Print
The Eumeninae (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Hong Kong (China), with description of two new species, two new synonymies and a key to the known taxa
expand article infoTing-Jing Li, Christophe Barthélémy§, James M. Carpenter|
‡ Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, China
§ Unaffiliated, Hong Kong, China
| American Museum of Natural History, New York, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

A total of 38 species belonging to 26 genera of Eumeninae are recorded from Hong Kong, among which two new species, namely Allorhynchium radiatum sp. nov. and Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990 is newly recorded from China and its female is firstly described. Eighteen species are newly recorded for Hong Kong. Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003 is synonymized with Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) (syn. nov.) and Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926 is synonymised with Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852 (syn. nov.). A checklist, a key and illustrations to Hong Kong Eumeninae are also provided.

Keywords

Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae, new species, Hong Kong, China

Introduction

The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China (HKSAR), covers an area of 1076 km2, of which about 40% is urbanized (430 km2), while the rest (645 km2) comprises undeveloped land. The topography of the HKSAR is extremely rugged and consists essentially of a series of hills and ridges of igneous or volcanic origin, the highest point culminating at ca 950m asl. Historically the landscape of Hong Kong has been greatly modified by human activity and in the late 1940’s hardly any forest cover remained. Today the North facing slopes are forested while the south facing ones are generally covered in grasses, shrubs and low bushes. The low lying areas were historically farmland, now abandoned, and those areas not occupied by human activities are now composed of seasonal or perennial wetlands/marshes and/or covered in dense and mature secondary forests. The climate is tropical with clear summer (wet) and winter (dry) monsoons, the latter can bring short-lived surges of cold Siberian air. Zero or sub-zero Celsius temperatures are regularly recorded (Dudgeon and Corelett 1994).

The Eumeninae are all solitary wasps, although some species display behaviours that are considered precursors of eusociality in Vespidae, such as communal nesting and progressive provisioning of food for the brood. The subfamily contains about 3800 valid species worldwide, in 204 extant genera (Carpenter 1986; Yamane 1990; Zhou et al. 2011; Tan et al. 2018; Pannure et al. 2016; Ferreira et al. 2018; Li and Carpenter 2018; Selis 2018; Carpenter unpubl.). They are usually predators of Lepidoptera or Coleoptera larvae, although predation on larvae of sawflies is also recorded. The preys are fed to the wasp brood, the adults feeding on body fluids of the prey and plant nectar only. The eumenine wasps are difficult taxonomically, partially because no recent global revision of the subfamily exists although recent regional revisions are clarifying the picture, partially because of the past creation of many new names; a consequence of the extreme colour variability intraspecifically in many taxa (e.g. Delta, Phimenes, Pseumenes, Anterhynchium) and a wealth of synonyms that has confused nomenclature.

Asian species have been partially reviewed in the last decade or so and we will refer the reader to the works of Yamane 1990, Nugroho et al. 2013, Nguyen et al. 2014, Girish Kumar and Sharma 2014, 2015, Pannure et al. 2016, Tan et al. 2018b, and Li and Carpenter 2018, 2019 for additional and comparative information. Prior to this study, 22 species in 15 genera of the subfamily Eumeninae were fragmentarily reported in the literature from Hong Kong. Dover (1926) described 14 species from the HKSAR, Labus exiguus Sauss., [misidentification, = Labus edenticulus Li & Carpenter, 2018], Eumenes petiolata Fabr. [= Delta pyriforme pyriforme Fabricius, 1781], Eumenes gracilis var. esuriens Fabr. [misidentification, = Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775)], Eumenes arcuata Fabr. [= Phimenes flavopictus flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849)], Eumenes architectus Sm. [misidentification], Eumenes coarctata var. punctata Sauss. [= Eumenes punctatus de Saussure, 1852], Eumenes quadrata var. obsoleta Dover, 1926 [= Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852, Syn. nov.], Pareumenes quadrispinosa Sauss. [= Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu, 1941 (?)], Pareumenes depressa Sauss. [= Pseumenes depressus depressus (de Saussure, 1855)], Odynerus (Rygchium) flavomarginatum Sauss. [=Anterhynchium flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852)], Odynerus (R.) haemorrhoidalis var. quinquecincta Fabr. [= Rhynchium quinquecinctum quinquecinctum (Fabricius, 1787)], Odynerus (R.) flavopunctatum Smith [= Rhynchium flavopunctatum flavopunctatum (Smith, 1852)], Odynerus bipustulatus Sauss. [probable misidentification (see below), = Antepipona bipustulata (de Saussure, 1855)], Odynerus trilobus Fabr, [= Euodynerus trilobus (Fabricius, 1787)]. Of these 14 species three are misidentifications and therefore Dover’s list only contains 10 traceable species for Hong Kong. Later in 1941 Giordani Soika recorded Eumenes citreolineatus Giordani Soika, 1941 [= Eumenes atrophicus (Fabricius, 1798)] and in 1986 Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika, 1986, and Gusenleitner in 2002 described Parancistrocerus hongkongensis Gusenleitner, 2002. In 2012 Barthélémy recorded an additional six species, Allorhynchium sp.1 [= Allorhynchium chinense (Saussure, 1862)], Anterhynchium sp.1 [=Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum (Smith, 1857)], Xenorhynchium sp.1 [misidentification, = Anterhynchium flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852), Apodynerus sp.1 [= Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes (de Saussure, 1855)], Pararrhynchium sp.1 [misidentification, = Orancistrocerus aterrimus erythropus (Bingham, 1897)] and Zethus sp.1 [= Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897]. Li and Carpenter described Labus edenticulus Li & Carpenter, 2018. Dover, by all accounts was the most prolific author in terms of describing local species, however his material from Hong Kong is most likely lost: no specimens are deposited; as he suggests in his paper (Dover 1926), in the NHMUK under his name and those allegedly deposited at HK University have indeed been lost, as checked by CB. In addition, it seems that Dover’s species concepts may have been at times rather broad as is suggested by dubious local records of taxa such as Labus exiguus or Eumenes architectus.

From the study of material collected by Barthélémy in Hong Kong (over 300 specimens) and the historical literature of the subfamily we can confirm that the local fauna comprises at least 38 species in 26 genera, of which two species are new to science; Allorhynchium radiatum sp. nov. and Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov., which we describe and illustrate in detail. The genus Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963 contains 19 species worldwide; it was revised by Tan et al. (2018). The genus Orientalicesa Koçak & Kemal, 2010 has all six known species occurring only in the Oriental Region; it was revised by Giordani Soika (1994). Eighteen species recorded here are new to the territory, nearly doubling the known number of species and two are new records for China. We propose to synonymise Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003 with Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857) and Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926, with E. quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852. We also provide the first description of the female of Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990, a new record for China. Six species only were recorded in Hong Kong from the literature which are not in our collected material: Eumenes atrophicus (Fabricius, 1798), Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika, 1986, Eumenes architectus Smith, 1859, Labus exiguus (de Saussure, 1855), Antepipona bipustulata de Saussure, 1855 and Anterhynchium flavopunctatum flavopunctatum (Smith, 1852), the last four recorded by Dover (1926) are unlikely occurrences in Hong Kong and we recognise only two species recorded in the literature but not collected by us. Paraleptomenes miniatus miniatus (de Saussure, 1855) is recorded on i-Naturalist but we have not examined specimens. It can be expected that additional species either new to science or Hong Kong and China will be described in the future.

In addition, both a checklist and a key to the 38 species are given along with plates illustrating the 36 collected species. We also give locally occurring colour variants of Eumenes quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852, E. punctatus de Saussure, 1852 and Anterhynchium flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith, 1852).

Materials and methods

Specimens were obtained from Hong Kong mainly by C. Barthélémy but also from C. Taylor (Hong Kong University) and John X. Q Lee, as noted. The chief mode of acquisition was through active hand netting (sampling around 200 specimens), Malaise traps where also extensively used, and set in various locations for varying periods of time depending on the location (1 month to 10 years) and the collecting bottle changed on average every two weeks; the more common species were sampled through nest trapping and rearing, with results published by Barthélémy (2012).

Identifications were made using a stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ1500), according to the descriptions or keys of Schulthess (1934), Yamane (1990), Giordani Soika (1994), Girish Kumar et al. (2013), Girish Kumar and Sharma (2013), Nguyen (2015), Nguyen and Carpenter (2016), Girish Kumar et al. (2016), Girish Kumar et al. 2017, Li and Chen (2014a, b, 2016a, b), Nugroho et al. (2016), Li and Carpenter (2018), Ma et al. (2017), Tan et al. (2018a), Tan et al. 2018b and Li and Carpenter 2019 and comparing the Hong Kong material with specimens deposited in the American Museum of Natural History (USA).

The specimens examined are deposited in the American Museum of Natural History, and in the second author’s collection in Hong Kong, the holotypes of the two new species are kept at the American Museum of Natural History. Descriptions and measurements of the two new species were made under a stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ1500), and the corresponding figures were taken with Microptics-USA/Visionary Digital photomicrographic system developed by Roy Larimer and multiple layers stacked using Helicon Focus. All other habitus illustrations were made with a Leica M205 C stereomicroscope and stacking software LAS v.4. at increments of 20–50 steps. For the larger specimens and those live, images were taken using a Nikon D200 camera equipped with a Nikkor 60 mm macro-lens and Sunpak D12 ring flash. The ratios used throughout the descriptions were measured in the same magnification of the stereomicroscope. All measurements were taken as the maximal length of body parts measured. Body length was measured from the anterior margin of the head to the posterior margin of metasomal tergum 2. For the density description of punctures, “sparsely” means that interspaces are larger than punctures diameter, “moderately” means equal to the diameter, and “densely” means less than the diameter.

The abbreviations used in the text are shown as follows:

A1 for antennal segment 1,

A2 for antennal segment 2,

T1 for metasomal tergum 1,

T2 for metasomal tergum 2,

S1 for metasomal sternum 1,

S2 for metasomal sternum 2, and so on.

AMNH American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA

CBC Christophe Barthélémy’s collection, Hong Kong

CQNU Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing

HUM Hokkaido University, Matsumura, Japan

LACM Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles, USA

MHNG Museum d’Histoire Naturelle, Genève, Switzerland

MNHN Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

MRSN Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Italy

MSNV Museo di Storia Naturale di Venezia, Venice, Italy

NMW Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria

NHMUK The Natural History Museum, London, UK

OCMNH Osaka City Museum of Natural History, Osaka, Japan

OUM Oxford University Museum, Hope Entomological Collections, Oxford, UK

RMNH Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Leiden, Nertherland

USNM National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA

UZH Zoological Museum, University of Zurich, Switzerland

ZMUC Universitets København, Zoologisk Museum, København, Danemark

In the list below we do not show the complete synonymy of each taxon as this information is readily available and we follow here the format proposed by Tan et al. 2018, however we give details of the type species at generic and specific levels.

The UTM references on labels of material examined refer to grid reference WGS 84/HK 1980 datum and new records are asterisked (*).

Species list

Tribe EUMENINI

1. Genus Delta de Saussure, 1855

Delta de Saussure, 1855: 130, 132, 143. Type species: Vespa maxillosa DeGeer, 1773, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1925: 137.

Delta campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius, 1775)

Figs 1–3

Vespa campaniformis Fabricius, 1775: 371, “Nova Hollandia”, NHMUK. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Lantau Isl., Tai O, hand net, 25.xi.2008, UTM: 49Q GE 949 638, 4m, ref.: 0306.S.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, 140m, Malaise trap, 22.xi–20.xii. 2014, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: M186.D.Hy.6 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Nepal; Thailand; Cambodia; Vietnam; India; Indonesia; Papua New Guinea; Australia; Philippines; adventive in U. S. A.: Hawaii.

Remarks

A common wasp in Hong Kong. First recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Eumenes gracilis var. esuriens Dover, 1926.

