setae; T2 disc with three large white ovate setal patches; T2 fringe white mesally; T3–6 setae almost entirely whitish. Head. Width behind eye subequal to mesosoma width. Frons, vertex, and gena punctures small, widely separated. Mandible apex apparently unidentate. Clypeus with transverse entire carina carina, basomedial portion triangulate narrow with a small, median tubercle. Antennal scrobe without dorsal carina. Antennal tubercle smooth. Genal carina obliterated. F1 1.6× pedicel length, F2 1.2× pedicel length. Mesosoma. Length 1.4× width. Dorsum with shallow hexagonal punctures, punctures on apical onefifth very shallow obscure, deeper and more prominent posteriorly. Side of mesosoma smooth and shining, upper portion sparsely covered with shorter setae, lower portion with dense white long setae. Mesopleural lamella absent. Humeral carina weakly developed and obliterated dorsally. Ratio of width of humeral angle, anterior spiracle, narrowest point of mesonotum, propodeal spiracle, and widest point of propodeum 46:52:44:46:48. Scutellar scale transversely arcuate, ~6 punctures wide, with transverse wavy carinae anterior and posterior to scale. Posterior propodeal face; upper portion areolate, lower portion shagreened without punctures. Lateral and posterior propodeal faces not separated by carina. Metatibio-tarsal ratio 39:20:12:9:6:6. Metasoma. T1–5 with small dense punctures. S1 with simple longitudinal carina. T2 felt line 0.56× T2 total length. T6 with elongate triangular pygidial plate, with sub-parallel striae (~14 near base), mostly reaching apex. S6 posterior margin narrowly emarginate.

Figure 3. 

Mickelomyrme leleji sp.nov., holotype, female A dorsal view B mesosoma dorsum C lateral view D metasomal terga E vertex F clypeus G pygidium.

Male. Unknown.

Variation

The paratype is 4.5 mm in length and has slightly a wider patch of blackish setae mesally on T5.

Distribution

Thailand (Loei, Ubon Ratchathani)

Etymology

The name honors Arkady S. Lelej, who described the genus and for his great contributions to modern velvet-ant taxonomy.

Remarks

In the key to female velvet ants in southern Thailand (Williams et al. 2019), this species terminates at couplet 17 because the metasomal coloration does not match any of the species. It terminates at couplet 2 in the key to East Asian Mickelomyrme species (Lelej 1996) for the same reason. Structurally, this species seems most similar to M. kinguri Williams in Williams et al,. 2019 or M. puttasoki Williams in Williams et al. 2019, based on the distinct pygidial striae. The pygidial shape is somewhat intermediate between those species, being elongate triangular (broadly triangular in M. puttasoki, elongate ovate in M. kinguri). Unlike those species, the mesonotum is uniformly orange-brown (pronotum largely blackened in M. kinguri and M. puttasoki); the mesonotum lacks distinct white setal patches (present in M. kinguri and M. puttasoki), the T2 disc patches are composed of concolorous whitish setae (mesal T2 disc patch yellowish, orange, or absent in M. kinguri and M. puttasoki), and the T2 fringe has a whitish mesal setal patch (T2 fringe entirely black in M. kinguri and M. puttasoki). Additionally, unlike M. kinguri, the head is dark brown (pale orange-brown in M. kinguri) and, unlike M. puttasoki, the pygidial striae are sub-parallel (striae posteriorly divergent in M. puttasoki).

Genus Nordeniella Lelej, 2005

Nordeniella dokbua Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov.

Fig. 4

Material examined

Holotype : ♀, Thailand, Ubonratchatthani Province, Sirinthon district, 18.VII. 2002. W. Jaitrong. (THNHM). Paratypes 4♀, Thailand, Nakhon Rathasima Province, 5.7 km N Muak Lek, 14.717 –101.188, 29.III.2019, K. Williams, S. Puttasok, K. Thoawan, R. Malee and N. Thaochan (2♀ CSCA); Saraburi Province, Mai Ngerm Thong Resort, 7 km NW Muak Lek, 14.711 –101.165, 15.III.2019, K. Williams, S. Puttasok, K. Thoawan, R. Malee and N. Thaochan (2♀, CSCA).