Delta pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius, 1775)

Figs 4–6, 130–131

Vespa pyriformis Fabricius, 1775: 371, “in China”, type repository unknown. Type: Sex not stated.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 02.x.2012, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0489.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Lantau isl., Tai O, hand net, 25.xi.2008, UTM: 49Q GE 949 638, 4m, ref: 0306.S.Hy.2 [CBC]; 2♂, Pak Sha O, hand net, 24. ix.2012 & 25.xi.2012, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, refs.: 0487.A.Hy.1 & 0493.A.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan, Hong Kong); Pakistan; India; Sri Lanka; Bhutan; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam.

Remarks

A common wasp in Hong Kong. First recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Eumenes petiolata Latreille, 1802.

2. Genus Eumenes Latreille, 1802

Eumenes Latreille, 1802: 360. Type species: “Eumenes coarctata Fab.” [= Vespa coarctata Linnaeus, 1758], by subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810: 438.

Eumenes (Eumenes) atrophicus (Fabricius, 1798)

Vespa atrophica Fabricius, 1798: 264, “In India orientali”, ZMUC. Type: female.

Material examined

No specimens, known from the literature only.

Distribution

China (Hong Kong); India; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos.

Remarks

Described previously by Giordani Soika from Hong Kong as Eumenes citreolineatus Giordani Soika, 1941. Not observed by the authors, probably scarce in Hong Kong.

Eumenes (Eumenes) punctatus de Saussure, 1852

Figs 7–11, 132–133

Eumenes punctata de Saussure, 1852: 37, “La Chine”, NHMUK. Type species: female, male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 6♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 26.iv.–05.v.2006, 10–25.x.2015, 12–26.v.2018 & 26.v.–14.vii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, refs: M038.A.Hy.9, M223.D.Hy.1, M348.C.Hy.4 & M351.D.Hy.5 [CBC], same location 21–26.vi.2006 & 30.vii.–03.ix.2016, refs.: M044.A.Hy.11, M258.D.Hy.2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 1♀, same location, hand net, 04.vi.2016, ref.: 0592.B.Hy.8 [CBC]; 2♀, Pak Sha O, 20.vi.2009 hand net & 05.iv.2010 reared, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0347.A.Hy.1 & 0391.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 1♂ same location, 01.vii.2011 reared, ref.: 0443.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 2♂, Mang Kung Wo, Malaise trap, 07–21.vii.2018 & 21.vii.–04.viii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, refs.: M353.C.Hy.1 & M356.C.Hy.2 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hebei, Hong Kong, Inner Mongolia, Kiangsu, Sichuan); India; Sri Lanka; Korea; Japan; Russia.

Remarks

An abundant wasp in Hong Kong with Palearctic affinities. First recorded by Dover (1926) as Eumenes coarcatus punctatus Sauss. In our collected material we have at least three colour variants of this species, which are illustrated in figures 10–14.

Figures 1–14. 

Delta campaniforme campaniforme, female 1 habitus (lateral view) 2 habitus (dorsal view) 3 head (frontal view) 4–6 Delta pyriforme, female 4 habitus (lateral view) 5 habitus (dorsal view) 6 head (frontal view) 7–11 Eumenes punctatus, female 7 habitus (lateral view) 8 habitus (dorsal view) 9 head (frontal view) 10–11 variation of face markings 12–14 Eumenes quadratus quadratus, female 12 habitus (lateral view) 13 habitus (dorsal view) 14 head (frontal view).

Eumenes (Eumenes) quadratusquadratus Smith, 1852

Figs 12–14, 15–20, 134

Eumenes quadratus Smith, 1852: 37, “near Ning-po-foo” (China), NHMUK. Lectotype: female.

Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926: 233, female, “Hong Kong”, Type depositary unknown, specimen lost. Syn. nov.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 20.vi.2006, 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0199.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 3♀, Mang Kung Wo, hand net, 17.vii.2012, 22.v.2016 & 28.iv.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, refs.: 0477.A.Hy.1, 0597.A.Hy.1 & 0650.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♂, Mang Kung Wo, hand net, 23.iv.2016, same UTM references, refs.: 0597.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 30.vii.–03.ix.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: M258.D.Hy.2 [AMNH].

Distribution

China (Beijing, Hong Kong, Shanghai); Laos; Vietnam.

Remarks

Dover (1926) listed Eumens quadratus var. obsoletus from Hong Kong, however, as he recognized himself the justification for this new subspecies lied in the distinct color difference albeit identical structural features between his subspecies and the nominate type species deposited in NHMUK. In our collected material we can recognize at least three color forms of the same species (figs 14–20), these variations are particularly notable on the face, pronotum and T1T2; the darker form; basis of Dover’s new subspecies, is less common locally than the distinctly marked one. Given the identical structural characters of the various colors forms and the evidence presented by Dover, we propose to synonymise Eumenes quadratus obsoletus Dover, 1926 with E. quadratus quadratus Smith, 1852. It is a common wasp in Hong Kong and has Palearctic affinities. Dissected cells were mass-provisioned with caterpillars in the family Erebidae (CB pers. obs., det. Dr. Roger Kendrick, Hong Kong)

Eumenes (Eumenes) rubronotatus Pérez, 1905

Figs 21–23

Eumenes rubronotatus Pérez, 1905: 25, 85, “Yokohama, Japon” (Japan), MNHN. Type species: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Sai Kung Town, hand net, 26.xi.2008, 3m, ref.: 0307.M.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Beijing, Fujian, Guangxi, Guangdong, *Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang); Russia; Vietnam; Korea; Japan.

Remarks

Known from a single record. Scarce in Hong Kong.

3. Genus Oreumenes Bequaert, 1926

Oreumenes Bequaert, 1926: 488. Type species: Eumenes harmandi Perez, 1905 [= Eumenes decoratus Smith, 1852], by original designation and monotypy.

Oreumenes decoratus (Smith, 1852)

Figs 24–26

Eumenes decoratus Smith, 1852: 36, “Tein-tung” (China), NHMUK. Type species: female.

Material examined

CHINA, 1♀, Hong Kong: Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 21.x.2017, UTM: 50Q KK 104891, 140m, ref.: 0641.B.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Chongqing, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hebei, *Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Japan; Korea.

Remarks

Known from a single specimen. This is a species with Palearctic affinities.

4. Genus Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992

Phimenes Giordani Soika, 1992: 41, 66, replacement name for Phi de Saussure, 1855, non de Saussure, 1854. Type species Vespa arcuata Fabricius, 1775, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1926: 487, as type species of Phi de Saussure, 1855.

Phimenes flavopictus flavopictus (Blanchard, 1849)

Figs 27–29

Eumenes flavopictus Blanchard, 1849: 8, pl. 2 figs. 2, 6, type locality unknown, MNHN. Type species.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 26.vii.2014, UTM: 50Q KK 101886, 160m, ref.: 0531.B.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 14.v.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0335.C.Hy.2 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Shichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); India; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia.

Remarks

An abundant wasp in Hong Kong. First recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Eumenes arcuata Fabr.

Figures 15–29. 

Eumenes quadratus quadratus, female 15–17 variations of face markings 18–20 variations of T1 & T2 markings 21–23 Eumenes rubronatus, female 21 habitus (lateral view) 22 habitus (dorsal view) 23 head (frontal view) 24–26 Oreumenes decoratus, female 24 habitus (lateral view) 25 habitus (dorsal view) 26 head (frontal view) 27–29 Phimenes flavopictus flavopictus, female 27 habitus (lateral view) 28 habitus (dorsal view) 29 head (frontal view).

Tribe ODYNERINI

5. Genus Allorhynchium van der Vecht, 1963

Alloryhnchium van der Vecht, 1963: 57, 58. Type species: Vespa argentata Fabricius, 1804, by original designation.

Allorhynchium chinense (Saussure, 1862)

Figs 30–32, 135–138

Rhynchium chinense de Saussure, 1862: 186, “La Chine”, MHNG. Type.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♂, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 03–14.v.2011, UTM: 50Q KK 242 852, 70m, ref.: M091.C.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, same locality, reared, 09.vii.2010, UTM: 50Q KK 242 852, 70m, ref.: 0420.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 2♀, Pak Sha O, reared, 07.xii.2010 & 04.viii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, refs.: 0380.A.Hy.2 & 0656.C.Hy.1 [CBC]; 2♂, same locality, 13.iv.2010 & 14.viii.20014, refs.: 0393.A.Hy.1 & 0530.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, same locality, Malaise trap, 01–10.vi.2010, ref.: M077.C.Hy.1 [CBC]; 3♂, same locality, Malaise trap, 16.vi–03.vii.2010, 10–24.viii.2013 & 19.v–08.vii.2018, refs.: M078.C.Hy.1, M137.C.Hy.2 & M350.C.Hy.1 [CBC]; 2♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 26.v–14.vii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref: M351.D.Hy.6 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guangxi, Henan, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Macao, Sichuan, Shanghai, Taiwan,Yunnan); Vietnam; Philippines.

Remarks

Displays elaborate nesting biology, particularly progressive provisioning. Construct cell partitions and entrance collar with resinous material (likely as an ant repellent). Recorded by Barthélémy (2012) as Allorhynchium sp.1. Cells are progressively-provisioned with caterpillars belonging to the family Tortricidae (Barthélémy, 2012). An abundant wasp in Hong Kong.

Allorhynchium radiatum sp. nov.

Figs 33–39

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: HOLOTYPE, ♀, Mang Kung Wo, Malaise trap, 11.viii.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, M060, C.Hy.2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH].

Description

Female (Figs 33–34): body length 13.0 mm; fore wing length 13.5 mm. Black, with the following parts yellow: two separated spots of clypeus basally (Fig. 35), a band of ocular sinus lower, inter-antennal spot, and border between posterior and dorsa-lateral surfaces of propodeum (Fig. 37); mandible mostly, A3–A12, tegula exclude inner side, apex of parategula, and terminal tarsi dark ferruginous. Wings darkly infuscated.

Head. Head in frontal view wider than long. In frontal view, clypeus (Fig. 35) coarsely punctate, interspaces carinate and irregularly reticulate, swollen in the middle, clypeal maximum width 1.19× its length, apical width 1.30× distance between antennal sockets (Fig. 35), width of clypeus 2.82× apical width, apex deeply emarginated medially and forming acute tooth on each lateral side; frons coarsely punctuate, interspaces carinate and reticulate; vertex punctate, punctures a little sparser than frons and clypeus, with two small separated cephalic foveae somewhat bigger than surrounding punctures, depression for cephalic foveae absent, area behind posterior ocelli depression (Fig. 38); occipital carina complete; interocular distance on vertex 1.06× that at clypeus in frontal view.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma much longer than wide in dorsal view. Pronotal carina complete; pronotum, mesoscutum, scutellum and metanotum coarsely punctate, these punctures very similar to those on frons; mesoscutum slightly convex, about as long as wide between tegulae; scutellum almost flat; metanotum convex and sloping down to apical margin; mesopleuron coarsely punctate, punctures denser than mesoscutum except large area of epicnemium coriaceous; epicnemial carina present and strong; metapleuron coriaceous and with few minute punctures; propodeum (Fig. 37) without lateral carina, dorsal face coarsely punctate, interspaces between punctures carinate and reticulate, lateral face coarsely and irregularly striate and with a few sparse and shallow punctures, posterior face deeply excavated, basal triangular area with a deep fovea, about 1/3 of length of medio-longitudinal carina, with strong median carina connecting a few oblique striae; border between posterior and dorsa-lateral surfaces round (Fig. 37). Parastigma of fore wing much more than half as long as stigma (Fig. 39); tegula not reaching parategula.