Diagnosis

Female. This species can be recognized by the following combination of characters: head and metasoma with cuticle black; mesosoma with cuticle orange-brown; propodeum clearly wider than pronotum; T2 disc with large mesal spot of whitish setae basally. Body length 4.0–5.5 mm.

Male. Unknown.

Description

Female. Body length 5.9 mm. Coloration. Head black, except antennal tubercle, mandible, scape, and pedicel largely orange-brown. Mesosoma entirely orange-brown, except legs moderately darkened apically. Metasoma black, except S1 and T1 basally orange-brown and T2–3 obscurely yellow-brown beneath white setal markings. Body setae generally sparse and silvery, except vertex and mesosomal dorsum with scattered silver and erect blackish setae; T2 disc, T4, and T5 setae dense black; and T2 basomedial spot, T2 apex, T3 entirely, and T6 basal tuft with dense whitish silver setae. Head. Width behind eye 1.15× pronotal width. Frons, vertex, and gena punctures dense to confluent. Mandible apex tridentate. Clypeus with transverse truncate lamella; basomedial portion convex, densely punctate, with obscure longitudinal carina basally. Antennal scrobe with dorsal carina. Antennal tubercle shagreened with a few scattered punctures. Genal carina weakly defined, forming raised tooth with hypostomal carina. F1 1.4× pedicel length, F2 1.4× pedicel length. Mesosoma. Length 1.1× width (width measured at propodeum). Dorsum of mesosoma with coarse confluent punctures. Side of mesosoma with scattered micropunctures with short setae, ventral portion of meso- and metapleuron areolate, posterior portion of propodeal side with obscure reticulations. Mesopleural lamella absent. Humeral carina distinct, arcuate. Ratio of width of humeral angle, anterior spiracle, midpoint of mesonotum, propodeal spiracle, and widest point of propodeum 60:69:70:73:75. Scutellar scale obliterated. Posterior propodeal face areolate. Lateral and posterior propodeal faces separated by interrupted wavy carina. Metatibio-tarsal ratio 79:33:23:17:13:11. Metasoma. Terga 1–5 with small dense punctures, sparser on T1, confluent on T2. S1 with long simple longitudinal carina. T2 felt line 0.25× T2 total length. T6 convex, mostly smooth. S6 posterior margin bidentate.

Figure 4. 

Nordeniella dokbua sp.nov., holotype, female A dorsal view B posterior propodeal face and metasoma dorsum C lateral view D mesosoma E frons and vertex F clypeus G pygidium.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Thailand (Nakhon Ratchasima, Saraburi Provinces and Ubonratthani province).

Etymology

This name refers to an old name and meaning for Ubonratthani province (dokbua=water lily), the holotype specimen locality. Treat as a noun in apposition.

Remarks

In the key to female velvet ants in southern Thailand (Williams et al. 2019), this species keys out to N. maleeae Williams in Williams et al. 2019, the only other Nordeniella species known from the eastern Oriental region. Nordeniella dokbua can be separated from that species by having the propodeum clearly wider than the pronotum (mesosoma equally wide throughout its length in N. maleeae). These two Thai species can be separated from the known Indian and Sri Lankan Nordeniella females by having the head black, the head is reddish in western Oriental Nordeniella (see André 1894, 1907; Turner 1911). These Thai species can be separated from the Australasian N. sumbawaensis Okayasu, 2022 by having the basomesal clypeal carina indistinct and restricted to the basal portion and the metasoma dark brown to black; N. sumbawaensis has the basomesal clypeal carina distinct and continuous to the anterior margin, and the metasoma with obscure metallic blue lustre (Okayasu 2022).

Genus Smicromyrme Thomson, 1870

Smicromyrme songkhwae Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov.

Fig. 5

Material examined

Holotype ♀, Thailand, Phitsanulok Province, Chat Trakan District, Phu Soi Dao National Park, Dry evergreen forest, 21.IV.2002. W. Jaitrong. (THNHM).

Diagnosis

Female. This species can be recognized by the following combination of characters: the mesosoma is longer than wide; the scutellar scale is transversely arcuate, ~6 punctures wide; the T2 disc has a single mesal spot; the T2 posterior fringe and T3 are covered with whitish setae above lighter yellow-brown cuticle; the pygidium is elongate ovate with ~10 weakly incurved striae mostly ending before pygidial mid-point. Small species, 2.9 mm. long.

Male. Unknown.

Description

Female. Body length 2.9 mm. Coloration. Head dark brown except frons, base of mandible, clypeus, and antenna yellowish brown; mesosoma orange-brown; legs yellowish brown, darker marginally and apically; metasoma dark brown, somewhat paler ventrally, except T1 and S1 orange-brown, and T2 posterior fringe and T3 mostly yellow brown. Body setae generally sparse and silvery, except appressed setae on T2and T4–5 setae blackish, and T2 basomedial spot, T2 apical margin, and T3 entirely whitish. Head. Width behind eye 1.13× mesosoma width. Frons, vertex, and gena punctures tightly confluent. Frons surface rugose, forming transverse wavy carinules. Mandible apex apparently unidentate. Clypeus with obscure transverse carina; basomedial portion with weak flat tubercle. Antennal scrobe without dorsal carina. Antennal tubercle with weak punctures. Genal carina obscure, not reaching hypostomal carina. F1 1.0× pedicel length, F2 1.15× pedicel length. Mesosoma. Length 1.05× width. Dorsum of mesosoma with small coarse confluent punctures. Mesopleural lamella absent. Humeral carina present, weakly developed. Ratio of width of humeral angle, anterior spiracle, narrowest point of mesonotum, propodeal spiracle, and widest point of propodeum 38:40:37:38:39. Scutellar scale transversely arcuate, ~6 punctures wide, forming transverse isosceles carina in posterior view. Posterior propodeal face with upper portion areolate, lower portion shagreened without punctures. Lateral and posterior propodeal faces not separated by carina. Metatibio-tarsal ratio 34:18:11:9:7:6. Metasoma. T1–5 with small dense punctures, sparser on T1. S1 without longitudinal carina. T2 felt line 0.40× T2 total length. T6 with long ovate pygidial plate, with ~10 laterally incurved striae mostly ending before pygidial midpoint. S6 posterior margin bidentate.

Figure 5. 

Smicromyrme songkhwae sp.nov., holotype, female A dorsal view B posterior propodeal face and metasoma dorsum C lateral view D frons and vertex E clypeus F pygidium

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

Thailand (Phitsanulok Province).

Etymology

This name refers to an old name for Phitsanulok Province (song=two in the Thai numeral system and khwae=tributary), the type specimen locality. Treat as a noun in apposition.

Remarks

In the key to female velvet ants in southern Thailand (Williams et al. 2019), this species terminates at couplet 25 with S. helarctos Williams in Williams et al. 2019) and S. borkenti Williams in Williams et al. 2019; currently Andreimyrme borkenti, see Okayasu et al. 2021). Unlike A. borkenti, the scutellar scale is wide and the pygidial plate is widest mesally. Furthermore, this species does not belong in Andreimyrme based on the unidentate mandible, unarmed prementum, and wide distinct scutellar scale (Okayasu et al. 2021b).

Based on similarities in the scutellar scale, pygidial shape, and light brown cuticle of the T2 fringe and T3, this species is apparently closely related to S. helarctos. Unlike that species, S. songkhwae has the mesosoma uniformly orange-brown (blackened laterally in S. helarctos) and longer than wide (as wide as long in S. helarctos). Additionally, the pygidial striae in S. songkhwae are fainter and restricted to the anterior half of the pygidial plate (pygidial striae distinct and extending beyond midpoint in S. helarctos).