Metasoma. T1 in dorsal view slightly more than twice as wide as (2.12×) long (Fig. 37), and slightly narrower than T2 (Fig. 36), basally with transverse carina interrupted mesally; anterior vertical surface of T1 convex, coriaceous, with a few sparse shallow punctures, and obviously separating from dorsal horizontal part; dorso-lateral area behind transverse carina with a few coarse punctures similar to those of mesoscutum, interspaces between punctures slightly carinate; dorsal surface except apex densely punctate, interspaces between punctures not reticulate, and punctures much smaller and sparser than those of head and mesosoma; T2 slightly wider than (1.08×) long, densely punctuate, punctures at the base relatively bigger and sparser than those in other part of T2; S2 coarsely punctate and slightly lowered basally; visible parts of T3–T5 minutely punctate, punctures much smaller than those of T2 (Fig. 36).

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

*China (*Hong Kong).

Remarks

This species is related to A. diffinis (Giordani Soika, 1986) by T1 with distinct transverse carina (Fig. 37), a yellow band at lower part of ocular sinus, and a yellow inter-antennal spot. It can be distinguished from the related species and other members of the genus by following combination of characters: punctures of T1 basally sparser than A. diffinis, clypeus basally with two separated yellow spots (Fig. 35), and pronotum, mesepisternum, metanotum and metasoma wholly black (Figs 33–34).

Etymology

The specific name radiatum is Latin for radiation, referring to the notable marking on the face of the holotype resembling that of the infamous Nuclear Radiation pictogram.

6. Genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855

Antepipona de Saussure, 1855: 244. Type species: Odynerus silaos de Saussure, 1853, by subsequent designation of van der Vecht, 1967: 30.

Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika, 1986

Antepipona menkei Giordani Soika, 1986: 130–131, “Cina: Hong Kong, Is. Lantau”, USNM. Type: female.

Material examined

No specimens.

Distribution

China (Hong Kong).

Remarks

Described from Hong Kong by Giordani Soika, 1986.

Antepipona rufescens (Smith, 1857)

Figs 40–42

Odynerus rufescens Smith, 1857: 61, “Ceram”, NHMUK. Type: female.

Antepipona ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003: 287, 291, figs 9–16, “Jansui, Formosa”, HUM. Syn. nov.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Kam Tin, hand net, 25.viii.2006, UTM: 50Q JK 975 843, 10m, ref.: 0227.G.Hy.2 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hong Kong, Shanghai, Sichuan, Taiwan); India; Thailand; Myanmar; Laos; Malaysia; Indonesia.

Remarks

First recorded from Hong Kong by Giordani Soika 1986. Comparing the specimen from Hong Kong and other specimens of A. rufescens in the AMNH with the description of A. ferruginea shows that they are identical in the features cited as diagnostic by Kim and Yamane (2003). Accordingly, the species A. ferruginea Kim & Yamane, 2003 from Taiwan is synonymized with A. rufescens (Smith, 1857).

Figures 30–42. 

Allorhynchium chinense, female 30 habitus (lateral view) 31 habitus (dorsal view) 32 head (frontal view) 33–39 Allorhynchium radiatus sp. nov., female 33 habitus (lateral view) 34 habitus (dorsal view) 35 face (frontal view) 36 metasoma (dorsal view) 37 propodeum (dorsal view) 38 vertex(dorsal view) 39 part of fore wing 40–42 Antepipona rufescens, female 40 habitus (lateral view) 41 habitus (dorsal view) 42 head (frontal view).

7. Genus Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863

Anterhynchium de Saussure, 1863: 205. Type species: Rygchium synagroides de Saussure, 1852, by subsequent designation of van der Vecht, 1963: 73.

Anterhynchium (Anterhynchium) mellyi (Saussure, 1852)

Figs 43–45

Rygchium mellyi de Saussure, 1852: 116, “Les Indes, La Chine”, MHNG. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 3♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 29.vi 2014, 18.vi.2016, UTM: 50Q KK101886, 160m, 50Q KK 100 883180m & 50Q KK 101 887, ref. 0526.E.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 0524.N.Hy.2 [CBC] & 0598.B.Hy.10 [CBC]; 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 10.vi.2005, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0134.A.Hy.1.

Distribution

China (Fujian, *Hong Kong, Yunnan); India; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam.

Remarks

An occasional wasp in Hong Kong.

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavolineatumflavolineatum (Smith, 1857)

Figs 46–48, 139–142

Odynerus flavo-lineatus Smith, 1857: 60, “Java”, NHMUK. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♂, Pak Sha O, hand net, 21.iv.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: 0323.E.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Pak Sha O, reared, 12.vi.2010, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849 70m, ref.: 0413.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 4♀, same location, 09.v.2006, 06.vi.2010, 28.vi.2010 & 08.vii.2010; refs.: 0183.C.Hy.1 hand net, 0409.A.Hy.2 reared, 0418.A.Hy.1 reared & 0419.A.Hy.1 reared, [CBC]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 08–21.v.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: M245.D.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hong Kong, Yunnan); India; Myanmar; Vietnam; Malaysia; Indonesia.

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong. Its nesting biology was described by Barthélémy (2012) as Antherynchium sp.1. Cells are mass-provisioned with caterpillars belonging to the family Crambidae (Barthélémy, 2012).

Anterhynchium (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatumflavomarginatum (Smith, 1852)

Figs 49–55, 143–146

Rhynchium flavo-marginatum Smith, 1852: 35, type locality: not indicated although probably North China, NHMUK. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 4♀4♂, Pak Sha O, reared, 20.iv.2010, 01.v.2010, 19.v.2010, 19.v.2013 & 11.vi.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 242 852, 70m, refs.: 0395.A.Hy.1, 0403.A.Hy.1, 0502.A.Hy.1 & 0596.G.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, High Island Reservoir, Sai Kung, hand net, 28.viii.2012, UTM: 50Q KK 269 786, 150m, ref.: 0482.B.Hy.6 [CBC]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 04.vi.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: 0592.B.Hy.7 [CBC]; 13♂, Pak Sha O, reared, 22.vi.2009, 11.viii.2009, 25.iv.2010, 22.vii.2010, 24.vii.2010, 29.vii.2010, 28.iv.2011, 15.vi.2011, 12.v.2013, 17.v.2013 & 24.iv.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, refs.: 0349.A.Hy.2 [CBC], 0369.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0398.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0422.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 0424.A.Hy.1 & 2 [CBC], 0425.A.Hy.1 & 2 [CBC], 0438.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0441.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0498.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0501.A.Hy.1 [CBC] & 0583.C.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 6♀, same location, Malaise Trap, 14–31.v.2009, 31.v.–23.vi.2009, 21.xi.–26.xii.2010, 03–24.vii.2011 & 29.ix.–14.x.2012, refs.: M062.C.Hy.10 [CBC], M063.C.Hy.1 [CBC], M085.C.Hy.1 & 2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], M095.C.Hy.2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH] & M116.C.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Sichuan, Zhejiang); Pakistan; India; Nepal; Laos; Vietnam, Mongolia; Korea; Japan.

Remarks

An abundant wasp in Hong Kong. Dover (1926) first recorded this species from Hong Kong as Odynerus (Rygchium) flavomarginatum Sauss. Its nesting biology was described by Barthélémy (2012) and erroneously identified as Xenorhynchium sp.1. Cells are mass-provisioned with caterpillars belonging to the family Crambidae (Barthélémy, 2012). There are two colour forms locally (see Figs 52–55). In fact this taxon is known for its colour variability and the nominotypical species has no less than 11 recognised subspecies, which is far from being satisfactory, further elucidation of this taxon is needed.

Figures 43–55. 

Anterhynchium mellyi, female 43 habitus (lateral view) 44 habitus (dorsal view) 45 head (frontal view) 46–48 Anterhynchium flavolineatum, female 46 habitus (lateral view) 47 habitus (dorsal view) 48 head (frontal view) 49–55 Anterhynchium flavomarginatum flavomarginatum,female 49 habitus (lateral view) 50 habitus (dorsal view) 51 head (frontal view) 52–53 variation of markings on propodeum, T1 & T2 54–55 variation of face markings.

8. Genus Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993

Apodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993: 155. Type species: Odynerus troglodytes de Saussure, 1855, by original designation and monotypy.

Apodynerus formosensis formosensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Figs 56–58

Odynerus formosensis von Schulthess, 1934: 101, “Formosa, Kankau, Kosempo, Taihorin, Taihorinsho”, UZH. Type: Female & Male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 3♀, Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 04.v.2006, 08.vii.2006& 12.v.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 104 891, 50Q KK 104 889 & 50Q KK 103 890, 180m, refs.: 0182.B.Hy.2 [CBC], 0210.B.Hy.2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH] & 0651.B.Hy.7 [CBC]; 1♀, Kam Tin (Wetland), hand net, 25.viii.2006, UTM: 50Q JK 975 843, 10m, ref.: 0227.G.Hy.3 [CBC]; 1♀, Yuen Long, hand net, 28.viii.2007, UTM: 50Q JK 975 843, 20m, ref.: 0280.N.Hy.2 [CBC]; 1♀, Lamma Island, Hung Shing Ye, 03.v.2008, UTM: 50Q KK 031 600, 15m, ref.: 0288.N.Hy.6 [CBC]; 1♀, Ha Tin Liu Ha, hand net, 01.v.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 058 849, 60m, ref.: 0328.J.Hy.3 [CBC]; 1♀, Mai Po Nature Reserve, hand net, 02.viii.2014, UTM: 50Q JK 959 903, 1m, ref.: 0528.G.Hy.2 [CBC]; 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 18.vi.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 101 887, 160m, ref.: 0598.B.Hy.11 [CBC]; 4♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 31.v.–06.vi.2004, 04–11.x.2004, 26.iv.–02.v.2005 & 15–31.v.2010, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, refs.: M017.C.Hy.24, M025.C.Hy.2, M028.C.Hy.1 & M076.C.Hy.1 all [CBC]; 1♂, same location, Malaise trap, 19.vi.–03.vii.2011, ref.: M094.C.Hy.2, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH].

Distribution

China (*Hong Kong, Taiwan).

Remarks

An abundant wasp in Hong Kong.

Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes (de Saussure, 1855)

Figs 59–61, 147–149

Odynerus troglodytes de Saussure, 1855: 249, “le Sénégal” (likely an error), MRSN. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 5♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 27.ix.–04.x.2004, 26.ix.–18.x.2009, 30.iv–15.v.2010, 15–31.v.2010 & 05–18.v.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 242849,70m, refs.: M024.C.Hy.3 [CBC], M067.C.Hy.13 [CBC], M075.C.Hy.7, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], M076C.Hy.2 [CBC] & M346.C.Hy.2 [CBC]; 3♀, Mang Kung Wo, Malaise trap, 14–28.iv.2018, 12–26.v.2018 & 21.vii.–04.viii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, refs.: M342.C.Hy.2, M348.C.Hy.6 & M356.C.Hy.1 all [CBC]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 14–28.vii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: M354.D.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Yunnan); India; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia; Philippines.

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong. It is a tube renter; Barthélémy (2012) reported on its nesting biology as Apodynerus sp.1.

9. Genus Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963

Coeleumenes van der Vecht, 1963: 45. Type species: Montezumia impavida Bingham, 1897: 351, by original designation.

Coeleumenes burmanicus (Bingham, 1897)

Figs 62–64

Montezumia burmanica Bingham, 1897: 350, fig. 101, “Tenasserim” (Myanmar), NHMUK. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 11.vii.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 100 886, 160m, Ref.: 0553 C.Hy.6, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 28.vii.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 102 895, 180m, ref.: 0654.B.Hy.1 [CBC]; 3♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 21.v.–04.vi.2016, 16–30.vii.2016 & 21.x.–18.xi.2017, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, refs. M247.D.Hy.1, M255.D.Hy.2 & M319.D.Hy.1 all [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangxi, *Hong Kong, Zhejiang); India; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia.

Remarks

An occasional wasp in Hong Kong.

10. Genus Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912

Ectopioglossa Perkins, 1912:118. Type species: Ectopioglossa australensis Perkins, 1912 by monotypy.

Ectopioglossa ovalis Giordani Soika, 1993

Figs 65–67

Ectopioglossa ovalis Giordani Soika, 1993: 160, “Cina: IS. Hainan, Ta Hian”, RMNH. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 03–24.vii.2011, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: M095.C.Hy.3 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Hainan, *Hong Kong).

Remarks

Known from a single specimen, scarce in Hong Kong.

11. Genus Epsilon de Saussure, 1855

Epsilon de Saussure, 1855: 229, 252. Type species: Odynerus dyscherus de Saussure, 1852, by subsequent designation of van der Vecht, 1967: 31.

Epsilon dyscherum (Saussure, 1852)

Figs 68–70

Odynerus dyscherus de Saussure, 1852: 175, “La Chine. Manilla?”, MNHN. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 30.v.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 106883, 140m, ref.: 0546.B.Hy.2 [CBC].

Distribution

*China (*Hong Kong); Philippines.

Remarks

Known from a single specimen.

Figures 56–70. 

Apodynerus formoensis formosensis, female 56 habitus (lateral view) 57 habitus (dorsal view) 58 head (frontal view) 59–61 Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes, female 59 habitus (lateral view) 60 habitus (dorsal view) 61 head (frontal view) 62–64 Coeleumenes burmanicus, female 62 habitus (lateral view) 63 habitus (dorsal view) 64 head (frontal view) 65–67 Ectopioglossa ovalis, female 65 habitus (lateral view) 66 habitus (dorsal view) 67 head (frontal view) 68–70 Epsilon dyscherum, female 68 habitus (lateral view) 69 habitus (dorsal view) 70 head (frontal view).

12. Genus Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904

Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904: 38. Type species: Vespa dantici Rossi, 1790: 89, by subsequent designation of Blüthgen, 1938 (1937): 277.

Euodynerus (Euodynerus) danticiviolaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1973

Figs 71–73

Euodynerus dantici violaceipennis Giordani Soika, 1973: 124, “China: Canton”, MSNV. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 16.vii.2016, UTM: 50Q KK101 887, 160m, ref.: 0606.B.Hy.2 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, *Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Taiwan); Vietnam; Korea; Japan.

Remarks

Known from a single specimen; it has Palearctic affinities.

Euodynerus (Pareuodynerus) trilobus (Fabricius, 1787)

Figs 74–76

Vespa triloba Fabricius, 1787: 290, “China”, ZMUC. Type: sex unknown.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Wang Tong, Lantau Isl., hand net, 05.vii.2016 UTM: 49Q HE 087 660, 10m, leg. Paul Aston [CBC].

Distribution

China (Anhui, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Sichuan, Taiwan, Zhejiang); British Indian Ocean Territories; Mauritius; Réunion; Vietnam; Malaysia; Indonesia; Japan.

Remarks

Known from a single specimen. Firstly recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Odynerus trilobus Fabr. This species has Palearctic affinities.

13. Genus Labus de Saussure, 1867

Labus de Saussure, 1867: 3. Type species: Male, Labus spiniger de Saussure, 1867, by subsequent designation of Bingham, 1897: 348.

Labus edenticulus Li & Carpenter, 2018

Figs 77–79

Labus edenticulus Li & Carpenter, 2018, Hong Kong, AMNH. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Hung Fa Leng, Malaise trap, 16.iv.–16.v.2014, UTM: 50Q KK 108 854, 435m, Yiu Vor, Ref.: HFL-M001.F.Hy.9, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♂, Yung Shue O, hand net, 18.x.2012, ref.: JXQL001-Hy.1, leg. John X.Q.Lee [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hong Kong).

Remarks

A scarce species in HK. Described from Hong Kong by Li and Carpenter (2018).

14. Genus Lissodynerus Giordani Soika, 1993

Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus (Giordani Soika, 1941)

Figs 80–82, 150–154

Ancistrocerus septemfasciatus var. feanus Giordani Soika, 1941: 239, “Carin Cheba, Burma” (Myanmar), MHNG. Lectotype: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 4♀, Pak Sha O, reared, 23.v.2013, 28.v.2013 & 08.viii.2014, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849 70m, refs.: 0519.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0521.A.Hy.2 [CBC], 0521.A.Hy.3 [CBC] & 0529.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 16.vii.2016, UTM: 50Q KK 101 887, 160m, ref.: 0606.B.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀3♂♂, Guangdong Prov., Shaoguan City, Shixing County, Chebaling National Nature Reserve, V. 6. 2017, leg. Fei-Yue Dou (CQNU).

Distribution

China (Guangxi, *Guangdong, *Hong Kong); India; Myanmar; Vietnam; Malaysia.

Remarks

An occasional wasp in Hong Kong. Nests are constructed inside cavities and the species readily accepts bamboo segments as nesting site. Cell partitions are constructed with a resinous material (Figs 150–154). Dissected cells were mass-provisioned with caterpillars in the family Geometridae and probably also Erebidae (CB pers. obs., det. Dr. Roger Kendrick, Hong Kong).

15. Genus Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963

Orancistrocerus van der Vecht, 1963: 58. Type species: Odynerus drewseni de Saussure, 1857: 318, by original designation.

Orancistrocerus aterrimus erythropus (Bingham, 1897)

Figs 83–85, 155–158

Rhynchium erythropus Bingham, 1897: 352, 353, “Tenasserim” (Myanmar), NHMUK. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: HONG KONG: 3♀, Pak Sha O, reared, 04.v.2009, 05.v.2009 & 28.v.2013, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, refs.: 0331.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0332.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 0521.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 2♂, same location, reared, 17.iv.2009 & 19.iv.2009, refs.: 0319.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH] & 0321.A.Hy.2 [CBC]; 2♀, same location, hand net, 01.xi.2003 & 19.v.2018, refs.: 0101.C.Hy.1 & 0652.C.Hy.1 both [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); Myanmar; Laos; Thailand.

Remarks

Barthélémy (2012) reported on the nesting biology of this species under the erroneous name Pararrhynchium sp.1. Dissected cells were mass-provisioned with caterpillars in the subfamily Spilomelinae (Crambidae) (Barthélémy 2012).

Figures 71–85. 

Euodynerus dantici violaceipennis, female 71 habitus (lateral view) 72 habitus (dorsal view) 73 head (frontal view) 74–76 Euodynerus trilobus, female 74 habitus (lateral view) 75 habitus (dorsal view) 76 head (frontal view) 77–79 Labus edenticulus, female 77 habitus (lateral view) 78 habitus (dorsal view) 79 head (frontal view) 80–82 Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus, female 80 habitus (lateral view) 81 habitus (dorsal view) 82 head (frontal view) 83–85 Orancistrocerus aterrimus erythropus, female 83 habitus (lateral view) 84 habitus (dorsal view) 85 head (frontal view).

16. Genus Orientalicesa Koçak & Kemal, 2010

Kennethia Giordani Soika, 1994: 4, 289.

Kennetia Giordani Soika, 1994: 289. Incorrect original spelling of Kennethia Giordani Soika.

Orientalicesa Koçak & Kemal, 2010: 4, replacement name for Kennethia Giordani Soika, 1994, non De Dekker, 1979.

Type species. Odynerus unifasciatus von Schulthess, 1934, by original designation.

Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov.

Figs 86–91

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong, HOLOTYPE, ♀, Park Sha O, hand net, 15–27.iv.2008, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, 0554.C.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH].

Description

Female (Figs 86–91): body length 9.0 mm; fore wing length 10.5 mm. Black, with the following parts yellow: two small interantennal spots (Fig. 88), scape ventrally, a small spot on base of mandible, and a small band of fore tibia inside; antenna except scape, mandible except a spot, all legs except the band of fore tibia, tegula, and apex of parategula dark ferruginous. Wings brown, infuscate, veins dark brown.

Head. Clypeus (Fig. 88) 1.02× as wide as long, medially convex, coarsely punctuate, interspaces between punctures more or less reticulate; apex slightly emarginated medially and forming blunt tooth on each lateral side, total width 3.29× apical width, apical width 7× emargination depth and as wide as interantennal space; interantennal carina prominent; frons slightly convex and coarsely punctate, distinctly carinate and reticulate between punctures; vertex (Fig. 89) with two large cephalic foveae, brown pubescence inserted mesally, depression for cephalic foveae distinctly concave, and with a medio-longitudinal carina from anterior ocellus to occipital carina and connecting occipital carina, punctures on other parts of vertex and gena relatively sparser; occipital carina complete.

Mesosoma. Mesosoma not visibly depressed; pronotal carina complete and strong, anterior sloping face of pronotum obviously polished; pronotum, mesoscutum, mesepisternum, scutellum, and metanotum coarsely and deeply punctate, interspaces between punctures with distinct carinae and reticulate, epicnemial carina present, not strong; mesoscutum weakly convex, scutellum flat, in lateral view at same level as mesoscutum, strongly depressed along anterior margin with some short longitudinal carinae, and without a medial longitudinal furrow from middle to apex; metanotum sloping down to apical margin; propodeum (Fig. 90) without horizontal area behind midline of metanotum, dorsal face of propodeum coarsely punctate, punctures large, shallow, flat bottomed and interspaces with reticulate carinate, superior carinae (Fig. 90) of propodeum well developed and on top forming a pair of large triangular teeth behind metanotum, carinae curved, posterior surface distinctly concave, with few faint striae, and bordered by superior carina with wide V-shaped incision in middle above; tegula shorter than parategula posteriorly.

Metasoma. T1 wider than long, width 1.63× its length and 0.83× width of T2, vertical anterior faces distinctly coriaceous and separated from horizontal surface, horizontal surface without transverse carina and moderately punctate, punctures much sparer and smaller than those of head and mesosoma, apex with a wide, smooth and shiny preapical band (Fig. 91); T2 1.29× as wide as long, with a row of larger and denser punctures at about 1/5 of their length from apical margin and forming a broad smooth and shiny preapical band (Fig. 91) and with another row of sparse punctures close to the apical edge, other punctures of T2 slightly sparser than those of T1, subapex of T2 not swollen; S2 sparsely punctate and regularly convex; visible apexes of T3–T5 with the similar preapical bands to that of T2; lateral margins of T2–T4 clearly marginalized.

Male. Unknown.

Distribution

*China (*Hong Kong).

Remarks

This species is similar to O. bicolorata (Giordani Soika, 1994) from Indonesia in superior carinae of propodeum well developed and forming a pair of large triangular teeth behind metanotum, punctures of T2 moderately dense and not larger than those of mesoscutum, and apex of T2 with another row of sparse punctures close to the apical edge. It can be distinguished from the related species and all other members of the genus by the combination of following characters: mesosoma not visibly depressed, and the body (Figs 86–87) almost wholly black and without yellowish or reddish-ferruginous spots or bands.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the body almost wholly black.

17. Genus Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970

Paraleptomenes Giordani Soika, 1970. Type species: Paraleptomenes nurseanus Giordani Soika, 1970: 79, Fig. 16, pl.V, by original designation and monotypy.

Paraleptomenes kosempoensis (von Schulthess, 1934)

Figs 92–94

Odynerus kosempoensis von Schulthess, 1934: 102, “Formosa”, NMW. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 2♀, Tai Tam, Malaise trap, 23–30.x.2017, 22.24614N, 114.22334E, 2m, ref.: 0682.Y.Hy.1, leg. C. Taylor [CBC].

Distribution

China (*Hong Kong, Taiwan).

Remarks

Species collected in mangroves.

18. Genus Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925

Parancistrocerus Bequaert, 1925: 64. Type species: Odynerus flavipes de Saussure, 1855: 205 [= O.flavipes Fabricius” sensu de Saussure, 1852, non Vespa flavipes Fabricius, 1775], by original designation.