Discussion

The four species discussed above are known from females only. In fact, of the 68 species known from Thailand, 49 (~72%) are known from females only; another 11 (~16%) are known from both sexes, while eight (~12%) are known from males only (Lelej 2005; Williams et al. 2019; Okayasu et al. 2021b). Based on these data, male velvet ants in Thailand are much more poorly understood than females.

Of the 83 specimens housed in the Thailand Natural History Museum (Table 1), seven belonged to the four species discussed above. Fifty-eight specimens were identified to species that are already known from Thailand, mainly species that also occur in southern Thailand and were treated in Williams et al. (2019). The remaining 24 specimens could not be reliably identified to species, because they were unassociated males in genera that have not been adequately revised (20 specimens) or females that were potentially conspecific with other Oriental species (4 specimens). Without molecular data or structural comparisons of larger series with both sexes, we refrain from describing these forms as new or attributing them to already recognized taxa. Altogether, 20 new Region records and 47 new Province records were found in the material of the Thailand Natural History Museum (Table 1).

Table 1.

Synoptic list of velvet ants in the Thailand Natural History Museum. Asterisks (*) represent new distribution records for the Region or Province.

Species Sex Thai-Distribution
Andreimyrme borkenti (Williams in Williams et al. 2019) f E*: Chachoengsao*
Andreimyrme substriolata (Chen, 1957) f NE*: Mukdahan*
Bischoffitilla perakensis (Pagden, 1934) f C: Pathum Thani*
Bischoffitilla selangorensis (Pagden, 1934) f N*: Chaing Mai*, Lampang*; NE*: Loei*, Nakhon Ratchasima*
Bischoffitilla cf. mammalifera (Chen, 1957) m S: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Cockerellidia sohmi (Cockerell, 1928) m E*: Chachoengsao*
Ctenotilla guangdongensis Lelej, 1992 f NE: Nakhon Ratchasima*
Eotrogaspidia oryzae (Pagden, 1934) f C: Pathum Thani*
Eotrogaspidia auroguttata (Smith, 1855) f W*: Tak*; C: Pathum Thani*
Krombeinidia cf. subfossata (Chen, 1957) m E: Chonburi; S: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Mickelomyrme isora (Cameron, 1900) m N: Chiang Mai
Mickelomyrme leleji Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov. f NE: Ubon Ratchathani
Mickelomyrme pusillaeformis (Hammer, 1962) f N: Chiang Mai
Mickelomyrme sp. m E: Chonburi
Mutilla harmandi André, 1898 f NE: Kalasin*; S*: Nakhon Si Thammarat *
Nemka conjugenda (Magretti, 1892) f N: Lampang*; NE*: Ubon Ratchathani *
Nemka cf. conjugenda (Magretti, 1892) f/m NE: Ubon Ratchathani
Nordeniella dokbua Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov. f NE: Ubon Ratchathani
Odontomutilla cf. haematocephala (André, 1896) m S: Nakhon Si Thammarat
Odontomutilla sp. m E: Chachoengsao
Orientidia manleyi Williams in Williams et al. 2019 f NE*: Nakhon Ratchasima *; E*: Chonburi*
Orientidia thoawanae Williams in Williams et al. 2019 f E*: Chonburi*
Orientilla vietnamica Lelej, 1979 f/m E*: Chonburi*
Physetopoda thai Lelej, 1995 f N: Chaing Mai; C: Saraburi*; E: Chachoengsao*
Promecilla decora (Smith, 1879) f E: Chonburi*
Promecidia cf. birmanica (de Dalla Torre, 1897) m NE: Nakhon Ratchasima; E: Chachoengsao, Trad
Sinotilla cyaneiventris (André, 1896) f C: Pathum Than*
Smicromyrme songkhwae Sittichaya & Williams, sp. nov. f N: Phitsanuklok
Smicromyrme triguttatus Mickel, 1933 f N: Chiangrai*; NE*: Nakhon Ratchasima *
Smicromyrme cf. dardanus (Smith, 1857) m NE: Nakhon Ratchasima
Trogaspidia fuscipennis (Fabricius, 1804) f NE*: Burirum*
Trogaspidia pagdeni (Mickel, 1933) m NE*: Burirum*, Kalasin*; W*: Tak*; E: Chonburi*, Rayong*; S: Nakhon Si Thammarat*
Trogaspidia pittsi Williams in Williams et al. 2019 f N: Mae Hong Son *
Trogaspidia wilsoni Williams in Williams et al. 2019 f/m E*: Trad*; NE*: Burirum*, Chaiyaphum*
Trogaspidia cf. rhea (Mickel, 1933) f N: Lampang
Trogaspidia sp. m E: Sa Kaeo
Wallacidia oculata (Fabricius, 1804) m N: Lampang; E: Chachoengsao*
f N: Chaing Mai, W*: Tak*; NE: Burirum; E: Chachoengsao*; S: Phuket*
Zeugomutilla pycnopyga Chen, 1957 m NE*: Chachoengsao*
Zeugomutilla saepes (Chen, 1957) f E: Sa Kaeo *; NE: Chachoengsao*