Parancistrocerus hongkongensis Gusenleitner, 2002

Figs 95–97

Parancistrocerus hongkongensis Gusenleitner, 2002: 1091, 1095, “Hong Kong, Lantau I., Shui Hau, 20–50 m, 22.22N, 113.92E”, LACM. Type: Holotype female, male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 2♀, Sha Lo Tong & Pak Sha O, hand net, 01.v.2006 & 01.v.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 101 884 & 50Q KK 242 849, 160 m & 70m, refs.: 0177.B.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH] & 0328.E.Hy.2 [CBC]; 1♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 23.viii.–12.ix.2014; UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: M173.C.Hy.4 [CBC]; 2♀, Mang Kung Wo, hand net, 21.viii.18 & 02.ix.18, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, Refs.: 0659.C.Hy.3 & 0662.C.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hong Kong).

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong, known to visit flowers of Vitex negundo Linn.

Figures 86–97. 

Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov., female 86 habitus (lateral view) 87 habitus (dorsal view) 88 head (frontal view) 88 face (frontal view) 89 dorsal view of vertex 90 propodeum (dorsal view) 91 metasoma (dorsal view) 92–94 Paraleptomenes kosempoensis, female 92 habitus (lateral view) 93 habitus (dorsal view) 94 head (frontal view) 95–97 Parancistrocerus hongkongensis, female 95 habitus (lateral view) 96 habitus (dorsal view) 97 head (frontal view).

Parancistrocerus yachowensis Giordani Soika, 1986

Figs 98–100

Parancistrocerus yachowensis Giordani Soika, 1986: 125, figs. 31, 33, “Cina: Szechuan, Tachow”, USNM. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 2♀, Fung Yuen Li & Pak Sha O, hand net, 31.viii.2006 & 17.iv.2011, UTM: 50Q KK 097 873 & 50Q KK 242 849, 30m & 70m, Refs.: 0228.E.Hy.4 & 0435.A.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 27.iv.–14.v.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, Ref.: M061.C.Hy.13 [CBC]. INDONESIA: North Sulawesi: 1♀, Tomohon, hand net, 08.vi.2008, 01°20'N, 124°50'E, 720m, Ref.: 0290.C.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (*Hong Kong, Sichuan, Taiwan); *Indonesia (North Sulawesi: Tomohon); Laos.

Remarks

Two subspecies are recognized, P. y. konkunesis Giordani Soika, 1994 and P. y. yachowensis Giordani Soika, 1986. The Hong Kong material shows a mix of characters used by Giordani Soika (1994) and Li and Carpenter (2018) between the nominotypical form and P. y. konkunesis which does not allow us to conclude the subspecific placement of our Hong Kong material. In addition, a specimen from Sulawesi collected by CB and examined by JC, is recognized as similar to the Hong Kong material, increasing substantially the biogeographic range of this taxon.

19. Genus Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855

Pareumenes de Saussure, 1855. Type species: Eumenes quadrispinosus de Saussure, 1855: 133, by subsequent designation of Bequaert, 1918: 271.

Pareumenes (Pareumenes) quadrispinosusacutus Liu, 1941

Figs 101–103

Pareumenes acutus Liu, 1941: 255, 262, “South China”, Coll. Liu. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 3♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 19.ix. 2001, 27.vi.2006 & 29.vi.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849 70m, refs.: 0058.A.Hy.1, 0203.B.Hy.2 [CBC] & 0351.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♂, same location, reared, 13.iv.2009, ref.: 0317.A.Hy.7 [CBC]; 2♀, same location, Malaise trap, 26.iv.–03.v.2004 & 2–14.v.2011, refs.: M012.C.Hy.22 & M091.C.Hy.3 both [CBC]; 2♀, Ping Shan Chai, hand net, 27.vi.2006 & 27.vi.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 104 891, 180m & 140m, refs.: 0203.B.Hy.1& 0550.B.Hy.2 both [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Yunnan); India; Bhutan; Vietnam.

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong, known to visit flowers of Vitex negundo Linn. Nesting biology was reported by Barthélémy (2012). Dover (1926) recorded Pareumenes quadrispinosus Sauss. from the SAR, however, as mentioned in the introduction, none of his examined material survives today, in consequence we are unable to ascertain that he saw P. q. acutus, but because no other subspecies have been collected from Hong Kong since then, there is great probability that it was in fact P. q. acutus. Dissected cells were mass-provisioned with caterpillars in the family Thyrididae (CB pers. obs., det. Dr. Roger Kendrick, Hong Kong).

20. Genus Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875

Pseudozumia de Saussure, 1875: 128. Type species: Montezumia indica de Saussure, 1855: 167, by monotypy.

Pseudozumia (Pseudozumia) indicaindica (Saussure, 1855)

Figs 104–106

Montezumia indica de Saussure, 1855: 167, pl. 9 figs. 4, 4a, “Java”, MRSN. Lectotype: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong, 1♀, Sha Lo Wan, Lantau Isl., hand net. 30.xii.2015, 22.17N 113.54E, 60m, ref.: 0582.B.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♀, Ping Shan Chai, Malaise trap, 30.v.–13.vi.2015, UTM: 50Q KK 106 893, 140m, ref.: M206.D Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangxi, *Hong Kong, Taiwan); India; Sri Lanka; Malaysia; Vietnam; Indonesia.

Remarks

A scarce wasp in Hong Kong.

21. Genus Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935

Pseumenes Giordani Soika, 1935: 145. Type species: Eumenes eximius Smith, 1861: 126, by original designation.

Pseumenes depressus (Saussure, 1855)

Figs 107–109

Eumenes depressus de Saussure, 1855: 135, “Les Indes Orientales”, MNHN. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 14.viii.2009, UTM: 50Q KK 242849, 70m, ref.: 0371.C.Hy.1 [CBC]; 1♀, same location, Malaise trap, 1–24.vii.2011, ref.: M095.C.Hy.1, [CBC]; 1♀, Sha Lo Tong, hand net, 29.vi.2014, UTM: 50Q KK 102 883, 180m, ref.: 0524.B.Hy.3 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Jiangsu, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang); India; Myanmar; Thailand; Malaysia; Vietnam.

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong. Firstly recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Pareumenes depressa Sauss.

22. Genus Rhynchium Spinola, 1806

Rhynchium Spinola, 1806: 84. Type species: Rygchium europaeum Spinola, 1806 [= Vespa oculata Fabricius, 1781], by monotypy.

Rhynchium brunneum brunneum (Fabricius, 1793)

Figs 110–112

Vespa brunnea Fabricius, 1793: 264, “Tranquebariae” (Tharangambadi, Tamil Nadu, India), ZMUC. Type: sex not stated.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 2♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 11.vii.03 & 12.vi.2011, UTM: 50Q KK 242852, 70m, refs.: 0091.A.Hy.1 [CBC] & 0440.A.Hy.1, leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH]; 1♂1♀, Mai Po Nature Reserve, hand net, 19.vii.2014, UTM: R. 50Q JK959903, 1m, refs.: 0527.G.Hy.3 & 0527.G.Hy.6 both [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, *Hong Kong, Taiwan, Yunnan); Pakistan; Seychelles; India; Bangladesh; Myanmar; Thailand; Cambodia; Laos; Vietnam; Malaysia; Indonesia; New Britain; Marianas; Palau.

Remarks

An occasional wasp in Hong Kong. Easily confused with Rhynchium quinquecinctum quinquecinctum and only minor colour differences of the scutellum permit differentiation.

Figures 98–112. 

Parancistrocerus yachowensis, female 98 habitus (lateral view) 99 habitus (dorsal view) 100 head (frontal view) 101–103 Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus, female 101 habitus (lateral view) 102 habitus (dorsal view) 103 head (frontal view) 104–106 Pseudozumia indica indica, female 104 habitus (lateral view) 105 habitus (dorsal view) 106 head (frontal view) 107–109 Pseumenes depressus depressus, male 107 habitus (lateral view) 108 habitus (dorsal view) 109 head (frontal view) 110–112 Rhynchium brunneum brunneum, female 110 habitus (lateral view) 111 habitus (dorsal view) 112 head (frontal view).

Rhynchium quinquecinctum quinquecinctum (Fabricius, 1787)

Figs 113–115

Vespa quinquecincta Fabricius, 1787: 288, “in China”, ZMUC. Type: sex not indicated.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Mang Kung Wo, hand net, 29.v.2017, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, ref.: 0629.A.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Hong Kong, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan); Pakistan; Bhutan.

Remarks

A scarce wasp in Hong Kong. First recorded from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Odynerus haemorrhoidalis var. quinquecincta Fabr. Known from a single specimen.

23. Genus Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855

Subancistrocerus de Saussure, 1855: 206. Type species: Odynerus sichelii de Saussure, 1855, by subsequent designation of Bequaert 1925: 61.

Subancistrocerus camicrus (Cameron, 1904)

Figs 116–118

Odynerus camicrus Cameron, 1904a: 259, in “Darjeeling”, NHMUK. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Mang Kung Wo, hand net, 15.ix.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 174 760, 60m, ref.: M365.C.Hy.1 [CBC]

Distribution

China (Chongqing, *Hong Kong, Sichuan, Yunnan); India; Nepal; Thailand; Myanmar; Laos; Malaysia.

Remarks

A scarce wasp in Hong Kong.

Figures 113–121. 

Rhynchium quinquecinctum quinquecinctum, female 113 habitus (lateral view) 114 habitus (dorsal view) 115 head (frontal view) 116–118 Subancistrocerus camicrus, female 116 habitus (lateral view) 117 habitus (dorsal view) 118 head (frontal view) 119–121 Symmorphus tsushimanus, female 119 habitus (lateral view) 120 habitus (dorsal view) 121 head (frontal view).

24. Genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836

Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836: 45. Type species: Odynerus elegans Wesmael, 1833, by subsequent designation of Richards, 1935: 162.

Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990

Figs 119–121, 122–124

Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990: 1, 115, “top of Ariake-san (558 m. alt.), Tsushima Is.” [Japan], OCMNH. Type: male.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, Malaise trap, 08–21.iv.2018, UTM: 50Q KK 242 849, 70m, ref.: M340.C.Hy.4 [CBC].

First description of female

Body length 7.5 mm, fore wing length 8.5 mm. Black (Figs 119–120), with yellow to orange yellow markings as follows: basal half of clypeus (Fig. 121), a spot above interantennal space, a large band on antennal scape ventrally, a small spot on upper part of gena, a pair of big triangular spots on pronotum anteriorly, a spot on dorsal mesepisternum, a pair of spots on scutellum, wide apical band of T1 (laterally narrower and mesally with anterior incision), wide apical band of T2 (somewhat sinuate), medially interrupted apical band on S2, a narrow apical band on T4 (not extending to lateral margin), apexes of fore and mid femur, ventral face of fore tibia, and a spot of tegula posteriorly; mandible and tegula (except yellow spot) dark ferruginous; legs except yellow parts blackish brown.

Head about as wide as long in front view; clypeus (Fig. 121) wider than long, minutely and sparsely punctate, apical margin almost truncated, apical width equal to interantennal distance; frons coarsely punctuate, interspaces between punctures reticulate; punctures on vertex and gena slightly sparser than those of frons; two cephalic foveae (Fig. 122) right behind posterior ocelli, just a little smaller than posterior ocelli and bearing brownish setae; occipital carina complete, without incision. Pronotal carina (Fig. 122) complete, front corner slightly produced, pronotum coarsely punctate and somewhat striate on lateral side; punctures on mesoscutum and scutellum sparsely bigger and a little sparser than those of pronotum, interspaces between punctures with minute punctures, notaulices of mesoscutum complete and median scutalline present at base; scutellum with a median furrow; epicnemial carina present and strong; mesopleuron just obviously with a few sparse punctures, interspaces between punctures polished; metanotum coarsely punctate in basal half and coriaceous in apical part; metapleuron finely striate; propodeal shelf narrow and indistinct, and with a deep median orifice; dorsal face of propodeum coarsely punctate, punctures large, shallow, flat bottomed and interspaces between punctures obviously with reticulate carinae; posterior side of propodeum finely striate and with strong median carina; lateral side of propodeum striate, sparsely with a few large punctures posteriorly. Anterior vertical face of T1 with ill-defined punctures except for upper part, without vertical carina; transverse carina mesally with a deep U-formed incision; dorsal horizontal part of T1 (Fig. 123) distinctly wider than long, coarsely punctate excluding apical yellow, smooth band; without apical lamella as that of Japanese male (Yamane 1990); S1 (Fig. 124) punctate and carinate almost as that in male (Kim and Lee 2006); other tergites and sternites much more finely punctate. Anterior faces of coxae and femora below with silver setae.

Distribution

*China (*Hong Kong); South Korea; Japan.

Remarks

A scarce wasp in Hong Kong, known from a single specimen. The species has Palearctic affinities.

Tribe ZETHINI

25. Genus Calligaster de Saussure, 1852

Calligaster de Saussure, 1852. Type species: Calligaster cyanoptera de Saussure, 1852: 22, by subsequent designation of Ashmead, 1902: 205.

Calligaster himalayensis (Cameron, 1904)

Figs 125–126, 159–160

Type species: female, Zethus himalayensis Cameron, 1904b: 13, “Sikkim”, NHMUK.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, High Island Reservoir, Sai Kung, hand net, 01.viii.2012, UTM: 50Q KK 266 791, ref.: 0655.B.Hy.1, leg. John X.Q. Lee [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, *Hong Kong); India; Laos; Vietnam.

Remarks

A scarce wasp in Hong Kong, it also probably has a restricted distribution in the territory. Nesting sites have been observed over several years in the same location(s).

26. Genus Zethus Fabricius, 1804

Zethus Fabricius, 1804. Type species: Zethus coeruleo-pennis Fabricius, 1804: 282, [= Vespa coeruleopennis Fabricius, 1798: 263], by subsequent designation of Latreille, 1810: 328, 438.

Zethus dolosus Bingham, 1897

Figs 127–129, 161–164

Zethus dolosus Bingham 1897: 332, 333 “Burma (Pegu Hills); Tenasserim”, NHMUK. Type: female.

Material examined

CHINA: Hong Kong: 1♀, Pak Sha O, hand net, 11.vii.2007, UTM: 50Q KK 242852 70m, ref.: 0267.C.Hy.2 [CBC]: same location, 1♂, hand net, 27.vii.2009, ref.: 0366.C.Hy.3 [CBC]; same location, 5♀, reared, 07.xii.2010, 21.iv.2010, 19.v.2013, 24.iv.2016 & 28.iv.2016, refs.: 0380.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0396.A.Hy.1 leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 0503.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0584.C.Hy.1 [CBC] & 0585.C.Hy.1 [CBC]; same location, 10♂, 22.iv.2010, 27.iv.2010, 27.vii.2011, 31.v.2013, 16.iv.20016, 17.iv.2016 & 23.iv.2016, refs.: 0397.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0399.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0445.A.Hy.1 leg. C. Barthélémy [AMNH], 0505.A.Hy.1 [CBC], 0576.C.Hy.1 (2 Nos.) [CBC], 0577.C.Hy.1 (3 Nos.) [CBC] & 0580.C.Hy.1 [CBC].

Distribution

China (Guangdong, Hong Kong); India; Bhutan; Myanmar; Thailand; Vietnam.

Remarks

A frequent wasp in Hong Kong. Barthélémy (2012) reported on the nesting biology of this species under the name of Zethus sp.1. Cells are mass-provisioned with caterpillars belonging to the family Geometridae and Noctuidae (Barthélémy, 2012). It is expected that Zethus malayanus Gusenleitner, 2010 distributed from Malaysia to Guangdong will also be recorded in Hong Kong.

Figures 122–131. 

Symmorphus tsushimanus, female 122 vertex (dorsal view) 123 T1 (dorsal view) 124 S1 (ventral view) 125–126 Calligaster himalayensis, female 125 habitus (lateral view) 126 head (frontal view) 127–129 Zethus dolosus, female 127 habitus (lateral view) 128 habitus (dorsal view) 129 head (frontal view) 130–131 Delta pyriforme 130 female constructing a cell 131 ventral side of a nest showing seven cells with brood, most at advanced pupal stage.

SPECIES DUBIAE

Eumenes architectus Smith, 1859

Eumenes architectus Smith, 1859: 20, “Celebes”, NHMUK (?). Type: female.

Distribution

China (Hong Kong [?]); India[?]; Myanmar; Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia; Philippines.

Remarks

Reported by Dover (1926) from Hong Kong. In the past 92 years, no specimen has been found in Hong Kong or even other areas of China, but it has been recorded from Myanmar so it may still be discovered from China, but its presence in Hong Kong is doubtful. Additionally, the name has been previously used erroneously by some workers (Yasumatsu 1936; Schulz 1912) and this may have been the case for Dover.

Antepipona bipustulata (de Saussure, 1855)

Odynerus bipustulatus de Saussure, 1855: 277, pl. XII fig. 10, locality unknown, MNHN. Type: Male & Female.

Distribution

China (Hong Kong [?]); India; Sri Lanka; Myanmar; Thailand; Laos; Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia.

Remarks

Reported from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Odynerus bipustulatus Sauss. Giordani Soika (1982) in his revision of the genus does not list this taxon from Hong Kong nor does he mention Dover. Also, according to the latter the taxon is “Common”, yet we have not collected it and we suspect that Dover may have misidentified this species, probably with the superficially similar (colour markings) Apodynerus formosensis formosensis.

Anterhynchium flavopunctatum flavopunctatum (Smith, 1852)

Ancistrocerus flavo-punctatus Smith, 1852: 36, “Ning-po” (China), NHMUK. Type: female.

Distribution

Laos; China (Hong Kong [?]); Taiwan; Korea; Japan

Remarks

Reported from Hong Kong by Dover (1926) as Odynerus (R.) flavopunctatum Smith, however, this species is very similar to one of the colour variants of Anterhynchium flavomarginatum (Smith 1852) and we believe Dover may have identified a color variant of this species as Anterhynchium flavopunctatum flavopunctatum.

Labus exiguus (de Saussure, 1855)

Eumenes exiguus de Saussure, 1855: 150, “Les Indes-Orientales” (? OUM). Type: male.

Distribution

China (Hong Kong [?]); Singapore; Malaysia.

Remarks

This species was recorded by Dover (1926) from Hong Kong, however the concept of this species in this auhor’s publications was rather broad and we believe that Dover actually saw Labus edenticulus Li & Carpenter, 2018 but misidentified his material.

Paraleptomenes miniatus miniatus (de Saussure, 1855)

Odynerus miniatus de Saussure, 1855: 249, pl. XI fig. 6, “Les Indes orientales”, NHMUK. Type: female.

Distribution

China (Taiwan, Hong Kong [?]); India; Pakistan; Iran; Mauritius.

Remarks

Species recorded on i-Naturalist only at: https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/8916317 and https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/2603869. Accessed on 17 March 2019. Without a voucher specimen we cannot ascertain the existence of this taxon locally and we place it in Species dubiae until further elucidation.