Acknowledgements

We are most grateful to Dr. Sasitorn Hasin, College of Innovative Management, Valaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University under the Royal Patronage, Dr. Weeyawat Jaitrong and Mrs. Pornpen Jeenthong, Thailand Natural History Museum, National Science Museum for providing specimens. This research was supported by budget revenue of Prince of Songkla University, project number NAT6502010S.

References

  • André E (1894) Contribution a la connaissance des Mutilles de l’Inde. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 8: 462–484.
  • André E (1907) Liste des Mutillides recueillis à Ceylan par M. le Dr. Walter Horn et description des espèces nouvelles. (Hym.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 3: 251–258. https://doi.org/10.1002/mmnd.48019070305
  • Lelej AS (1996) A review of the East Asian species of Mickelomyrme Lelej, 1995 (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae). Entomofauna 17(15): 277–292.
  • Lelej AS (2002) Catalogue of the Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) of the Palaearctic region. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 171 pp.
  • Lelej AS (2005) Catalogue of the Mutillidae (Hymenoptera) of the Oriental region. Dalnauka, Vladivostok, 250 pp.
  • Lelej AS, Krombein KV (1999) Two remarkable new genera of mutillid wasps (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae, Sphaeropthalminae, Pseudomethocini) from Thailand. Far Eastern entomologist 79: 1–8.
  • Lelej AS, Williams KA, Loktionov VM, Pang H, Xu ZF (2017) Review of the genus Zeugomutilla Chen, 1957 (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae, Mutillini), with description of two new species. Zootaxa 4247: 1–15. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4247.1.1
  • Lelej AS, Zhou HT, Loktionov VM, Xu ZF (2016) Review of the genus Promecidia Lelej, 1996, with description of two new species from China (Hymenoptera, Mutillidae, Trogaspidiini). ZooKeys 641: 103–120. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.641.10765
  • Okayasu J (2018) Taxonomic review of Chin-wen Chen’s species described in the genus Smicromyrme (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae: Smicromyrmini). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae 58(2): 479–494. https://doi.org/10.2478/aemnp-2018-0036
  • Okayasu J (2022) Remarkable range extension of the genus Nordeniella Lelej, 2005 (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae: Smicromyrmini): Description of a new species from Sumbawa, Indonesia. Journal of Insect Biodiversity 32(2): 56–63. https://doi.org/10.12976/jib/2022.32.2.3
  • Pagden HT (1934) New species of Mutillidae (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea) from the Malay Peninsula. Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums 17(3): 419–457.
  • Turner RE (1911) New Hymenoptera from Ceylon. Mutillidae and Scoliidae. Spolia Zeylanica 7(27): 141–154.
  • Williams KA, Lelej AS, Okayasu J, Borkent CJ, Malee R, Thoawan K, Thaochan N (2019) The female velvet ants (aka modkhong) of southern Thailand (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae), with a key to the genera of southeast Asia. Zootaxa 4602: 1–69. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4602.1.1