Key to the species of the subfamily Eumeninae from Hong Kong

1 Mid tibia apically with two spurs 2
Mid tibia apically with one spur 3
2 Width of T1 in dorsal view more or less constant; dorsal part with faint longitudinal groove, T1 rounded dorsally Zethus dolosus Bingham
T1 in dorsal view wider at level of spiracles than apically; no groove dorsally, T1 flattened dorsally Calligaster himalayensis (Cameron)
3 T1 slender, distinctly petiolate, distinctly more than 2× as long as wide (Figs 1–2, 4–5, 7–8, 12–13, 24–25, 27–28, 62–63, 65–66, 77–78, 101–102, 104–105, 107–108) 4
T1 short and robust, not petiolate, usually less than wide (all other figs.) 17
4 Mesepisternum with epicnemial carina 5
Mesepisternum without epicnemial carina or epicnemial carina obsolete 7
5 T1 basally with transverse carina (Fig. 66) Ectopioglossa ovalis Giordani Soika
T1 basally without transverse carina 6
6 Apical half of S1 densely punctuate and small area post medio-basally with small transverse striae; mesoscutum with prescutal grooves Pseudozumia indica indica (Saussure)
S1 basally smooth, and with rather regular and transverse striae at 2/3 apex; mesoscutum without prescutal grooves Coeleumenes burmanicus (Bingham)
7 Propodeal valvula elongate, or more or less rectangular; metanotum with a single medial tooth dorsally second submarginal cell of fore wing basally truncate Labus edentatus Li & Carpenter
Propodeal valvula rounded, short; metanotum non-dentiform; second submarginal cell of fore wing basally acute 8
8 Propodeum dorsally with elongate fovea mesally 9
Propodeum dorsally without elongate fovea mesally 10
9 Prestigma of fore wing shorter than stigma; female without cephalic foveae; mesoscutum without prescutal grooves Pseumenes depressus (Saussure)
Prestigma of fore wing longer than stigma; female with cephalic foveae; mesoscutum with deep prescutal grooves Pareumenes quadrispinosus acutus Liu
10 T1 impunctate or sparsely with small punctures (Figs 2, 5); T2 without lamella (Figs 1, 4) 11
T1 coarsely and densely punctate (Figs 8, 22); T2 with apical lamella (Figs 19–20, 24) 13
11 T1 less than 1.5× mesosomal length; propodeum laterally more or less punctate, not shining; terminal sternum with a longitudinal furrow in male 12 Delta de Saussure
T1 1.5× or more mesosomal length; lateral part of propodeum almost impunctate, shining; terminal sternum without longitudinal furrow in male Phimenes flavopictus (Blanchard)
12 Body relatively smaller than the below species; T2 in dorsal view gradually diverging from base to the middle and gradually narrowing to the apical margin (Fig. 2); S2 without longitudinal depression in the middle D. campaniforme campaniforme (Fabricius)
Body bigger; T2 in dorsal view abruptly diverging from base to the middle and strongly narrowing to the apical margin (Fig. 5); S2 with shallow longitudinal depression mesally D. pyriforme pyriforme (Fabricius)
13 Apical margin of clypeus truncated in female (Fig. 26); lateral side of propodeum clearly separated from its posterior face; A13 small and straight in male Oreumenes decoratus (Smith)
Apical margin of clypeus emarginated in female (Figs 9–11, 14, 23); lateral margin of propodeum rounded, without an edge between lateral and posterior faces; A13 medium-sized and forming a recurved hook in male 14 Eumenes Latreille
14 T1 in dorsal view long, triangular, more than 4× as long as wide, basal ½ of lateral margins sub-parallel, widening gradually toward apex (Fig. 13) E. quadratus quadratus Smith
T1 in dorsal view shorter, thread-like at base, less than 3× as long as wide, then visibly widening sharply toward the middle, the lateral post-medial margins being parallel (Figs 8, 22) 15
15 T1 in dorsal view more elongate; T2 in lateral view basally acute; apical margin of T2 almost straight E. atrophicus (Fabricius)
T1 in dorsal view stumpy; T2 in lateral view basally right angle or obtuse; apical margin of T2 emarginated 16
16 Mesoscutum and mesopleuron with dense punctures, interspaces between punctures less than puncture diameter and slightly carinate; tibiae dark but often partly ferruginous, apical end darker E. punctatus de Saussure
Mesoscutum and mesopleuron with large, deep, round punctures, interspaces between punctures more than or at least equal to puncture diameter; hind tibia always black E. rubronotatus Pérez
17 T1 basally with transverse carinae close to edge of declivity (Figs 37, 81, 84, 95, 116) 18
T1 basally without transverse carinae 24
18 T1 basally with two transverse carinae (Figs 116–117), both transverse carinae close to each other at the crest of the declivity Subancistrocerus camicrus (Cameron)
T1 basally with one transverse carina 19
19 Vertex with a pair of cephalic foveal pits behind posterior ocelli in female; T2 with a median longitudinal depression or furrow (Fig. 120) Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane
Vertex with or without cephalic foveal pits behind posterior ocelli in female; T2 without a median longitudinal depression or furrow 20
20 Anterior sloping face of pronotum mesally with two impressed foveae 21 Parancistrocerus Bequaert
Anterior sloping face of pronotum mesally without impressed foveae 22
21 Apex of T3 prolonged mesally P. yachowensis Giordani Soika
Apex of T3 not prolonged mesally P. hongkongensis Gusenleitner
22 T2–T4 apically with well developed lamella (Fig. 80) Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus (Giordani Soika)
T2–T4 apically without lamella 23
23 Apex of clypeus widely emarginated, lip wide and covered with long brown bristles (Fig. 85) Orancistrocerus aterrimus erythropus (Bingham)
Apex of clypeus narrowly emarginated, lip narrower and without long brown bristles (Fig. 35) Allorhynchium radiatum sp. nov.
24 T1 obviously narrower than T2 and much wider at the apex than at the base (Figs 41, 57) 25
T1 slightly narrower than T2 and a little wider at the apex than at the base (Figs 31, 44, 47, 69, 72, 91, 111) 27
25 Pronotal carina widely arched on shoulder Paraleptomenes kosempoensis (von Schulthess)
Pronotal carina sharply angled on shoulder 26 Apodynerus
26 S2 largely depressed basally and with a thin, more or less developed median furrow; clypeus higher than wide; often with yellow spot on baso-lateral sides of T2 A. formosensis formosensis (von Schulthess)
S2 distinctly convex basally and not crossed baso-medially; clypeus wider or subequal to height; no yellow spot on baso-lateral sides of T2 A. troglodytes troglodytes (de Saussure)
27 Metanotum dorsally with two distinct sharp teeth (Fig. 41) 28 Antepipona
Metanotum dorsally without sharp teeth or just with tiny teeth 29
28 T1 except yellow apical band and S1 ferruginous A. rufescens (Smith)
T1 and S1 black A. menkei Giordani Soika
29 Propodeum with well developed superior carinae (Fig. 90); each of T2–T5 with a row of large and dense punctures at a certain distance from the apical margin and forming a broad smooth and shiny preapical band, and with another row of sparser punctures close to the apical edge, respectively (Fig. 91) Orientalicesa nigra sp. nov.
Propodeum without superior carinae; T2–T5 without above apical band 30
30 Axillary fossa in dorsal view at least as wide as long, oval 31 Euodynerus
Axillary fossa in dorsal view much narrower than long, often slit-like 32
31 Posterior margin of horizontal surface of metanotum with large denticles; dorsal surface of propodeum behind metanotum without teeth; ocellar triangle without tubercles (Fig. 73) E. (Euodynerus) dantici violaceipennis Giordani Soika
Posterior margin of horizontal surface of metanotum with small denticles; dorsal surface of propodeum behind metanotum with two teeth; ocellar triangle with three bifid tubercles (Fig. 76) E. (Pareuodynerus) trilobus (Fabricius)
32 T2 apically with a transparent lamella (Fig. 68) Epsilon dyscherum (de Saussure)
T2 apically without a transparent lamella 33
33 Propodeum nearly at level of metanotum; body wholly black (Figs 30–32) Allorhynchium chinense (de Saussure)
Propodeum below level of metanotum; body with colorful marks (Figs 43–55, 110115) 34
34 Scutellum and posterior part of mesoscutum finely and sparsely punctate, slightly polished; in male mid femur distinctly emarginated basally 35 Rhynchium
Scutellum and posterior part of mesoscutum coarsely and densely punctate, dull; in male mid femur not emarginated basally 36 Anterhynchium
35 Mesoscutum mostly to entirely reddish brown (Fig. 111) R. brunneum (Fabricius)
Mesoscutum mostly to entirely black (Fig. 114) R. quinquecinctum quinquecinctum (Fabricius)
36 Narrow basal part of S1 smooth; gastral tergites only finely punctate at base; mandibles of male deeply emarginate on inner side near the middle; metasomal terga except T1and basal part of T2 ferruginous (Figs 43–44) A. (Anterhynchium) mellyi (de Saussure)
Narrow basal part of S1 densely transversely striate over almost its entire width; third and following gastral tergites very coarsely punctate at base (visible only when the segments are unusually extended); mandibles of male not deeply emarginate on inner side; metasomal terga without ferruginous marks 37
37 Mesoscutum posteriorly weakly punctate, interspaces not carinate; each of T1–T5 with a yellow complete apical band (Figs 46–47) A. (Dirhynchium) flavolineatum flavolineatum (Smith)
Mesoscutum posteriorly very densely punctate, interspaces with distinct irregular longitudinal carinae; metasoma black except T1 or T1T2 with narrow pale yellow apical band (Figs 49–50, 52–53) A. (Dirhynchium) flavomarginatum flavomarginatum (Smith)
Figures 132–138. 

Eumenes punctatus 132 female collecting construction material 133 group of cells on a branch of Rosemary 134 Eumenes quadratus quadratus 134 female completing a brood cell 135–138 Allorhynchium chinense 135 female at nest building the resin collar at the entrance 136 typical nest in a bamboo segment showing two cells. The first cell with post feeding larva, the second cell with feeding larva with prey, cell un-closed 137 a pupa 138 cocoon of a Chrysididae inside a nest.

Figures 139–149. 

Anterhynchium flavolineatum 139 female at nest 140 typical nest containing two cellstwo vestibular cells. Cell 1 with post-feeding larvae. Cell 2 with feeding larva and prey 141 post feeding larva with gravid femal symbiotic mite 142 pupa 143–146 Anterhynchium flavomarginatum flavomarginatum 143 female at nest 144 typical nest showing three cells, and 2 intercalary cells. All cells with early instar boor and preys 145 two post feeding larvae, with gravid female symbiotic mites 146 pupa 147–149 Apodynerus troglodytes troglodytes,nest contents 147 bamboo nest-trap at opening, containing three cells with two post feeding larva and a fully provisioned cell 148 the post feeding larvae with symbiotic mite nymphs 149 superseedure of a nest of Trypoxylon petiolatum Smith, 1858 by A. t. troglodytes.

Figures 150–160. 

Lissodynerus septemfasciatus feanus, nest content 150 typical nest in a bamboo nest-trap, showing two cells patitioned with a resin operculum containing one post-feeding larva and a feeding larva with mass provision of preys 151 post-feeding larva and silk pupal chamber, the meconium is not yet voided 152 resin cell partition and feeding larva and mass prey provision 153 pupa 154 entrance resin plug and Phorid fly 155–158 Orancistrocerus aterrimus erythropus, nest and nest contents 155 nest affixed on the underside of a roof showing a tubular entrance vestibule to a cell under provisioning 156 typical nest in bamboo nest-trap showing three cells with fully provisioned cells and feeding larvae and the two intercalary cells 157 post-feeding larva with symbiotic mite 158 diapausing post-feeding larva with gravid symbiotic mite and numerous nymphes 159–160 Calligaster himalayensis, nest affixed to a hanging substrate 159 normal view, in 160 nest is rotated approximately 180 degree to show two new cell entrances.

Figures 161–164. 

Zethus dolosus 161 female at nest fixing plant material on the vicinity of the nest entrance 162 typical nest in a bamboo segment showing five cells. The first four cells with post-feeding larvae and the fifth cell with a feeding larvae 163 two advanced pupae 164 cell attacked by Phorid flies with numerous fly cocoons.

Conclusion

This study produces some remarkable additions; besides the two new species, to the local and Chinese hymenopterous fauna such as Symmorphus tsushimanus Yamane, 1990 and Epsilon dyscherum (Saussure, 1852) both new to China or occurences that expand the known geographical distribution of the taxon as with Calligaster himalyensis or Parancistrocerus yachowensis. These results show the persistence of Palearctic elements in the fauna of Hong Kong, such as three out of four recorded Eumenes spp., the two Euodynerus listed below or Symmorphus tsushimanus and 11 other species. Whilst Hong Kong lies well inside the geographical tropical zone it is influenced by surges of northern cold air, and this may partially explain the presence of species that are known to cross the climatological divide between Palearctic and tropical Oriental regions.

Acknowledgements

We thank Lien Nguyen T. P. and Girish Kumar P. for their review of the manuscript, and we are grateful to Benoit Guénard (Hong Kong University) for giving us access to the stereomicroscope imaging system of the Insect Biodiversity and Biogeography Laboratory, Hong Kong University. This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos: 31772490, 31372247, 31000976), Young Talent Incubation Programme of Chongqing Normal University (14CSDG07). We are grateful to Mr. Steve Thurston (AMNH, New York) for taking the pictures of Figs 33–34.

References

  • Ashmead WH (1902) Classification of the fossorial, predaceous and parasitic wasps, or the superfamily Vespoidea. The Canadian Entomologist 34: 203–210. https://doi.org/10.4039/Ent34203-8
  • Barthélémy C (2012) Nest trapping, a simple method for gathering information on life histories of solitary bees and wasps. Bionomics of 21 species of solitary aculeate in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Entomological Bulletin 4(1): 3–37.
  • Bequaert J (1918) A revision of the Vespidae of the Belgian Congo based on the collection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, with a list of the Ethiopian Diplopterous wasps. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 39: 1–384. [+ 6 pl.]
  • Bequaert J (1925) The genus Ancistrocerus (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) in North America, with partial key to the species. The Transactions of the American Entomological Society 51: 57–117.
  • Bequaert J (1926) The genus Eumenes, Latreille in South Africa, with a revision of the Ethiopian species (Hymenoptera). Annals of the South African Museum 23: 483–577.
  • Blanchard E (1849) Dictionnaire universel d’histoire naturelle (Ed., d’Orbigny ACVD).Vol. 2. Abel Pilon, Paris, 8 p.
  • Blüthgen P (1938(1937) ) Systematisches Verzeichnis der Faltenwespen Mitteleuropas, Skandinaviens und Englands. Konowia 16: 270–295.
  • Cameron P (1904a) On some new genera and species of Hymenoptera. Entomologist (London) 1904: 259–261, 308–310.
  • Dalla Torre von KW (1904) Hymenoptera Family Vespidae. Genera Insectorum 19: 1–108. [+ 6pl]
  • Deckker PL de (1979) Comparative morphology and review of Australian Notodromadinae Kaufmann 1900 (Crustacea: Ostracoda). Senckenbergiana Biologica 59(5–6): 417–463.
  • DeGeer C (1773) Memoires pour servir a l’histoire des Insectes. Pierre Hesselberg, Stockholm. 3: 1–696. [44 pls]
  • de Saussure HFL (1852–53) Monographie des Guepes Solitaires ou de la Tribu des Eumeniens. Etudes sur la famille des Vespides. I- Par–4.is, 6–50–286. [+ 21 pls] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.39973
  • de Saussure HFL (1854) Études sur la Famille des Vespides 2. Monographie des Guêpes sociales ou de la tribu des Vespiens. V. Masson, Paris and J. Kessmann, Genéve, 97–256.
  • de Saussure HFL (1855) Études sur la Famille des Vespides 2. La Monographie des Masariens et un supplément la Monographie des Euméniens. V. Masson, Paris & J. Kessmann, Genéve, 49–288. [plates. 6–14]
  • de Saussure HFL (1857) Description de quelques Vespides nouveaux. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Fr. (3)5: 315–319.
  • de Saussure HFL (1862) Sur divers Vespides Asiatiques et Africains du Musee de Leyden. Entomologische Zeitung 23: 177–207.
  • de Saussure HFL (1863) Mélanges hyménoptérologiques II. Vespides. Memoires de la Société de physique et d’histoire naturelle de Genéve 17: 173–244. [pl. 2]
  • de Saussure HFL (1867) Reise der österreichschen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. Zweiter Band. Hymenoptera. Familien der Vespiden, Sphegiden, Pompiliden, Crabroniden und Heterogynen. Wien, 138 pp. [pls I–IV]
  • Dover C (1926) A contribution to a list of the Aculeate Hymenoptera (excepting ants) of Hongkong. China Journal of Science and Arts , Shanghai 4: 233–235.
  • Dudgeon D, Corelett R (1994) Hills and Streams – An Ecology of Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press, 234 pp.
  • Fabricius JC (1775) Systema Entomologiae, Sistens Insectorum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, Adiectis Synonymis, Locis, Descriptionibus, Observationibus. Flensburgi et Lipsiae: Korte, 832 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36510
  • Fabricius JC (1781) Species Insectorum exhibentes eorum differentias specificas, synonyma auctorum, loca natalia, metamorphosin adiectis observationibus, descriptionibus, 1. Carol. Ernest, Bohnii, 517 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.36509
  • Fabricius JC (1787) Mantissa insectorum: sistens eorum species nuper detectas, adiectis characteribus genericis, differentiis specificis, emendationibus, observationibus. I Hafniae, 348 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.11657
  • Fabricius JC (1793) Entomologia Systematica emendata et aucta. Secundum classes, ordines, genera, species adjectis synonimis, locis, observationibus, descriptionibus 2. Hafniae, 519 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.122153
  • Fabricius JC (1798) Supplementum Entomologiae Systematicae. C.G. Proft et Storch, Hafniae, 577 pp.
  • Ferreira WD, DE Oliveira LA, Hermes MG (2018) A revision of the Neotropical eumenine wasp genus Stenosigma Giordani Soika, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). Zootaxa 4455(3): 499–512. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4455.3.6
  • Giordani Soika A (1935) Ricerche Sistematiche sugli Eumenes e Pareumenes dell’ Arcipelago Malese e della Nuova Guines. Annali del Museo civico di storia naturale Giacomo Doria 57: 114–151.
  • Giordani Soika A (1941) Studi sui Vespidi Solitari. Bollettino della Societa Veneziana Storia Naturale 2(3): 130–279.
  • Giordani Soika A (1970) Contributo alla conoscenza degli Eumenidi del Medio Oriente. (Missione Giordani Soika in Iran 1965). Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 20/21: 27–183.
  • Giordani Soika A (1973) Notulae vespidologicae 35. Descrizione di nuovi Eumenidi. Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 24: 97–131.
  • Giordani Soika A (1982 [1981]) Revisione delle specie orientali del genere Antepipona Sauss. Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 32: 205–257.
  • Giordani Soika A (1986) Eumenidi Paleartici nuovi o poco noti. Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 35: 91–162.
  • Giordani Soika A (1992) Di alcuni eumenidi nuovi o poco noti (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Societa Veneziana di Scienze Naturali Lavori 17: 41–68.
  • Giordani Soika A (1993) Di alcuni nuovi eumenidi della regione orientale (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Bollettino del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia 42: 151–163.
  • Giordani Soika A (1994) Ricerche sistematiche su alcuni generi di Eumenidi della Regione Orientale e della Papuasia (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale “Giacomo Doria” 90: 1–348.
  • Girish Kumar P, Sharma G (2013) A taxonomic study on the genus Rhynchium Spinola (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian Subcontinent. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 113(2): 105–122.
  • Girish Kumar P, Sharma G (2014) Taxonomic studies of the vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea: Vespidae) of the Sunderbans Biosphere Reserve, West Bengal. Part 1. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 114(4): 563–580.
  • Girish Kumar P, Carpenter JM, Sureshan PM (2016) A taxonomic review of the genus Antepipona de Saussure, 1855 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from India. Zootaxa 4150(5): 501–536. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4150.5.1
  • Girish Kumar P, Carpenter JM, Leopoldo C, Sureshan PM (2017) A taxonomic review of the Indian species of the genus Eumenes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae). Zootaxa 4317(3): 469–498. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4317.3.3
  • Girish Kumar P, Mohammed Shareef KP, Lambert K, Carpenter JM (2013) A taxonomic study on the Oriental genus Apodynerus Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from the Indian subcontinent. Biosystematica 7(1): 23–31.
  • Gusenleitner J (2002) Bemerkenswerte Faltenwespen-Funde aus der orientalischen Region Teil 2 (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea, Eumenidae). Linzer biologische Beiträge 34(2): 1091–1099.
  • Gusenleitner J (2010) Remarkable records of wings folded wasps from Oriental region. Part 5. Linzer Biologische Beitraege 42: 695–709.
  • Kim JK, Yamane S (2003) A review of the genus Antepipona Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in Taiwan. Insecta Koreana 20(3–4): 287–293.
  • Koçak AÖ, Muhabbet Kemal M (2010) Nomenclatural notes on some genus group names of the order Hymenoptera. Centre for Entomological Studies Miscellaneous Papers 151: 3.
  • Latreille PA (1802) Histoire naturelle générale et particulière des Crustacés et des Insectes. Ouvrage faisant suite à l’Histoire Naturelle générale et particulière, composée par Leclercq de Buffon, et rédigée par C.S. Sonnini, membre de plusieurs Sociétés savantes. Vol. 3. Imprimerie F. Dufart, Paris, 13–467. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.15764
  • Latreille PA (1810) Considérations Générales sur l’Ordre Naturel des Crustacés, des Arachnides et des Insectes. F. Schoell, Paris, 444 pp.
  • Li TJ, Chen B (2014a) The taxonomic accounts of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae) from China, with descriptions of three new species. Zookeys 389: 9–26. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.389.7045
  • Li TJ, Chen B (2014b) Description of two new Chinese Subancistrocerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), with a key to the Chinese species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 39: 47–57. https://doi.org/10.3897/JHR.39.7736
  • Li TJ, Chen B (2016a) The taxonomic study of the genus Apodynerus Giordani Soika (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from China, with descriptions of two new species. Entomotaxonomia 38(2): 143–155.
  • Li TJ, Chen B (2016b) Two newly recorded genera Stenodyneriellus and Lissodynerus with three new species from China (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 49: 111–127. https://doi.org/10.3897/JHR.49.7487
  • Li TJ, Carpenter JM (2018) A taxonomic account of the genus Labus de Saussure, 1867 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) with descriptions of three new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 65: 23–46. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.65.26976
  • Li TJ, Carpenter JM (2019) Description of eight new species of the genus Parancistrocerus Bequaert (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), with a key to the Oriental species. Zootaxa 4551(3): 251–274. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4551.3.1
  • Linnaeus C (1758) Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentis, Synonymis, Locis. Vol.1. Stockholm. 824 pp. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.542
  • Liu CL (1941) Revisional studies of the Vespidae of China I: the genus Pareumenes Saussure, with descriptions of six new species (Hymenoptera: Eumeninae). Notes D’Entomologie Chinoise 8: 245–289.
  • Ma ZX, Chen B, Li TJ (2017) Four new species of Euodynerus Dalla Torre, 1904 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from China, with a key to the Chinese species. Zootaxa 4300(2): 245–258. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4300.2.6
  • Nguyen LTP (2015) Potter wasps of the genus Eumenes Latreille, 1802 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam, with description of a new species and key to species. Zootaxa 3974(4): 564–572. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3974.4.7
  • Nguyen LTP, Dang HT, Kojima J, Carpenter JM (2014) An annotated distributional checklist of solitary wasps of the subfamily Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) of Vietnam. Entomologica Americana 120(1): 7–17. https://doi.org/10.1664/13-RA-010.1
  • Nguyen LTP, Carpenter JM (2016) Taxonomic review of the genus Zethus Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) from Vietnam with descriptions of four new species. Entomological Science 20: 24–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/ens.12218
  • Nugroho H, Kojima J, Ubaidillah R (2013) Review of potter wasps with a petiolate metasoma excluding so-called “Zethinae” (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae) in the Lesser Sunda Islands of the Indonesian Archipelago. Zootaxa 3608(1): 1–25. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3608.1.1
  • Nugroho H, Ubaidillah R, Kojima JI (2016) Taxonomy of the Indo-Malayan presocial potter wasp genus Calligaster de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 48: 19–32. https://doi.org/10.3897/JHR.48.7045
  • Pérez J (1905) Hyménoptères Recueillis dans le Japon Central, par M. Harmand, Ministre Plénipotentiaire de France a Tokio. Bulletin du Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris, 11: 23–87.
  • Perkins RCL (1912) Notes, with descriptions of new species of Aculeata Hymenoptera of the Australian Region. Annals and Magazine of Natural History 8(9): 96–121. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222931208693112
  • Rossi P (1790) Fauna Etrusca. Sistens Insecta Quae in Provincus Florentina et Pisana Praesertim Collegit PetrusRossius, Thomae Masi & Sociorum, Liburni, Vol.2, 348 pp. [+ 10pl.] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.128484
  • Schulthess A von (1934) Zur Kenntnis der Odynerusarten (Vespidae: Hymenoptera) der japanischen subregion (China, Japan, Formosa, Philippinen). Arbeiten über Morphologische und Taxonomische Entomologie (Berlin-Dahmel) 1: 66–103.
  • Selis M (2018) Additions to the knowledge of solitary wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Eumeninae), with description of eight new species. Zootaxa 4403(3): 441–468. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4403.3.2
  • Smith F (1852) Descriptions of some new and apparently undescribed species of Hymenopterousinsects from north China, collected by Robert Fortune, Esq. The Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 2(2): 33–45. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2311.1852.tb02208.x
  • Smith F (1857) Catalogue of Hymenopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum, Part V, Vespidae. London, 1–147.
  • Spinola M (1806–1808) Insectorum Liguriae species novae aut rariores, quas in agro Ligustico nuper detexit, descripsit, et iconibus illustravit Maximilianus Spinola, adjecto catalogo specierum auctoribus jam enumeratarum, quae in eadem regione passim occurrunt. Yves Gravier, Genuae, 1–160 [Vol. 1], 1– 262 [Vol. 2]. [2 pls + 5 pls] https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.65985
  • Tan JL, Achterberg CV, He YF, Carpenter JM (2018) Northeast Asian Allorhynchium van der Vecht (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), with a key to Oriental species. Zootaxa 4434(1): 49–64. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4434.1.3
  • Tan JL, Carpenter JM, Arcterberg van C (2018) An illustrated key to the genera of Eumeninae from China, with a checklist of species (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). ZooKeys 740: 109–149. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.740.22654
  • Vecht J van der (1963) Studies on Indo-Australian and East Asiatic Eumenidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea). Zoologische Verhandelingen Leiden 60: 1–116.
  • Vecht J van der (1967) The status of certain genus-group names in the Eumenidae (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 24: 27–33. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.part.15358
  • Wesmael C (1833) Monographie des Odynères de la Belgique. Bruxelles.
  • Wesmael C (1836) Supplèment à la Monographie des Odynères dela Belgique. Bulletin de l’Académia Sciences de Bruxelles 3: 44–54.
  • Yamane S (1990) A revision of the Japanese Eumenidae (Hymenoptera, Vespoidea). Insecta Matsumurana 43: 1–189.
  • Yasumatsu K (1936) Insects of Jehol. Hymenoptera. family Eumenidae. Report of the First Scientific Expedition to Manchou-Kuo 5(1): 1–17.
  • Zhou X, Li TJ, Chen B (2011) The taxonomic research progress of Eumeninae (Hymenopera: Vespidae). Journal of Chonqing Normal University (Natural Science) 28(6): 22–29.